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Towards a green economy: Pathways to sustainable development and poverty eradication. A synthesis for policy makers.
Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 2011.  p.We argue in UNEP's forthcoming Green Economy Report, and in this extracted Synthesis for Policy Makers, that the rewards of greening the world's economies are tangible and considerable, that the means are at hand for both governments and the private sector, and that the time to engage the challenge is now. In this report, we explored through a macroeconomic model the impacts of investments in greening the economy as against investments in "business as usual" -- measuring results not only in terms of traditional GDP but also impacts on employment, resource intensity, emissions and ecological impact. We estimated, based on several studies, that the annual financing demand to green the global economy was in the range of US$ 1.05-2.59 trillion. To place this demand in perspective, it is less than one-tenth of the total global investment per year (as measured by global Gross Capital Formation). Taking an annual level of US$ 1.3 trillion (i.e. 2% of global GDP) as a target reallocation from "brown" investment to "green" investment, our macroeconomic model suggests that over time, investing in a green economy enhances long-run economic performance and can increase total global wealth. Significantly, it does so while enhancing stocks of renewable resources, reducing environmental risks, and rebuilding our capacity to generate future prosperity. Our report, Towards a Green Economy, focuses on 10 key economic sectors because we see these sectors as driving the defining trends of the transition to a green economy, including increasing human well-being and social equity, and reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. Across many of these sectors, we have found that greening the economy can generate consistent and positive outcomes for increased wealth, growth in economic output, decent employment, and reduced poverty. (Excerpts)
Trips and public health: solutions for ensuring global access to essential AIDS medication in the wake of the Paragraph 6 Waiver.
Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy. 2008 Fall; 25(1):142-65.In 2003, the World Trade Organization (WTO) proposed a waiver to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), known as the "Paragraph 6 Waiver," in order to create flexibility for developing countries and to allow easier importation of cheap generic medication. ... To the companies who own pharmaceutical patents, the notion that a government can use their product without the permission of the patent holder seems unfair and counterproductive. ... Canada was one of the first countries to enact legislation for the sole purpose of exporting generic drugs to developing countries and its experience is indicative of the problems presented by compulsory licensing and the Paragraph 6 Waiver. ... Exact amounts and methods for determining remuneration vary but presumably a fair system would compensate patent holders for the loss of their patent rights while maintaining the system's cost effectiveness for countries issuing the compulsory licenses. (excerpt)
Global Public Health. 2008; 3(S2):92-104.The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of how issues on sexuality are captured by the World Bank's economic rationality, producing a sanitised discourse which, through its silences, further contributes to a normalised view of sexuality. Given the Bank's authority to determine what kinds of health and development programmes are established in the developing world, it is in a unique position to influence approaches to issues of gender and sexuality. An analysis of the Bank's documents reveals, however, that rather than addressing these fundamental components of some of the most pressing health emergencies of our time, its economic rationality and technocratic viewpoint has effectively silenced and sanitised the discourse on sexuality, thereby limiting what sexuality and gender-related issues can be tackled in the context of Bank sponsored programmes, and constraining efforts to advance fundamental sexual rights. Nevertheless, unexpected and paradoxical results may arise from that process, which, thus, does not necessarily lead to the furthering of a comprehensive conservative agenda. (author's)
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2006 Sep.  p.This Action Plan seeks to advance women's economic empowerment in the World Bank Group's client countries in order to promote shared growth and accelerate the implementation of Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3 - promoting gender equality and women's empowerment). The Plan would commit the World Bank Group to intensify and scale up gender mainstreaming in the economic sectors over four years, in partnership with client countries, donors, and other development agencies. The Bank Group and its partners would increase resources devoted to gender issues in operations and technical assistance, in Results-Based Initiatives (RBIs), and in policy-relevant research and statistics. An assessment at the end of the four-year period would determine whether to extend the Action Plan's timeframe. (excerpt)
