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New York, New York, UN Women, . 4 p. (Policy Brief No. 7)There is broad-based agreement today that universal social protection systems are a desirable goal. For gender equality advocates, it is paramount to take advantage of this momentum to ensure that such systems benefit women by responding to their rights and needs. Well-designed social protection systems can narrow gender gaps in poverty rates, enhance women’s income security and access to personal income, and provide a lifeline for poor women, especially single mothers.1 The current context of economic stagnation and fiscal adjustment, however, places big constraints on the investments needed to achieve these goals. How can gender equality advocates engage with social protection advocacy in this context? This policy brief showcases the strategies that were used by UN Women’s Multi-Country Office in the Caribbean to promote gender-responsive social protection in a context where reforms have been driven mainly by efforts to reduce public debt and promote economic competitiveness.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, Development Research Group, Poverty and Inequality Team, 2012 Nov.  p. (Policy Research Working Paper No. 6259)The paper presents an overview of calculations of global inequality, recently and over the long-run as well as main controversies and political and philosophical implications of the findings. It focuses in particular on the winners and losers of the most recent episode of globalization, from 1988 to 2008. It suggests that the period might have witnessed the first decline in global inequality between world citizens since the Industrial Revolution. The decline however can be sustained only if countries’ mean incomes continue to converge (as they have been doing during the past ten years) and if internal (within-country) inequalities, which are already high, are kept in check. Mean-income convergence would also reduce the huge “citizenship premium” that is enjoyed today by the citizens of rich countries.
The Millennium Development Goals and the road to 2015: Building on progress and responding to crisis.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010.  p.The Millennium Development Goals provide a multidimensional framework for attacking poverty in a world of multipolar growth. By focusing on measurable results, they provide a scorecard for assessing progress toward mutually agreed targets. And by enlisting the support of national governments, international agencies, and civil society in a development partnership, they have brought greater coherence to the global development effort. In this way they take us beyond the old, sterile opposition of “developed” and “developing” or “north” and “south.” The evidence from the last 20 years, documented in the statistical record of the MDGs, is that where conditions and policies are right for growth with equity, rapid and sustainable progress toward improving the lives of the poorest people can take place. Not every country will achieve the global MDG targets in the time allowed. Success has not been distributed evenly and there have been serious setbacks. Some countries are still burdened by legacies of bad policies, institutional failures, and civil and international conflict. For them, progress toward the MDGs has been delayed, but the examples of good progress by others point the way for their eventual success.
Millennium Development Goal 8, The Global Partnership for Development: Time to deliver. MDG Gap Task Force Report 2011.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2011.  p.The objective of MDG 8 is to assist all developing countries in achieving the goals through a strengthened global partnership for international development cooperation. The present report describes how that partnership is producing significant results on many fronts, but notes that many important gaps between expectations and delivery remain. (Excerpt)
Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. 2010 Fall; 38(3):459-469.This paper outlines seven challenges in development assistance for health, which in the current financial context, have become even more important to address. These include the following: (1) the proliferation of initiatives, focusing on specific diseases or issues, as well as (2) the lack of attention given to reforming the existing focal health institutions, the WHO and World Bank. (3) The lack of accountability of donors and their influence on priority-setting are part of the reason that there is “initiavitis,” and resistance to creating a strong UN system. (4) Other than absolute quantity of aid, three other challenges linked to donors relate to the quality of aid financing particularly the pragmatic difficulties of financing horizontal interventions, (5) the marginal involvement of developing country governments as aid recipients, and (6) the heavy reliance on Northern-based organizations as managers of funds. (7) The final challenge discussed focuses on two unintended consequences of the recent linking of health and foreign policy for international development assistance. The paper then provides three suggestions for ways forward: creating new mechanisms to hold donors to account, developing national plans and strengthening national leadership in health, and South-South collaboration.
Scaling up global social health protection: prerequisite reforms to the International Monetary Fund.
International Journal of Health Services. 2009; 39(4):795-801.People living in low-income countries require protection from the economic and social impacts of global economic competition, yet, historically, the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) fiscal austerity programs have weakened the potential for redistribution both within poor countries and between rich and poor countries. The current development paradigm's focus on "sustainability" is an obstacle to developing systems of global social protection and an impediment to future progress. Reforming IMF policy conditionality and democratizing the IMF's decision-making processes will be necessary for offsetting growing inequalities in health financing among poor nations.
