Your search found 1034 Results

  1. 1
    374603

    Women migrant workers and remittances.

    United Nations. UN Women

    New York, New York, UN Women, [2017]. 4 p. (Policy Brief No. 3)

    Remittances and their potential to contribute to development are becoming a central focus of global migration governance. With women making up approximately half of all migrant workers globally, there is a shifting focus of many policies and programmes to include remittances sent by women. Based on research and lessons learned from the joint UN Women–EU-funded global project, “Promoting and protecting women migrant workers’ labour and human rights: Engaging with international, national human rights mechanisms to enhance accountability”, which is piloted in Mexico, Moldova and the Philippines, this Brief considers the different ways that women transfer and spend remittances, and provides recommendations to better understand and maximize these remittances.
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  2. 2
    372998

    Benefits for women in Nile economic development.

    Nile Basin Initiative [NBI]

    Entebbe, Uganda, NBI, 2015 May. [6] p. (Briefing Note 9)

    Women and girls often risk being left behind in development, not being fully informed or involved in decision making about issues that can have a real impact on their lives. Sometimes, they are already disadvantaged by cultural and legal norms that affect their rights to resources. Working together to develop the Nile resource, the 10 countries involved in the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) are making it ‘business as usual’ to ensure gender equality in the economic benefits emerging from their shared efforts.
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  3. 3
    340854
    Peer Reviewed

    Breastfeeding: a smart investment in people and in economies.

    Hansen K

    Lancet. 2016 Jan 30; 387:416.

    If breastfeeding did not already exist, someone who invented it today would deserve a dual Nobel Prize in medicine and economics. For while “breast is best” for lifelong health, it is also excellent economics. Breastfeeding is a child's first inoculation against death, disease, and poverty, but also their most enduring investment in physical, cognitive, and social capacity. The evidence on breastfeeding leaves no doubt that it is a smart and cost-effective investment in a more prosperous future. Let’s ensure that every child -- and every nation -- can reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (Excerpts) Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
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  4. 4
    338994
    Peer Reviewed

    The World Health Organization and the Globalization of Chronic Noncommunicable Disease.

    Weisz G; Vignola-Gagne E

    Population and Development Review. 2015 Sep 15; 41(3):507-532.

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries have recently provoked a surge of public interest. This article examines the policy literature-notably the archives and publications of the World Health Organization (WHO), which has dominated this field-to analyze the emergence and consolidation of this new agenda. Starting with programs to control cardiovascular disease in the 1970s, experts from Eastern and Western Europe had by the late 1980s consolidated a program for the prevention of NCD risk factors at the WHO. NCDs remained a relatively minor concern until the collaboration of World Bank health economists with WHO epidemiologists led to the Global Burden of Disease study that provided an “evidentiary breakthrough” for NCD activism by quantifying the extent of the problem. Soon after, WHO itself, facing severe criticism, underwent major reform. NCD advocacy contributed to revitalizing WHO's normative and coordinative functions. By leading a growing advocacy coalition, within which The Lancet played a key role, WHO established itself as a leading institution in this domain. However, ever-widening concern with NCDs has not yet led to major reallocation of funding in favor of NCD programs in the developing world.
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  5. 5
    336174
    Peer Reviewed

    Population Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case of Both Normative and Coercive Ties to the World Polity.

    Robinson RS

    Population Research and Policy Review. 2014 Jun 15;

    During the 1980s and 1990s, two-thirds of sub-Saharan African countries adopted national population policies to reduce population growth. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, I show that countries with more ties to the world polity were more likely to adopt population policies. In order to refine world polity theory, however, I distinguish between normative and coercive ties to the world polity. I show that ties to the world polity via international nongovernmental organizations became predictive of population policy adoption only after the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development institutionalized reproductive health as a global norm to which countries could show adherence through population policies. Ties to the World Bank in the form of indebtedness, presumed to be coercive, were associated with population policy adoption throughout the time period observed. Gross domestic product per capita, democracy, and religion also all predicted population policy adoption. The case of population policy adoption in sub-Saharan Africa thus demonstrates that ties to organizations likely to exert normative pressure are most influential when something about international norms is at stake, while ties to organizations with coercive capacity matter regardless of time, but may be easier for wealthier countries to resist.
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  6. 6
    335518

    Adolescent pregnancy: a review of the evidence.