Estimating the costs of achieving the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, 2006 -- 2015.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Jan; 86(1):27-39.The objective was to estimate the cost of scaling up childhood immunization services required to reach the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) goal of reducing mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases by two-thirds by 2015. A model was developed to estimate the total cost of reaching GIVS goals by 2015 in 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries. Current spending was estimated by analysing data from country planning documents, and scale-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up, ingredients-based approach. Financial costs were estimated by country and year for reaching 90% coverage with all existing vaccines; introducing a discrete set of new vaccines (rotavirus, conjugate pneumococcal, conjugate meningococcal A and Japanese encephalitis); and conducting immunization campaigns to protect at-risk populations against polio, tetanus, measles, yellow fever and meningococcal meningitis. The 72 poorest countries of the world spent US$ 2.5 (range: US$ 1.8-4.2) billion on immunization in 2005, an increase from US$ 1.1 (range: US$ 0.9-1.6) billion in 2000. By 2015 annual immunization costs will on average increase to about US$ 4.0 (range US$ 2.9-6.7) billion. Total immunization costs for 2006-2015 are estimated at US$ 35 (range US$ 13-40) billion; of this, US$ 16.2 billion are incremental costs, comprised of US$ 5.6 billion for system scale-up and US$ 8.7 billion for vaccines; US$ 19.3 billion is required to maintain immunization programmes at 2005 levels. In all 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries, total costs for 2006-2015 are estimated at US$ 76 (range: US$ 23-110) billion, with US$ 49 billion for maintaining current systems and $27 billion for scaling-up. In the 72 poorest countries, US$ 11-15 billion (30%-40%) of the overall resource needs are unmet if the GIVS goals are to be reached. The methods developed in this paper are approximate estimates with limitations, but provide a roadmap of financing gaps that need to be filled to scale up immunization by 2015. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Jan; 86(1):13-19.Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to "halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Because of its impacts on a range of diseases, it is a health-related MDG target. This study presents cost estimates of attaining MDG target 10. We estimate the population to be covered to attain the MDG target using data on household use of improved water and sanitation for 1990 and 2004, and taking into account population growth. We assume this estimate is achieved in equal annual increments from the base year, 2005, until 2014. Costs per capita for investment and recurrent costs are applied. Country data is aggregated to 11 WHO developing country subregions and globally. Estimated spending required in developing countries on new coverage to meet the MDG target is US$ 42 billion for water and US$ 142 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 18 billion. The cost of maintaining existing services totals an additional US$ 322 billion for water supply and US $216 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 54 billion. Spending for new coverage is largely rural (64%), while for maintaining existing coverage it is largely urban (73%). Additional programme costs, incurred administratively outside the point of delivery of interventions, of between 10% and 30% are required for effective implementation. In assessing financing requirements, estimates of cost should include the operation, maintenance and replacement of existing coverage as well as new services and programme costs. Country-level costing studies are needed to guide sector financing. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Oct; 85(10):734.posited that the process of development entails changes in incomes over time. Larger income levels achieved via positive economic growth, appropriately discounted for population growth, would constitute higher levels of development. As many have noted, however, the income measure fails to adequately reflect development in that per-capita income, in terms of its levels or changes to it, does not sufficiently correlate with measures of (human) development, such as life expectancy, child/infant mortality and literacy. The United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) human development index (HDI) constitutes an improved measure for development. HDI has been modified to be gender-sensitive with variants that reflect gender inequality. Various measures reflecting Sen's "capability" concept, such as civil and political rights, have also been incorporated. Countries where the level of poverty is relatively large tend also to exhibit low values of human development, thus lowering the mean values of the development measures. Where inequalities of development indicators are very large, however, the average values may not sufficiently reflect the conditions of the poor, requiring the need to concentrate on poverty per se. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, .  p.This Toolkit is meant for national youth organizations and/or representatives working with youth. It can be used as a tool to: Assess your country's progress in reaching the WPAY goals; Prioritize your organization's work, based on your findings; Initiate actions at the national level. This Toolkit should be used as a starting point for determining what your government, and civil society, has done to better the lives of young people, since 1995. In addition to providing methods for evaluating this progress, the Toolkit also contains concrete tools to further your youth work. As such, we hope that you will find it both informative and useful, and a good resource for your organization. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2002 Oct. 28 p.This manual was compiled during a seminar entitled "Approccio di genere in situazioni di emergenza, conflitto e post-conflitto" (Gender approach in emergency, conflict, and postconflict situations), which was held in Rome on 2-6 April 2001. The seminar was organized by the UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery in Rome and the Emergency division of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and included participants from various Italian non governmental organizations (NGOs) and UN agencies directly involved in emergency, crisis response and recovery operations. During the seminar, a needs assessment session was held and participants expressed their interest in having a "how to" manual that could help them better integrate a gender approach during humanitarian, recovery and development activities. The first chapter contains information on the approaches to women and gender issues over the last 20 years. It provides the basic concepts necessary to understand how to address gender issues and improve the impact of humanitarian assistance. In the second chapter, the relevant international instruments protecting the rights of people affected by war and other emergency situations are presented. Relevant passages are quoted and explained. The full text of these instruments can be found in the annexed CD-ROM. The third chapter contains information that can be used as reference in programming and organizing humanitarian interventions with a gender perspective. (excerpt)
