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  1. 1

    WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy, September 28 - October 1, 2006: trip report.

    Barillas E

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 Oct 18. 26 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ACI-323)

    WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority ofwhom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which allowed RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. RPM Plus Senior Program Associate, Edgar Barillas, traveled to Sondalo from September 28 to October 1 to facilitate the TB pharmaceutical management session at the WHO course for TB Consultants in Sondalo, Italy. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Sustainable schistosomiasis control -- the way forward.

    Utzinger J; Bergquist R; Shu-Hua X; Singer BH; Tanner M

    Lancet. 2003 Dec 6; 362(9399):1932-1934.

    Schistosomiasis, a chronic and debilitating disease, is draining the economic and social development in much of the tropics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where 85% of its global burden is concentrated. An estimated 200 million people are infected and more than 600 million live in endemic areas. Sustained heavy infection leads to morbidity, contributes to anaemia, and often results in retarded growth and reduced physical and cognitive function in children. Recent estimates suggest that the yearly death rate of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa exceeds 200 000, which is largely attributable to renal failure or haematemesis. WHO has proposed a dual strategy to control schistosomiasis. The strategy rests on morbidity control in high-burden regions and consolidation of control measures where the endemicity has been greatly reduced.2,3 Safe, effective, single-dose antischistosomal drugs—eg, praziquantel—have been available for 25 years. The large reduction in cost to less than US$0·30 per treatment3 has been the leverage for chemotherapy-based morbidity control. However, a serious limitation of chemotherapy alone is its indefinite dependence (dependence for an unlimited period of time) on praziquantel, potentially reducing the useful life-span of this drug. Preventive measures, focused on clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, are essential features of any long-term strategy for reduction and elimination of schistosomiasis.7,8 The absence of such measures in many past programmes stems from a severe lack of resources plus inadequate capacity and political commitment to emphasise clean water and sanitation as a basic human need. We are now witnessing a sea of change in the political landscape that should facilitate provision of clean water and sanitation. High priority has been given to this task in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, embodied in the Millennium Declaration set forth in September, 2000. Further, it was one of the top priorities at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in September, 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa, and during the 3rd World Water Forum, convened in Japan in March, 2003. The specific provision is to halve the number of people without access to clean water supply and sanitation by 2015.9,10 Linking schistosomiasis control to these initiatives has the potential to ensure long-term control and, in many instances, elimination of the disease. (author's)
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  3. 3

    Diarrhoeal and acute respiratory disease: the current situation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Information

    IN POINT OF FACT 1991 Jun; (76):1-3.

    This paper describes the serious effect of diarrheal and acute respiratory (ARI) disease upon children under 5 years old, and international efforts undertaken by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce such mortality. Combined, these diseases account for more then 1/2 of all deaths in this age group, and constitute the most serious threat to their health. WHO estimates for 1990 that diarrheal illnesses caused 3.2 million childhood deaths and that ARI caused 4.3 million. While some child deaths are due to measles and pertussis, the majority is caused by pneumonia and the consequences of diarrheal illnesses. These deaths could be readily averted through the timely, effective treatment of trained health workers with essential drugs. Immunization as well as improved nutrition, particularly through the practice of exclusive breast feeding of the child's 1st 4-6 months of life, are addition weapons potentially employed against child mortality. WHO programs for diarrhea and ARI control focus upon simplified treatment guidelines, training, communication messages, drug supplies, and evaluation methodology. Despite obstacles such as the marketing of useless and/or potentially dangerous anti-diarrheal drugs and cough and cold remedies, and inappropriate breastmilk substitutes and unnecessary foods, widespread progress in program development and implementation has been made over the past decade. Increased amounts of oral rehydration therapy and solutions are available and used, while many health workers have benefited from training programs.
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  4. 4

    New drug initiative announced. Pilot study to distribute HIV treatment, prophylaxis in developing world.

    Madhani SJ

    AIDSLINK. 1997 Nov-Dec; (48):4-5.

    On November 5, 1997, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) announced the launching of the "UNAIDS HIV Drug Access Initiatives." The initiative will make available a range of HIV/AIDS-related drugs, including antiretrovirals for underlying HIV infection, antimicrobials for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, and antibiotics for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. The long-term goal of the initiative is to facilitate a mutually beneficial relationship between pharmaceutical companies and health care providers to continue increasing access to drug therapies to persons with HIV/AIDS in developing countries. For this to succeed, each country must establish an HIV-related national drug policy. The activist group Act-Up Paris raised the issue of participant selection and the inappropriate allocation of funds. Despite criticisms, the UNAIDS proposal has given hope to people around the world living with HIV/AIDS.
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  5. 5

    Phytopharmacology and phytotherapy.

    Attisso MA

    In: Bannerman RH, Burton J, Ch'en Wen-Chieh. Traditional medicine and health care coverage: a reader for health administrators and practitioners. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 1983. 194-206.

    There is a genuine interest now being taken in phytotherapy and medicinal plants throughout the world. In industrialized countries there is a trend of going back to nature or wanting to combat the chemical pollution of the body provoked by inopportune chemotherapy or by the misuse of convenience drugs of chemical origin; third world countries are primarily concerned with providing their peoples with adequate coverage of their essential drug needs. A new type phytotherapy is proposed, to produce phytotherapeutic preparations for use in modern medical practice from the resources of traditional medication. In view of difficulties experienced by developing countries in meeting their needs for essential drugs, 4 measures might be taken to encourage utilization for primary health care of their vast local resources: 1) a real health policy option at national and regional level; 2) determination of priorities regarding health problems and definition of possible solutions; 3) goal-oriented applied scientific research on medicinal plants, incorporating properly planned programs; 4) effective implementation of these programs with regard to technical and financial resources and appropriate personnel. Cooperation among developing countries, with the industrialized countries and with organizations of the United Nations system is recommended. A table illustrates integrated overall organization.
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  6. 6

    Gambian Primary Health Care Resource Group (First meeting, Banjul, 7 - 9 June 1982).

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Health Resource Group for Primary Health Care

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1982. 17 p. (HRG/CRU.1/Rev.1/Mtg.1)

    In 1979, a WHO team collaborated with national personnel in The Gambia in developing a comprehensive primary health care (PHC) plan of action for the period 1980/81 - 1985/86. In his address to the legislature in August, 1980, the president declared that the plan involved the active participation of local communities and emphasized programs for health promotion and disease prevention. This monograph reports on a meeting of the Gambian Ministries of Economic Planning and Industrial Development and of Health, Labor and Social Welfare in June 1982. Improvements in rural health are a basic need. In order to provide PHC, it was fully realized that a strong supportive infrastructure was essential. The village sensitization program was considered as vital for success. Not 1 village has rejected PHC or its responsibilities. The training program for community health nurses, village health workers and traditional birth attendants was proceeding according to plan for the various levels. Recognizaing that an efficient drug supply was essential, concomitant action had been taken to reorganize the central store. Another essential element without which success could not be achieved related to provision of transport and facilities for their maintenance, so that communications could be assured with rural areas. The need for a radio network to link 6 staions and 26 sub-stations was stresses. The list of participants and the agenda are attached as are the requirements for external support for the planned provision of PHC which were considered by the participants of the meeting.
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