    Loaiza E; Liang M

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2013. [60] p.

    This report presents an update on pregnancies among adolescents. The report covers trends during the last 10 years and variations across geographic, cultural and economic settings, as well as interventions available to minimize pregnancy among adolescents. The report lists evidence for these programmatic approaches, and challenges that nations will have to deal with in the next 20 years given current population momentum.
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  7. 7
    335517

    The art of knowledge exchange: A results-focused planning guide for development practitioners. 2nd ed.

    Kumar S; Leonard A; Watkins R; Vovides Y; Kerby B

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013. [174] p.

    Knowledge exchange, or peer-to-peer learning, is a powerful way to share, replicate, and scale-up what works in development. Development practitioners increasingly seek to learn from the experiences of others who have gone through, or are going through, similar challenges. They want to have ready access to practical knowledge and solutions and enhance their confidence, conviction, and skills to customize the solutions to their own context. The second edition of the Art of Knowledge Exchange: A Results-Focused Planning Guide for Development Practitioners follows a strategic approach to learning and breaks down the knowledge exchange process into five simple steps. It also provides tools you need to design your knowledge exchange and practical guidance on how to use them to get the results you want from your knowledge exchange. This second edition contains a full revision of the original Art of Knowledge Exchange as well as new chapters on implementation and results of knowledge exchanges. The Guide also distills lessons from over 100 exchanges financed by South-South Facility, analytical work conducted by the World Bank Institute, and the Task Team for South-South Cooperation, and reflects the rich experiences of World Bank staff, learning professionals, government officials, and other practitioners engaged in South-South knowledge exchange activities.
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  8. 8
    335515

    Four cardinal questions (and answers of a sort). Toward just development in FCS.

    Isser D; Berg LA; Porter D

    Just Development. 2014 Jan; (1):1-4.

    Our first feature, Four Cardinal Questions [and answers of a sort] toward Just Development in FCS, by Deborah Isser, Doug Porter and Louis-Alexandre Berg, takes on the hardest cases: countries plagued by fragility, violent conflict, extremely low capacity and poor governance. The Note proposes an analytical framework, illustrated by case examples that can be used to design effective interventions.
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  9. 9
    335234

    The global partnership for development: A review of MDG 8 and proposals for the post-2015 development agenda.

    Kenny C; Dykstra S

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2013 Jul. [49] p. (CGD Policy Paper No. 026)

    The eighth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 8) covered a ‘global partnership for development’ in areas including aid, trade, debt relief, drugs and ICTs. We have seen progress as well as gaps in the areas which were covered: more aid, but with quality lagging and a link to progress in MDG areas that was weak; a better rich world performance on tariffs but one that misses increasingly important parts of trade; broadly successful debt relief but an agenda on the support for private investment left uncovered; mixed progress on drugs access and absence of a broader global public health agenda; and a global ICT revolution with weak links to the MDGs or a global partnership. Migration, non-ICT technologies, the global environment, and global institutional issues were all completely unaddressed in MDG 8. Looking forward, by 2030, a global compact on development progress linking OECD DAC aid and policy reform to low income countries as target beneficiaries (the implicit model of MDG 8) would be irrelevant to three quarters of the world. Half of the rich world will be in non-DAC countries and the share of aid in global transfers will continue to shrink. Global public goods provision will increasingly require the active participation of (at least) the G20 nations. A post-2015 global partnership agenda should involve a mixed approach to compact and partnership issues: binding ‘global compact’ targets under specific post-2015 sectoral goals focused on the role for aid alongside a standalone global public goods goal with time bound, numerical targets covering trade, investment, migration, technology, the environment and global institutions.
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  10. 10
    335210

    A life of dignity for all: Accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and advancing the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 2013 Jul 26. [19] p. (A/68/202)