Is trade liberalization of services the best strategy to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals in Latin America? A call for caution.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Nov; 20(5):341-346.In September 2000, at the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit, 147 heads of state adopted the Millennium Declaration, with the aim of reflecting their commitment to global development and poverty alleviation. This commitment was summarized in 8 goals, 14 targets, and 48 measurable indicators, which together comprise the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be attained by 2015. All of the MDGs contribute to public health, and three are directly health-related: MDGs 4 (reduce child mortality), 5 (improve maternal health), and 6 (combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases). Progress towards these goals has proved difficult. In an attempt to identify practical steps to achieve the MDGs, the UN Development Programme initiated the UN Millennium Project in 2002. This three-year "independent" advisory effort established 13 task forces to identify strategies and means of implementation to achieve each MDG target, and each task force produced a detailed report. A Task Force on Trade was created for MDG 8 to develop a global partnership for development. The mandate of the Task Force on Trade was to explore how the global trading system could be improved to support developing countries, with special attention to the needs of the poorest nations. (excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2006 Jul; 20(2):16.Workers in Burkina Faso are angry. Four times in 2005 and then again this May, the country's trade unions shut down economic activity through a series of national general strikes. Thousands marched in the streets of that West African nation to protest low salaries, high prices, lost jobs and inadequate social benefits. Very often, the strikers contrasted their living standards with those of the elites. At one march in Bobo-Dioulasso, the main commercial city, union leader Bakary Millogo decried the workers' "rampant pauperization" as opposed to the "scandalous and ostentatious" lifestyles of high government officials. Burkina, commented a columnist for the independent daily L'Observateur Paalga, is "running the risk of a social explosion of unpredictable consequences." The dangers are all the greater, he added, because endemic poverty exists alongside visible signs of wealth. "Some take a plane to get treated for hay fever," he wrote, "while others die because they can't afford malaria treatment." (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., International Monetary Fund, 2005 Apr. 13 p. (Economic Issues No. 34)Twenty-eight heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) were receiving debt relief under the HIPC Initiative by mid-2004, eight years after the Initiative was launched by the IMF and the World Bank and endorsed by governments around the world, and about four years after it was enhanced to provide more substantial and faster debt relief. The HIPC Initiative, the first coordinated effort by the international financial community to reduce the foreign debt of the world's poorest countries, was based on the theory that economic growth in these countries was being stifled by heavy debt burdens, making it virtually impossible for them to escape poverty. However, most of the empirical research to date on the effects of debt on growth has lumped together a diverse group of countries, including both emerging market and low-income countries; the literature focusing on the impact of debt on low-income countries (those with 2001 per capita gross national income of less than US$865) is scant. The paper on which this pamphlet is based, "External Debt, Public Investment, and Growth in Low-Income Countries" (IMF Working Paper No. 03/249, December 2003), addresses this gap in the literature. The paper also appeared as a chapter in a book published by the IMF in 2004, Helping Countries Develop: The Role of Fiscal Policy, edited by Sanjeev Gupta, Benedict Clements, and Gabriela Inchauste. It assesses empirically the effects of external debt on growth in low-income countries and analyzes the channels through which these effects are transmitted, giving special attention to the indirect effects of external debt on growth through its impact on public investment. Readers seeking a more detailed description of our analysis and of the literature on debt and growth are directed to the original working paper, which is available free of charge at www.imf.org/pubs. Brenda Szittya prepared the text for this pamphlet. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 May; 84(5):338.The context for this theme collection is the publication of the report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health. The report of the Commission -- instigated by WHO's World Health Assembly in 2003 -- was an attempt to gather all the stakeholders involved to analyse the relationship between intellectual property rights, innovation and public health, with a particular focus on the question of funding and incentive mechanisms for the creation of new medicines, vaccines and diagnostic tests, to tackle diseases disproportionately affecting developing countries. In reality, generating a common analysis in the face of the divergent perspectives of stakeholders, and indeed of the Commission, presented a challenge. As in many fields -- not least in public health -- the evidence base is insufficient and contested. Even when the evidence is reasonably clear, its significance, or the appropriate conclusions to be drawn from it, may be interpreted very differently according to the viewpoint of the observer. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 May; 84(5):337-424.Developing countries are failing to make full use of flexibilities built into the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) to overcome patent barriers and, in turn, allow them to acquire the medicines they need for high priority diseases, in particular, HIV/AIDS. First-line antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV/AIDS have become more affordable and available in recent years, but for patients facing drug resistance and side-effects, second-line ARV drugs and other newer formulations are likely to remain prohibitively expensive and inaccessible in many countries. The problem is that many of these countries are not using all the tools at their disposal to overcome these barriers. Medicines protected by patents tend to be expensive, as pharmaceutical companies try to recoup their research and development (R&D) costs. When there is generic competition prices can be driven down dramatically. The TRIPS Agreement came into effect on 1 January 1995 setting out minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, including patents on pharmaceuticals. Under that agreement, since 2005 new drugs may be subject to at least 20 years of patent protection in all, apart from in the least-developed countries and a few non-WTO Members, such as Somalia. Successful AIDS programmes, such as those in Brazil and Thailand, have only been possible because key pharmaceuticals were not patent protected and could be produced locally at much lower cost. For example, when the Brazilian Government began producing generic AIDS drugs in 2000, prices dropped. AIDS triple-combination therapy, which costs US$ 10 000 per patient per year in industrialized countries, can now be obtained from Indian generic drugs company, Cipla, for less than US$ 200 per year. This puts ARV treatment within reach of many more people. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2002 Jun-Aug; 39(2): p..The fourth session of the World Youth Forum of the United Nations System took place in Dakar, Senegal from 6 to 10 August 2001. Organized by the United Nations and the Senegalese National Youth Council, the Forum addressed the challenges young people face today and sought ways to enable them to communicate their concerns and hopes. It adopted the Dakar Youth Empowerment Strategy, which contains recommendations and tools to broaden young people's involvement in their societies. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, in his message, emphasized the fight against AIDS and unemployment. He observed that every minute, five persons between the ages of 10 and 24 are infected with HIV. He also pointed out that about 70 million young people were unemployed around the world and called upon Governments and international organizations for support. "Young people should be at the forefront of global change and innovation", the Secretary-General said. "Empowered, they can be key agents for development and peace. ... Let us ensure that all young people have every opportunity to participate fully in the lives of their societies." (excerpt)
In: Global health and governance. HIV / AIDS, edited by Nana K. Poku and Alan Whiteside. Basingstoke, England, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003 Dec. 109-122.Today in much of Africa economic growth has slowed and living standards for the majority have suffered in the face of rising unemployment and mass poverty, resulting in incomes that are presently below the 1970 level. One problem that has been the focus of much attention and contention over the past 20 years is the huge foreign debt owed by African countries to bilateral donors and multilateral institutions. Debt servicing is consuming a disproportionate amount of scarce resources at the expense of the provision of basic services to the poor. In order to receive help in servicing their debts, countries must agree to implement structural economic reforms. This often entails drastic cuts in social expenditures, the privatisation of basic services, and the liberalisation of domestic trade consistent with WTO rules. These policy decisions have had a direct impact on the capacity of African countries to promote, fulfill and protect the right to health of their citizens. This is further compounded by ill-conceived privatisation of basic services such as water and health services, without any regard for the ability of the poor to access these essential services at a cost they can afford. Finally, adherence to WTO trade rules, which often comes as an extension of liberalisation policy, hampers the capacity of African governments to produce or purchase less expensive generic drugs for their citizen without fear of retaliation from the developed countries. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. 21 p. (Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa Working Paper No. 9)This paper starts with a look at the pattern of public expenditure in Africa during the adjustment decade, paying particular attention to the social sectors. It concludes that the poverty focus and the poverty reduction impact of public spending in Africa is very low. The reasons for this include a lack of funds for nonwage recurrent expenditures in core economic and social services, inadequate intrasectoral resource allocation from a poverty reduction point of view, and public expenditure management inefficiencies. Absolute levels of expenditure on essential services are low in Sub-Saharan Africa compared with richer countries. It is therefore concluded that increases in financial resources to support anti-poverty programs are needed in Africa. But raising the poverty focus of governmental expenditures also requires changes in the within sector and the functional composition of public spending, as well as improvements in the factors which hamper the effectiveness of program delivery. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990. 49 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers No. 71)Little is known about the overall impact of adjustment programs on poverty. To a large extent, this is because it is difficult to distinguish the effects of externally induced recession from the effects of the policies and programs designed to offset them. Nevertheless, one clear lesson from experience has been that an orderly adjustment process designed to establish a new equilibrium growth path is indispensable for improving the longer-term position of the poor. Some adjustment measures can affect the poor adversely. This adverse impact may result from reductions in public expenditures, increases in prices of goods and services consumed by the poor, and declines in employment or real wages in sectors in which they work. Appropriate social and economic measures can help to reduce the adverse impact on the poor and create opportunities for stronger poverty reduction in the future. The most common way of addressing the adverse impact of adjustment has been the implementation of targeted compensatory programs. Such programs can compensate those affected directly by adjustment (for example laid-off public sector employees) or provide temporary employment of relief to the chronically poor. But these programs have often been too complex and have faced serious shortcomings such as insufficient political commitment, institutional weaknesses, shortages of funding and poorly trained staff. Greater attention should be given in the future to identifying the most appropriate interventions as well as to their design and implementation. Changes in the design of adjustment programs can promote the longer-run interests of the poor, but have received relatively little attention. Appropriate design changes can help to foster pro-poor growth by, for example, removing biases that favor capital-intensive production or other impediments to employment growth. They can also enable reallocations of public expenditures in ways that support, or improve the efficiency of, programs that help the poor to take advantage of the emerging economic opportunities (by developing skills or providing the necessary complementary infrastructure). Finally, appropriate design changes can help mitigate the possible adverse impact on the poor, for example, by targeting subsidies more effectively. Subsidies that have a large impact on the income of the poor (even if only a small proportion of the subsidy reaches them), should not be reduced or eliminated unless alternative means of reaching the poor are introduced. (author's)
The political economy of reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report of the Workshops on the Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform. Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, November 20-22,1986. World Bank, Washington, D.C., December 3-5,1986.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 49 p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 8)Toward the end of 1986, EDI organized two workshops on The Political Economy of Reform in Africa. Given the Bank's traditional stance, which emphasizes technical and economic factors in development, EDI's interest in this topic may surprise some readers. However, the Bank's recent experience of policy-based lending has underscored the need to broaden our understanding of political and public administration issues. Furthermore, recent EDI senior policy seminars in Africa have reinforced the view that political economy issues are amongst the main obstacles to the initiation and implementation of policy reform. For these reasons, EDI decided to design a series of three Senior Policy Seminars on Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 1986-87. To prepare for these seminars with ministers and senior civil servants from all over sub-Saharan Africa, we decided to convene consultations with scholars in the field of political economy. These discussions would equip us to organize a forum for the exploration of policy processes, including political economy issues, with African practitioners. (excerpt)
Structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa. Report on a series of five senior policy seminars held in Africa, 1987-88.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989.  p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 18)In June 1986, the National Economic Management Division of the World Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI) designed a series of senior policy seminars on structural adjustment for Sub-Saharan Africa. The exercise led to three seminars in 1987: Lusaka I, Lusaka 11, and Abidjan I, and, after redesign, two more in 1988: Victoria Falls and Abidjan 11. Seminar participants were invited in teams typically composed of ministers, governors, permanent secretaries, senior advisors, and a significant number of senior technical staff of central banks, the core ministries of finance and planning, and spending ministries such as agriculture and industry. Twenty seven countries participated in the seminars. Of these, six participated in two separate seminars (see annex A). This report is a synthesized record of the five seminars and is likely to be of interest to all those interested in the reform process in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely, the seminar participants, other similarly placed policymakers, advisors to these policymakers, executives of the public and private sectors, staff of academic institutions, and the staff of international organizations such as the World Bank (the Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (the Fund) involved in studying the political economy of structural adjustment. (excerpt)