The political economy of reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Report of the Workshops on the Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform. Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, November 20-22,1986. World Bank, Washington, D.C., December 3-5,1986.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1988. 49 p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 8)Toward the end of 1986, EDI organized two workshops on The Political Economy of Reform in Africa. Given the Bank's traditional stance, which emphasizes technical and economic factors in development, EDI's interest in this topic may surprise some readers. However, the Bank's recent experience of policy-based lending has underscored the need to broaden our understanding of political and public administration issues. Furthermore, recent EDI senior policy seminars in Africa have reinforced the view that political economy issues are amongst the main obstacles to the initiation and implementation of policy reform. For these reasons, EDI decided to design a series of three Senior Policy Seminars on Structural Adjustment and the Sustainability of Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 1986-87. To prepare for these seminars with ministers and senior civil servants from all over sub-Saharan Africa, we decided to convene consultations with scholars in the field of political economy. These discussions would equip us to organize a forum for the exploration of policy processes, including political economy issues, with African practitioners. (excerpt)
Humanist. 1993 Mar-Apr; 53(2): p..The images are so familiar that we have become all but inured to them: starving African children outlined against a broad expense of empty sky; ragged, impoverished families huddled together on a stony steppe. They could be Biafrans in 1968, Sahelians in 1973, or Ethiopians in 1985. The most recent pictures are from Somalia, a barren stretch of East African coastland that juts into the Indian Ocean. Once a consolation prize in the Cold War (the real trophy in the Horn was Ethiopia, a richer and more populous nation), Somalia has since disintegrated into fiefdoms of grizzled warlords armed with Kalashnikovs and AK-47s. Now 2,000 Somalis die every day from hunger and its attendant diseases, and reports from elsewhere in Africa suggest that Somalia is only the beginning; according to the United Nations, 20 million to 60 million people are at risk of starvation throughout the eastern and southern parts of the continent. (author's)
Poverty may lessen by 2000, except in Africa - according to World Bank's 'World Development Report 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s. [La pobreza puede reducirse para el año 2000, salvo en África, de acuerdo con el Informe sobre Desarrollo Mundial de 1990 del Banco Mundial. Sección especial. El futuro de la economía global: desafíos de la década del 90.]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..Sub-Saharan Africa is the only region where poverty is not likely to decline by the year 2000, the World Bank says. While 400 million people elsewhere could rise from poverty by the beginning of the twenty-first century if the Bank's two-pronged strategy is adopted, high fertility rates in Africa would still make the number of the poor swell by nearly 100 million. The Bank's World Development Report 1990 states that family planning services are vital for poverty reduction, especially where a high population growth rate--such as the 3 to 4 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa-- depresses per capita income which results in low wages and growing poverty. The Report forecasts that some 265 million people, or 43.1 per cent of the population of Africa, south of the Sahara, would live in poverty in the year 2000. In 1985, the figure was 180 million (46.8 per cent). "By the end of the century, sub-Saharan Africa will account for more than 30 per cent of the developing world's poor, as against 16 per cent in 1685." (excerpt)
Poverty - World Bank's 'World Development Report - 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..The World Bank has dedicated its thirteenth annual global development study to an exhaustive examination of the "poorest of the world's poor", analysing programmes which have successfully eliminated poverty. The 260-page analysis--World Development Report 1990--first measures poverty, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and then draws lessons from the experience of countries which have successfully reduced poverty. The burden of poverty is spreading unevenly among countries, the Bank states. Nearly half of the world's poor live in South Asia, a region that accounts for roughly 30 per cent of the world's population. Sub-Saharan Africa has a smaller, but "still highly disproportionate, share of global poverty", the Report says. Within countries and regions, there are also disparate concentrations of poverty. The weight of poverty falls most heavily on women and children. (excerpt)
Debt: an issue of responsibility - Special section - Future of the global economy: challenges of the 90s. [La deuda: una cuestión de responsabilidad. Sección especial. El futuro de la economía global: desafíos de la década del 90.]