    The present report is submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 65/1, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to report annually on progress in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals until 2015 and to make recommendations for further steps to advance the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015. Renewed efforts are essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals by the end of 2015. While providing an assessment of progress to date, the report also identifies policies and programmes that have driven success in the achievement of the Goals and can contribute to accelerating it. These include emphasizing inclusive growth, decent employment and social protection; allocating more resources for essential services and ensuring access for all; strengthening political will and improving the international policy environment; and harnessing the power of multi-stakeholder partnerships. A new post-2015 era demands a new vision and a responsive framework. Sustainable development -- enabled by the integration of economic growth, social justice and environmental stewardship -- must become our global guiding principle and operational standard. This is a universal agenda that requires profound economic transformations and a new global partnership. It also requires that the international community, including the United Nations, embrace a more coherent and effective response to support the agenda. As we make the transition to this new era, we need to continue the work begun with the Millennium Development Goals and ensure that extreme poverty is ended within a generation. In keeping with United Nations principles, this post-2015 framework can bring together the full range of human aspirations and needs to ensure a life of dignity for all.
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  11. 11
    334719

    Improving nutrition through multisectoral approaches.

    Alderman H; Elder L; Goyal A; Herforth A; Hoberg YT; Marini A; Ruel-Bergeron J; Saavedra J; Shekar M; Tiwari S; Zaman H

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013 Jan. [172] p.

    This report provides operational guidance to maximize the impact of investments on nutrition outcomes for women and young children. The recommendations in this document build on evidence to date on issues of malnutrition, with the aim of providing concrete guidance on how to mainstream nutrition into agriculture, social protection, and health. The document is composed of five modules, including an introduction, an economic analysis of the relationship between poverty, economic growth and nutrition, and one module for each of the aforementioned focus sectors.
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  12. 12
    334020

    Global health and the new bottom billion. What do shifts in global poverty and the Global Disease Burden mean for GAVI and the Global Fund?

    Glassman A; Duran D; Sumner A

    Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2011 Oct. [37] p. (Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 270)

    After a decade of rapid growth in average incomes, many countries have attained middle-income country (MIC) status. At the same time, the total number of poor people hasn’t fallen as much as one might expect and, as a result, most of the world’s poor now live in MICs. In fact, there are up to a billion poor people or a ‘new bottom billion’ living not in the world’s poorest countries but in MICs. Not only has the global distribution of poverty shifted to MICs, so has the global disease burden. This paper examines the implications of this ‘new bottom billion’ for global health efforts and recommends a tailored middle-income strategy for the Global Fund and GAVI. The paper describes trends in the global distribution of poverty, preventable infectious diseases, and health aid response to date; revisits the rationale for health aid through agencies like GAVI and the Global Fund; and proposes a new MIC strategy and components, concluding with recommendations.
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  13. 13
    334013

    Global health and the new bottom billion: How funders should respond to shifts in global poverty and disease burden.

    Glassman A; Duran D; Sumner A

    [Washington, D.C.], Center for Global Development, 2012 Jan. [4] p. (CDG Brief)

    After a decade of rapid economic growth, many developing countries have attained middle-income status. But poverty reduction in these countries has not kept pace with economic growth. As a result, most of the world’s poor -- up to a billion people -- now live in these new middle-income countries (MICs), making up a “new bottom billion.” As the new MICs are home to most of the world’s poor, they also carry the majority of the global disease burden. This poses a challenge to global health agencies, in particular the GAVI Alliance and the Global Fund, which are accustomed to disbursing funds on the assumption that the majority of poor people live in poor countries. To better target aid to poor people, we recommend that funders focus on four areas: Eliminating country-income thresholds as across-the-board criteria for allocating global health funding; Setting up regional pooled procurement or pricing mechanisms; Building evidence-based priority-setting institutions; Establishing increased accountability mechanisms and providing technical support for MICs.
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  14. 14
    353556
    Peer Reviewed

    Examining Turkey and member states of European union in terms of health perspectives of millennium development goals.

