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  1. 1

    Handbook of supply management at first-level health care facilities. 1st version for country adaptation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 73 p. (WHO/HIV/2006.03)

    All first-level health care facilities, namely primary health care clinics and outpatient departments based in district hospitals, use medicines and related supplies. It takes a team effort to manage these supplies, involving all health care facility staff: doctors, nurses, health workers and storekeepers. This is especially true in small facilities with only one or two health workers. Each staff member should know how to manage all supplies at the health care facility correctly. Each staff member has an important role. The Handbook of Supply Management at First-Level Health Care Facilities describes all major medicines and supply management tasks, known as the standard procedures of medicines supply management at first-level health care facilities. Each chapter covers one major task, explains how the task fits into the process of maintaining a consistent supply of medicines, and recommends which standard procedures to use. Annexes at the back of the handbook contain various checklists and examples of forms which can be introduced as needed at your health care facility. This handbook is part of a package used in an integrated training and capacity-building course targeted at first-level health care facilities. It can be used in conjunction with the existing Integrated Management of Adult and Adolescent Illness (IMAI) strategy developed by WHO. It can also be used for basic training activities independent of IMAI training courses. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Instructions for applying to the Green Light Committee for access to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    Blondal K; Caminero JA; Cegielski P; Espinal MA; Jaramillo E

    [Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. 15 p. (WHO/HTM/TB/2006.369)

    Controlling multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is one of the six components of the WHO Stop TB strategy. Although prevention must be the highest priority for TB control programmes, many countries have patients with drug-resistant TB who must be treated too. Such countries should take specific measures to gradually incorporate appropriate strategies for treatment of this form of tuberculosis into their programmes and prevent propagation of drug-resistant TB. Misuse of second-line anti-TB drugs results in further resistance to these same second-line drugs, creating incurable forms of tuberculosis. It is imperative that second-line anti-TB drugs are used wisely. The WHO Guidelines For The Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (herein after referred to as the Guidelines) provide recommendations for appropriate management of drug-resistant TB so as not to generate further drug resistance. To help programmes develop and implement develop and implement strategies for the management of drug resistant TB, the Green Light Committee for Access to Second-line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs (GLC) was created by WHO and its partners in January 2000. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Sexually transmitted and other reproductive tract infections. A guide to essential practice.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research; Family Health International [FHI]; Population Council. Frontiers in Reproductive Health

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005. [192] p. (Integrating STI / RTI Care for Reproductive Health; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADC-591)

    This Guide is intended to be a reference manual, and a resource to educate and to remind health care workers of the need to consider STIs/RTIs when providing other reproductive health services. It recommends prevention and care practices for patients who have or may be at risk of acquiring a reproductive tract infection. As such, it could be used for preservice or in-service health provider education and training, as a source of up-to-date, evidence-based recommendations, and as a selfeducation tool for health care providers on the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of RTIs. Programme managers can use it as a starting-point for improving policies, programmes and training on the prevention and management of STI/RTI, adapting the information and recommendations as needed to local conditions. The information is grouped according to “reasons for visit”. Providers are encouraged to consider the possibility of STI/RTI, educate and counsel clients about prevention, and offer necessary treatment. Providers can use the Guide as a whole, or focus on the sections that are relevant to their daily practice. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Improving drug management to control tuberculosis.

    Management Sciences for Health [MSH]

    The Manager: Management Strategies for Improving Health Services. 2001; 10(4):[22] p..

    This issue of The Manager offers policymakers and managers of TB programs at all levels a practical, systematic approach to strengthening drug management so that TB drugs reach and are appropriately used by patients. It introduces the drug management cycle and describes how effective drug policies and laws can support this cycle. The issue also explains how specific improvements in drug selection, procurement, distribution, and use, as well as in management support, can help to maintain an adequate flow of TB drugs. (author's)
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  5. 5

    How to investigate drug use in health facilities. Selected drug use indicators.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Action Programme on Essential Drugs

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Action Programme on Essential Drugs, 1993. ii, 87 p. (WHO/DAP/93.1; DAP Research Series No. 7)