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..In August 1982, the Mexican Government made a dramatic announcement: the country did not have enough money to make its next foreign debt payment. News of an imminent default by that nation rocked Wall Street. With the United States banking system threatened, Washington hastily arranged a bail-out for Mexico. But the problem refused to go away; Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru and 12 other big debtors all hovered on the brink. The "debt crisis" had been born. But the crisis had not started in Mexico City on that sweltering summer weekend; its roots were global and could be traced back to the 1970s. Then eager to grow fast and goaded by commercial banks on Wall Street and other developed money meccas, a number of developing nations, mostly in Latin America and the Caribbean, started to borrow heavily abroad. (excerpt)
How the world sees the 1980s - excerpts from General Assembly Declaration - Special section - future of the global economy: challenges of the 90s.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..Reaching a common view of the 1980s that all countries could live with was as crucial as the formulation of possible remedial action in the 1990s, it was generally felt. The following are excerpts from the Declaration which resulted from this process: In the 1980s, progress in developed and developing countries has been uneven. The decade was marked by an increasing gap between those groups of countries, as well as by relatively slow growth and large global financial and trade imbalances. Developed market-oriented countries have succeeded to a large extent in controlling inflation and in maintaining sustained, though modest, growth. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1984 Jul; 21: p..In a speech on 7 September to the annual conference of the Department of Public Information for Non- Governmental Organizations, Mr. Perez de Cuellar said that "no statistic can convey the real meaning of economic deprivation", adding he had seen first hand how a combination of economic crisis and natural calamity had led to acute and widespread starvation and hunger. It was "unacceptable", he said, "that at a time of economic recovery in the industrial world and of a relatively satisfactory global food situation, millions of African men, women and children should undergo suffering of such magnitude". The international community had to demonstrate its capacity and willingness to help, particularly through the uses of the United Nations system, he added. African leaders were determined to rely primarily on their own efforts and to introduce the necessary changes in their domestic policies to overcome the crisis, he went on. He encouraged them to persevere in these efforts and to strengthen them. "But precisely when they are engaged in this difficult and vast undertaking, the concerted support of the international community should not be denied them." (excerpt)
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2003. 21 p.Broadening health promotion financing arrangements contributes to the goal of health improvement shared by the countries of the Western Pacific Region. Health promotion that is sustainable underpins stable and effective mechanisms to ensure access by all to quality health services. Health promotion in the Western Pacific Region can be viewed as a public health intervention and a social enterprise. The financing implications of these perspectives are: Health promotion as a public health intervention - funds spent on keeping the population healthy versus treating the sick could improve efficiency within the same level of resources. Health promotion as a social enterprise - the "wellness of all" can be a rallying point at the community level where social, political and economic capital can be mobilized through partnerships, networks, coalitions, alliances, public-private collaboration, multi-sectoral groups, local or state initiatives or a combination of any of these. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003 Oct.  p. (Human Rights Watch Vol. 15, No. 17(A))The politicization of food takes place within the larger national context, where party-political violence and repression are widespread. The government uses veterans of the war for independence, police, ZANU PF youth, and the recently created youth brigades to enforce its food distribution policies. Army leaders are central to the operation of the GMB and its Food Committee. Even as international humanitarian assistance helps feed hungry Zimbabweans, the longer-term humanitarian and political dilemma of how to help the impoverished ex-commercial farm workers and new settlers on the old white farms remains. (excerpt)
In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 254-278.War has always been disastrous for civilians, and the Persian Gulf War was no exception. Yet the image that has been perpetuated in the West is that the Gulf War was somehow "clean" and fought with "surgical precision" in a manner that minimized civilian casualties. However, massive wartime damage to Iraq's civilian infrastructure led to a breakdown in virtually all sectors of society. Economic sanctions further paralyzed Iraq's economy and made any meaningful post-war reconstruction all but impossible. Furthermore, the invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent Gulf War unleashed internal political events that have been responsible for further suffering and countless human fights violations. The human impact of these events is incalculable. In 1996, more than five years after the end of the war, the vast majority of Iraqi civilians still subsist in a state of extreme hardship, in which health care, nutrition, education, water, sanitation, and other basic services are minimal. As many as 500,000 children are believed to have died since the beginning of the Persian Gulf War, largely due to malnutrition and a resurgence of diarrheal and vaccine- preventable diseases. Health services are barely functioning due to shortages of supplies and equipment. Medicines, including insulin, antibiotics, and anesthetics, are in short supply. The psychological impact of the war has had a damaging and lasting effect on many of Iraq's estimated eight million children. (excerpt)