    Lorcu F; Bolat BA; Atakisi A

    Quality and Quantity. 2012 Apr; 46(3):959-978.

    Development is related not only to production and increase in per capita income but also to social, cultural and political improvements. The purpose of development is that individuals would live long, healthy and happy lives thanks to economic development of society. From this perspective, it is obvious that the human factor is fundamental to the concept of development. This study examines the most important element in human development-health. As health indicators, it uses the health perspectives in the United Nations millennium development goals that are "reduce child mortality", "improve maternal health" and "combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases". In the study, European Union (EU) member states and candidate country Turkey are compared in terms of health related goals among millennium development goals by using Multidimensional scaling and Cluster analysis. Initially, countries with similar and dissimilar health indicators are mapped in multidimensional space by multidimensional scaling analysis. Further, the same method is used to reveal similar and dissimilar health indicators among countries. Then, the findings are compared using Cluster analysis and are identified to be similar.
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  15. 15
    333663

    Mobile technologies and empowerment: Enhancing human development through participation and innovation.

    Zambrano R; Seward RK

    New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2012. [58] p.

    Mobile technologies are opening new channels of communication between people and governments, potentially offering greater access to public information and basic services to all. No other technology has been in the hands of so many people in so many countries in such a short period of time. In fact, globally, more people now have access to a mobile device than to justice or legal services. Recent estimates indicate that ICTs could be accessible to everyone by 2015 and bring internationally agreed development targets ever closer to achievement. Indeed, we are witnessing a new wave of democratization of access to innovative ICT channels, propelled by state-of-the-art technologies and diminishing barriers to entry. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have set forth global commitments to foster human development across the world. One of the targets calls for making the benefits of ICTs available to all. If we subscribe to the latest figures on mobile usage and availability then we can argue that this particular target is achievable by 2015, if not before. But how does this relate to the other 17 MDG targets, if at all, and to all other Internationally Agreed Development Goals (IADGs)? The main objective of this primer is to provide UNDP programme staff and development partners and practitioners with a practical understanding of how mobile technologies can amplify development programming. By looking at basic concepts, current trends and real life examples, the primer intends to shed light on how development practitioners can harness the potential of mobile technologies to improve development outputs and outcomes at the country level.
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  16. 16
    333097

    Impact evaluation in practice.

    Gertler PJ; Martinez S; Premand P; Rawlings LB; Vermeersch CM

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2011. [266] p.

    This book offers an accessible introduction to the topic of impact evaluation and its practice in development. Although the book is geared principally toward development practitioners and policy makers, we trust that it will be a valuable resource for students and others interested in impact evaluation. Prospective impact evaluations assess whether or not a program has achieved its intended results or test alternative strategies for achieving those results. We consider that more and better impact evaluations will help strengthen the evidence base for development policies and programs around the world. Our hope is that if governments and development practitioners can make policy decisions based on evidence -- including evidence generated through impact evaluation -- development resources will be spent more effectively to reduce poverty and improve people's lives. The three parts in this handbook provide a nontechnical introduction to impact evaluations, discussing what to evaluate and why in part 1; how to evaluate in part 2; and how to implement an evaluation in part 3. These elements are the basic tools needed to successfully carry out an impact evaluation. The approach to impact evaluation in this book is largely intuitive, and we attempt to minimize technical notation. We provide the reader with a core set of impact evaluation tools -- the concepts and methods that underpin any impact evaluation -- and discuss their application to real-world development operations. The methods are drawn directly from applied research in the social sciences and share many commonalities with research methods used in the natural sciences. In this sense, impact evaluation brings the empirical research tools widely used in economics and other social sciences together with the operational and political-economy realities of policy implementation and development practice. (Excerpt)
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  17. 17
    333082

    The state of food and agriculture, 2010-11. Women in agriculture: Closing the gender gap for development.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]. Economic and Social Development Department

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 2011. [160] p.