New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Sep. 28 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 762)This paper reviews the development experience since the 1980's and finds room for guarded optimism about what we can learn from it. Firstly, a global consensus is emerging on the need for macro-economic stability through prudent fiscal, monetary and foreign exchange policies. However, at the micro or structural level, while governments need to decentralize their decision- making authority more fully than they have thus far, in reaction to the recent reappraisal of the East Asian model there is some danger that development policy will swing too far in rejecting liberalization and returning to government intervention. Secondly, the paper points out that, while there exists a well-recognized causal nexus between exports and growth, the reverse causation also holds, i.e. domestic growth patterns conditioned by education and R&D expenditures and policies determine whether or not a country can take full advantage of existing export opportunities. Finally, although fast-disbursing policy-based loans have not been as successful as they could be, largely because of the World Bank's chosen modus operandi, they represent potentially highly effective instruments that should not be abandoned. Rather, the Bank should help render such loans more fully "owned" by recipients, replace country-specific lending quotas by aid ballooning related to carefully worked out reform packages, and develop a better division of labor with other multilateral and bilateral donors. (author's)
Humanist. 1993 Mar-Apr; 53(2): p..The images are so familiar that we have become all but inured to them: starving African children outlined against a broad expense of empty sky; ragged, impoverished families huddled together on a stony steppe. They could be Biafrans in 1968, Sahelians in 1973, or Ethiopians in 1985. The most recent pictures are from Somalia, a barren stretch of East African coastland that juts into the Indian Ocean. Once a consolation prize in the Cold War (the real trophy in the Horn was Ethiopia, a richer and more populous nation), Somalia has since disintegrated into fiefdoms of grizzled warlords armed with Kalashnikovs and AK-47s. Now 2,000 Somalis die every day from hunger and its attendant diseases, and reports from elsewhere in Africa suggest that Somalia is only the beginning; according to the United Nations, 20 million to 60 million people are at risk of starvation throughout the eastern and southern parts of the continent. (author's)
Debt: an issue of responsibility - Special section - Future of the global economy: challenges of the 90s. [La deuda: una cuestión de responsabilidad. Sección especial. El futuro de la economía global: desafíos de la década del 90.]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..In August 1982, the Mexican Government made a dramatic announcement: the country did not have enough money to make its next foreign debt payment. News of an imminent default by that nation rocked Wall Street. With the United States banking system threatened, Washington hastily arranged a bail-out for Mexico. But the problem refused to go away; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru and 12 other big debtors all hovered on the brink. The "debt crisis" had been born. But the crisis had not started in Mexico City on that sweltering summer weekend; its roots were global and could be traced back to the 1970s. Then eager to grow fast and goaded by commercial banks on Wall Street and other developed money meccas, a number of developing nations, mostly in Latin America and the Caribbean, started to borrow heavily abroad. (excerpt)
Economic drought strangles African recovery: Assembly calls for increased aid, debt relief - UN General Assembly - includes interview with Stephen Lewis, Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations.
UN Chronicle. 1988 Mar; 25(1): p..Despite courageous internal reform by African Governments since 1986, spiralling debt, cuts in foreign aid and the crash of commodity prices threaten to exacerbate the ongoing African economic crisis, devastating millions of people across the continent. "The economic crisis now facing Africa can exact a toll every bit as deadly as the drought (of 1983-1985)," Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar reported to the forty-second General Assembly in October 1987. The situation has deteriorated, he said, since the Assembly adopted the United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development, 1986-1990, at a special session of the General Assembly in May 1986. His report examines conditions in Africa one year after the adoption of the Programme, under which African Governments agreed to adjust internal policies, and the international community pledged to increase aid and improve terms of trade. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1988 Jun; 25(2): p..African Governments assisted by international financial institutions are making a determined effort to undertake needed economic reforms, but additional financial support is essential if they are to succeed, an Advisory Group on Financial Flows to Africa reported on 22 February. A team of 13 eminent financial experts, headed by Sir Douglas Wass, former Permanent Secretary of the United Kingdom Treasury, was appointed by Secretary-General Perez de Cuellar in April 1987 to examine the external flows of resources to Africa and to recommend ways and means to ensure that the resource flows are adequate for the successful implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery. They submitted their report two days after Mr. Perez de Cuellar returned from a 10-day visit to six African countries, during which African economic problems were extensively discussed with African leaders. (excerpt)