    The WHO Action Program on Essential Drugs has developed and field tested a core set of drug use indicators capable of describing drug use patterns and prescribing behaviors in a country, region, or individual health facility. These indicators can be used to measure the impact of interventions designed to change prescribing practices, detect performance problems, and compare the performance of providers and institutions. Three categories have been developed: 1) prescribing indicators--average number of drugs per encounter, percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name, percentage of encounters with antibiotic prescribed, percentage of encounters with injection prescribed, and percentage of drugs prescribed from essential drugs list or formulary; 2) patient care indicators--average consultation time, average dispensing time, percentage of drugs actually dispensed, percentage of drugs adequately labelled, and patients' knowledge of correct dosage; and 3) facility indicators--availability of copy of essential drugs list or formulary and availability of key drugs. All data required to measure the core indicators can be derived from medical records or direct observation. Field testing in developing countries such as Nigeria and Tanzania found these measures both feasible to obtain and informative as first-level indicators. Also presented are descriptions of key issues related to study design and sampling, field methods, analysis, and follow up.
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  6. 6

    Guidelines for surveillance of drug resistance in tuberculosis, 1997.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Tuberculosis Programme; International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Tuberculosis Programme, 1997. [2], 35 p. (WHO/TB/96.216)

    Drug resistance is becoming an increasing threat to the effectiveness of national tuberculosis programs in many parts of the world. Knowledge of the prevalence of antituberculosis drug resistance is essential for evaluating and improving national tuberculosis control efforts. However, there are few rigorously documented, directly comparable statistics in this area. This document presents guidelines to assist national programs in adopting standardized methods for drug resistance surveillance. This surveillance should adhere to three principles: 1) the sample of specimens should be representative of the patients from the area under study and the sample size should be determined to permit standard epidemiologic analyses, 2) the patient's history should be carefully obtained and available medical records reviewed to clearly determine whether the patient has received prior antituberculosis drugs in order to distinguish between primary and acquired drug resistance, and 3) the laboratory materials for susceptibility testing of antituberculosis drugs should be selected from among those that are internationally recommended. This report includes chapters on choice of drugs, definitions of resistance, laboratories and diagnostic centers, sampling strategies, organization of surveys, intake of patients, the national reference laboratory, and data management and analysis.
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  7. 7

    Essential drugs for primary health care. A manual for health workers in South-East Asia.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for South-East Asia

    New Delhi, India, WHO, SEARO, 1988. [4], iv, 105 p. (SEARO Regional Health Papers No. 16)

    The use of primary healthcare as a key approach in achieving Health For all by the Year 2000 is now west established. Community healthworkers and other paramedical personnel play an increasingly important role in healthcare delivery. Although the emphasis in primary healthcare is on health promotion and disease prevention, healthworkers must learn how to use simple drugs to treat common illnesses and thus gain the confidence of the community. They also need to learn when to refer to physicians. Most countries in WHO's Southeastern Asia region have now prepared lists of essential drugs to be used by primary healthworkers. Drugs have been selected on the basis of their proven quality, efficacy, safety, availability, and low cost. For the proper management of some common illnesses, it is not only necessary to know the properties, uses, and possible adverse effects of essential drugs, but also to have a reasonable knowledge about the illnesses themselves. The healthworker should also be able to identify the stages of illness that call for physician assistance. This manual attempts to provide guidelines for the use of essential drugs by community healthworkers and paramedical/auxiliary health personnel. It also provides guidelines for treating certain common illnesses and identifying situations which require doctor referral. Furthermore, it provides information regarding the management of injuries resulting from accidents, burns, and poisoning (including snakebite). This manual should prove useful to trainers of paramedical and healthworkers. An attempt has been made to write the manual in simple language and to give clear, practical instructions to help the user in deciding what to do in a given situation. Wherever necessary, illustrations have been included to amplify the technical information. The responsibilities given to community healthworkers and paramedical personnel vary from country to country as do the number of drugs allowed for use by such persons. Although a single manual may not fulfill all the needs of all countries, it is intended to be a core source. Accordingly, the number of drugs and other topics discussed has purposely been kept large in order to facilitate the work of those who will be selecting material and adapting it to suit the specific needs at the country level. (author's)
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