    This edition of The State of Food and Agriculture addresses Women in agriculture: closing the gender gap for development. The agriculture sector is underperforming in many developing countries, and one of the key reasons is that women do not have equal access to the resources and opportunities they need to be more productive. This report clearly confirms that the Millennium Development Goals on gender equality (MDG 3) and poverty and food security (MDG 1) are mutually reinforcing. We must promote gender equality and empower women in agriculture to win, sustainably, the fight against hunger and extreme poverty. I firmly believe that achieving MDG 3 can help us achieve MDG 1. (Excerpt)
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  18. 18
    333067

    The state of the world's children 2011. Adolescence: an age of opportunity.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2011. [148] p.

    This report catalogues, in heart-wrenching detail, the array of dangers adolescents face: the injuries that kill 400,000 of them each year; early pregnancy and childbirth, a primary cause of death for teenage girls; the pressures that keep 70 million adolescents out of school; exploitation, violent conflict and the worst kind of abuse at the hands of adults. It also examines the dangers posed by emerging trends like climate change, whose intensifying effects in many developing countries already undermine so many adolescents' well-being, and by labour trends, which reveal a profound lack of employment opportunities for young people, especially those in poor countries. Adolescence is not only a time of vulnerability, it is also an age of opportunity. This is especially true when it comes to adolescent girls. We know that the more education a girl receives, the more likely she is to postpone marriage and motherhood -- and the more likely it is that her children will be healthier and better educated. By giving all young people the tools they need to improve their own lives, and by engaging them in efforts to improve their communities, we are investing in the strength of their societies. Through a wealth of concrete examples, The State of the World's Children 2011 makes clear that sustainable progress is possible. It also draws on recent research to show that we can achieve that progress more quickly and cost-effectively by focusing first on the poorest children in the hardest-to-reach places. Such a focus on equity will help all children, including adolescents. (Excerpt)
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  19. 19
    332923

    The MDGs in Europe and Central Asia: achievements, challenges and the way forward.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]; International Labour Organization [ILO]; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; World Food Programme; UNESCO; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]; World Health Organization [WHO]; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; United Nations Industrial Development Organization [UNIDO]; United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD]; International Trade Centre

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2010. [127] p. (ECE/INF/2010/2)

    This report, prepared jointly by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Regional Offices for Europe and Central Asia of the United Nations Funds, Programmes and Specialized Agencies, takes stock of progress made in reaching the MDG goals and offers decision-makers policy-oriented, operationally feasible suggestions for bolstering progress towards fully achieving these goals by 2015. It also identifies and contextualizes the greatest challenges facing human development, taking into account the specific characteristics of the UNECE region. The overall message of this report is twofold. On the one hand, most of the region’s economies have made remarkable progress towards the MDGs over the period 1995-2008, with two caveats: first, success has been greater when it is measured on the basis of global rather than national MDG definitions; second, large disparities exist among countries and subregions within the pan-European region, as well as among population groups and geographic areas within countries. On the other hand, given the huge setbacks associated with the transition recession crisis in the early 1990s and the more recent economic effects of the global financial crisis, a significant number of countries will find it difficult to fully achieve the MDGs by 2015. In order to meet the targets, these countries will have to overcome a number of specific development challenges.[Excerpts]
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  20. 20
    332919
    Peer Reviewed

    Seven challenges in international development assistance for health and ways forward.

    Sridhar D

    Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. 2010 Fall; 38(3):459-469.

    This paper outlines seven challenges in development assistance for health, which in the current financial context, have become even more important to address. These include the following: (1) the proliferation of initiatives, focusing on specific diseases or issues, as well as (2) the lack of attention given to reforming the existing focal health institutions, the WHO and World Bank. (3) The lack of accountability of donors and their influence on priority-setting are part of the reason that there is “initiavitis,” and resistance to creating a strong UN system. (4) Other than absolute quantity of aid, three other challenges linked to donors relate to the quality of aid financing particularly the pragmatic difficulties of financing horizontal interventions, (5) the marginal involvement of developing country governments as aid recipients, and (6) the heavy reliance on Northern-based organizations as managers of funds. (7) The final challenge discussed focuses on two unintended consequences of the recent linking of health and foreign policy for international development assistance. The paper then provides three suggestions for ways forward: creating new mechanisms to hold donors to account, developing national plans and strengthening national leadership in health, and South-South collaboration.
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  21. 21
    332857

    State of the world’s cities 2010 / 2011: Bridging the urban divide.