Somalia. Report on the nutrition situation of refugees and displaced populations. [Somalie : Rapport sur l'état de nutrition des réfugiés et des populations déplacées]
RNIS. Report on the Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Populations. 2003 Jan; (40):15-18.The different nutrition assessments performed in southern Somalia revealed nutrition situations which varied from precarious (category II) to very poor (category I), even if the good Deyr rainfall in some areas may temporarily improve food security. The nutrition situation of the children residing in temporary shelters in the Coastal Belt of Somaliland region is of concern (category II). (excerpt)
RNIS. Report on the Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Populations. 2003 Jan; (40):23-24.The ongoing conflict has had a major impact on the economy of the whole sub-region. Ivory Coast accounted for 40% of the gross domestic product of West Africa; millions of migrants from neighbouring countries were dependent on job opportunities in Ivory Coast. The loss from cash crops in the northern region is estimated so far at about 300 millions Euros/Dollars. In addition, neighbouring countries can no longer use the port of Abidjan; they are obliged to use more distant ports which had led to an increase in the cost of transportation. Prices in the whole region seem to have increased dramatically since September 2002. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1999. ix, 222 p.This report views the changes that have been set in motion as contributing to—and as manifestations of— two phenomena: globalization and localization. Globalization, which reflects the progressive integration of the world’s economies, requires national governments to reach out to international partners as the best way to manage changes affecting trade, financial flows, and the global environment. Localization, which reflects the growing desire of people for a greater say in their government, manifests itself in the assertion of regional identities. It pushes national governments to reach down to regions and cities as the best way to manage changes affecting domestic politics and patterns of growth. At both the supranational and subnational levels, institutions of governance, negotiation, coordination, and regulation will play a critical role in promoting a new equilibrium between and within countries—and in abetting the creation of the stable environment that will make possible the implementation of development programs. (excerpt)
In: Gender, economic integration, governance and methods of contraceptives / Genre, integration economique, gouvernance et methodes contraceptives, [compiled by] Association of African Women for Research and Development [AAWORD]. Dakar, Senegal, AAWORD / AFARD, 2002 Jun. vii-xi.The failure of the economic development policies of the 70s was recognized and replaced by other terms like "satisfaction of human needs", "humane appearance development." But this new discourse, not having any pertinent referential base towards the environment and the third-world realities, has done nothing but take advantage of structural inequality. Even worse, the southern countries have to face reimbursements "without end" of the debt. Elsewhere, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have set in place the political talks of Structural Adjustment (PAS), which hasn't responded to the needs of the populations, thus continuing the already existing inequality. Besides, they equally oblige the States to operate a group of compressions in their public dispenses especially in the domain of neuralgic sectors like health and education. These measures have contributed to aggravating the poor, above all the feminine population. As for globalization, it will accentuate the negative effects of the Structural Adjustment and will aggravate the social and economic crisis. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. x, 50,  p. (Statistics on Special Population Groups. Series Y. No. 6; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.Y/6)This compendium provides statistical tables and charts and descriptive summaries of the main trends in the social and economic conditions of youth in 176 countries during 1970-90. Country specific tables are presented at the end of each of the five chapters on population, education and training, economic activity, health and childbearing, and households and marital status. Regional and subregional averages are based on unweighted data. Subregional averages are indicated where there are wide differences among countries. Data are obtained from official national and international sources. The world youth population aged 15-24 years was an estimated 519 million men and 493 million women in 1990 (>1 billion total). This total reflects a 52% increase since 1970. Over 80% of youth lived in developing regions. Over 60% lived in Asia. The annual growth rate of youth declined to 1-2% during the late 1980s. In 37 countries, the youth growth rate is increasing by more than 3% per year. In developed regions, the youth growth rate was under 0.5% per year. The male/female sex ratio was about 106:100. In 30 countries the sex ratio was higher. Over 50% of youth lived in urban areas in Eastern Europe and the USSR, other developed regions, North Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and West Asia. Most youth lived in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Oceania. Almost 30% of young men aged 20-24 years were household heads in developed regions and sub-Saharan Africa. By age 20, few women were married, except in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Fertility rates among women aged 20-24 years were lowest in developed regions, except Eastern Europe and the USSR, and in East and Southeast Asia. 66% of youth lived in countries with very low per capita income (under $1000/year). Young women's illiteracy rates were higher than men's except in Latin America and the Caribbean.
[Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994.  p.In its statement to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the Bahamas presented the following description of itself. It is an archipelago of over 700 islands covering 80,000 miles of ocean, with a total land area of 5,382 square miles. 22 islands are inhabited, but the bulk of the population resides on 14. The population grew from 209.5 thousand in 1980 to 255.1 in 1990, with 67% residing on the capital island of New Providence. Population growth is expected to continue at an annual rate of 1.9%. Tourism, the main economic activity, has stagnated, and new ways of stimulating economic growth are being sought. The Bahamas has the following population and development concerns: 1) the delivery of services to all of the islands; 2) the growing trend towards single-parent families and the capacity of these families to provide for their support; 3) the need for accessible and affordable health care, disease prevention, and health promotion measures; 4) the effects of an unrelenting flow of undocumented migrants on the socioeconomic structure of the nation; 5) providing quality education to insure human resource development; and 6) improving the status of women, children, and the elderly. The Bahamas urges the nations of the world to work together to enhance the health of our people; to improve the lives of our children; to halt the destruction of our environment; and to implement rational, equitable, and appropriate population policies.
Proceedings of the Caribbean Regional Conference "Operations Research: Key to Management and Policy", Dover Convention Centre, St. Lawrence, Barbados, May 31 - June 2, 1989.
[New York, New York], Population Council, 1989. 19,  p.Objectives, proceedings, and conclusions of a Caribbean regional conference on operations research (OR) in maternal-child health and family planning programs (FP/MCH) are summarized. Sponsored by the Population Council, USAID, and UNICEF, participants included policy makers, program managers, service providers, and representatives from international agencies in health and family planning from Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Mexico, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. The conference was held with hopes of contributing to the legitimization of OR as a management tool, and helping to develop a network of program directors and researchers interested in using OR for program improvement. Specifically, participants were called upon to review the progress and results of recent regional OR projects, analyze the utilization of these projects by policy makers and program managers, highlight regional quality of care, and establish directions for future projects in the region. Overall, the conference contributed to the dissemination and documentation of OR, and provided a forum in which to identify important service, research, and policy issues for the future. OR can improve FP/MCH services, and make positive contributions to the social impact of these programs. The unmet need of teenagers and men and structural adjustment were identified as issues of concern. Strategies will need to be developed to maintain currently high levels of contraceptive prevalence, while responding to the needs of special groups, with OR expected to focus on the quality of care especially in education and counseling, and screening and user follow-up. The technical competence of service providers and follow-up mechanisms are both in need of improvement, while stronger institutional and management capabilities should be developed through training and human resource development.
[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
To cure poverty, heal the poor. WHO study finds investments in health pay big development dividends.
Africa Recovery. 2002 Apr; 16(1):22-3.Research conducted by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, established by the WHO and headed by Harvard University economist Jeffrey Sachs, found that the economic impact of ill health on individuals and societies is far greater than previous estimates. Providing basic health care to the world's poor, the commission asserted, is both technically feasible and cost effective. However, the price tag is high, with the annual spending on health care in the least developed countries and other low-income states increased from US$53.5 billion to US$93 billion by 2007, and to US$119 billion per year by 2015. These amounts are intended to finance essential services required to meet the minimum health goals adopted by world leaders at the September 2000 UN Millennium Assembly. These objectives can be achieved by forging a new global partnership between developed and developing countries for the delivery of health care. Moreover, donor countries and multilateral agencies would have to increase their overall support for health programs in all developing countries.