    United Nations. Human Settlements Programme [UN-HABITAT]

    London, United Kingdom, Earthscan, [2010]. [244] p.

    The world's urban population now exceeds the world's rural population. What does this mean for the state of our cities, given the strain this global demographic shift is placing upon current urban infrastructure? Following on from previous State of the World's Cities reports, this edition uses the framework of 'The Urban Divide' to analyse the complex social, political, economic and cultural dynamics of urban environments. The book focuses on the concept of the 'right to the city' and ways in which many urban dwellers are excluded from the advantages of city life, using the framework to explore links among poverty, inequality, slum formation and economic growth. The volume will be essential reading for all professionals and policymakers in the field, and a valuable resource for researchers and students in all aspects of urban development.
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  22. 22
    346701
    Peer Reviewed

    Women's health in developing countries: beyond an investment?

    Mohindra KS; Nikiema B

    International Journal of Health Services. 2010; 40(3):543-67.

    Most international programs and policies devised to improve women's health in developing countries have been shaped by powerful agencies and development ideologies, including the tendency to view women solely through the lens of instrumentalism (i.e., as a means to an end). In a literature review, the authors followed the trail of instrumentalism by reviewing the different approaches and paradigms that have guided international development initiatives over the past 50 years. The analysis focuses on three key approaches to international development: the economic development, public health, and women-gender approaches. The findings indicate that progressive changes have adopted a more inclusive development perspective that is potentially beneficial to women's health. On the other hand, most paradigms have largely viewed improving women's lives in general, and their health in particular, as an investment or a means to development rather than an end in itself. Public health strategies did not escape the instrumentalism entrenched in the broader development paradigms. Although there was an opportunity for progress in the 1990s with the emergence of the human development and human rights paradigms and critical advances in Cairo and Beijing promoting women's agency, the current Millennium Development Goals project seems to have relapsed into instrumentalism.
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  23. 23
    332809

    Influential evaluations: Evaluations that improved performance and impacts of development programs.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2004. [24] p.

    This report’s central message is that well-designed evaluations, conducted at the right time and developed in close consultation with intended users, can be a highly cost-effective way to improve the performance of development interventions. It includes eight case studies of evaluations that were utilized for improving programs and increasing effectiveness.
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  24. 24
    345008

    Health systems and wealth generation: the role of reproductive health.

    Baris E

    Entre Nous. 2009; (68):4-5.

    The WHO European Ministerial Conference on “Health Systems, Health and Wealth” held in Tallinn in June 2008 was a watershed event that took stock of and consolidated the recent conceptual and methodological developments, as well as, practice-based innovations in the European health arena. The upshot of the conference was that not only does health matter - we knew that already because we in Europe value health in its own right - but also good health contributes to wealth generation. The conference also argued that health systems contribute to the generation of wealth, since in almost any society, albeit at varying degrees, the health sector constitutes one of the major spheres of economic activities, producing, consuming and trading goods and services, and contributing to knowledge and technology generation through research and development.
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  25. 25
    326797

    Gender equality as smart economics: a World Bank Group gender action plan (fiscal years 2007-10).

    World Bank

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2006 Sep. [29] p.

    This Action Plan seeks to advance women's economic empowerment in the World Bank Group's client countries in order to promote shared growth and accelerate the implementation of Millennium Development Goal 3 (MDG3 - promoting gender equality and women's empowerment). The Plan would commit the World Bank Group to intensify and scale up gender mainstreaming in the economic sectors over four years, in partnership with client countries, donors, and other development agencies. The Bank Group and its partners would increase resources devoted to gender issues in operations and technical assistance, in Results-Based Initiatives (RBIs), and in policy-relevant research and statistics. An assessment at the end of the four-year period would determine whether to extend the Action Plan's timeframe. (excerpt)
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