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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1988; (770):1-63.This booklet incorporates both guidelines and criteria for establishing national programs for essential drugs, and a suggested list of approximately 250 essential drugs. It is important to emphasize that it is up to each country to decide whether to implement an essential drug policy, and how to adapt the list to their own changing needs. Guidelines for a national program include accepting recommendations by a local committee; using generic names and providing a cross index; providing a drug information sheet to accompany the list; regulation or constant testing of quality of the drugs; deciding on the level of expertise needed to prescribe each drug; administration of supply, storage and distribution. Choice of drugs is based on quality, bioavailability, safety, price and availability. Criteria for selection of drugs for primary health care involves evaluation of existing medical care systems, the national health infrastructure, trained personnel and available supplies, and the pattern of endemic disease. Each agent is listed by its international nonproprietary name (INN), is accompanied by substitutions and complementary drugs, and is described by its route of administration, dosage form and strength. Listings are by category and alphabetically.
The World Bank Population, Health and Nutrition Department, Policy and Research Division fiscal year 1986-1988 work program.
[Unpublished] . iii, 9, 5 p.This note presents the work program of the Policy and Research Division of the World Bank Population, Health, and Nutrition Department for the fiscal years 1988. Although this note was prepared mainly for internal review purposes in the department and in the Bank, it has been circulated outside the Bank to increase awareness of the department policy and research activities. This note 1) lists department staff, 2) gives a brief overview of the department's work, 3) relates the history of the department, and 4) describes the department's activities by objectives. The department's objectives comprise 1) population, 2) population in Sub-Saharan Africa, 3) health, 4) pharmaceuticals, 5) nutrition, 6) intersectoral links, and 7) poverty alleviation. The principal population activities include work on the role of the private sector in family planning, incentives for small family size, cost-effective approaches to the delivery of family planning services, and a population lending review. Work on population in Sub-Saharan Africa centers on adolescent fertility and spatial population distribution. The work program in health reviews health financing and the cost-effectiveness of alternative health interventions. Research on pharmaceuticals examines a range of potential policy interventions on the demand and supply side. A nutrition paper is being prepared on the cost-effectiveness of nutrition interventions, especially as part of primary health care. Intersectoral issues include the links between population, health, and nutrition on one hand and other sectors, such as agriculture and education on the other hand. Work on poverty alleviation examines the extent to which population, health, and nutrition projects should reach out to poor client groups. Research activities in each of these 7 areas are described. An annex lists recent staff papers on these subjects.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Federation of Public Health Associations [WFPHA], 1984 Aug. vii, 78 p. (Information for Action)This bibliograph contains 4 parts. Part 1 is anannotated bibiography covering the following topics: an overview of health care in developing countries; planning and management of primary health care (PHC): manpower training and utilization; community participation and health education; delivery of health services, including nutrition, maternal and child health, family planning, medical and dental care; disease control, water and sanitation, and pharmaceutical; and auxiliary services, Part 2 is a reference directory covering periodicals directories, handbooks and catalogs, in PHC, as well as computerized information services, educational aids and training programs, (including audiovisual and other teaching aids), and procurement of supplies and pharmaceuticals. Also given are lists of international and private donor agencies, including development cooperation agencies, and directories of foundations and proposal writing. Parts 3 and 4 are the August 1984 updates of the original May 1982 edition of the bibliography.
Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(2):47-59.The 73rd session of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Executive Board met in January 1984 to review progress in implementing strategies for health for all by the year 2000, based on information emanating from the countries themselves. This monitoring function was assigned to the Board by the World Health Assembly in 1981 and calls for the Board to evaluate progress towards health for all at regular intervals and to report back to the Health Assembly. The 1st country reports together with comments of the regional committees and relevant information provided by theSecretariat were examined in November 1983 by the Board's Program Committee. Emphasis at this stage was placed on reviewing the relevance of national health policies to the attainment of health for all and the progress being made in implementing national strategies. Actual evaluation of the strategies will begin in 1985. As many of the country reports submitted were not as complete or as accurate as they could have been, the overall progress report submitted were not as complete or as accurate as they could have been, the overall progress report suffered from a lack of detailed and precise informattion on many important aspects that were crucial to national health for all strategies. Dr. Brandt, presenting the Program Committee's views, told the board that the report did indicate that a high level of political sensitization had occurred and that the political will to attain the goal of health for all existed in a large majorithy of the countries that had reported. The report indicated that to a large extent the Secretariat had met its responsibilities. It was the Member States that had to shoulder the responsibility and reaffirm their commitment by action. The Program Committee's progress report points to the existence of specific technical needs, particularly in national capability to carry out health policies. Among the areas requiring strengthening are information analysis and management, financial analysis, assessment of status of public information, competence in planning and management, effective involvement of relevant sectors in health, and measurement of intersectoral action for health. The Board urged Member States to give highest priority to the continuing monitoring and evaluation of their health for all strategies and to assume full responsibility for this process. In regard to the action program on essential drugs and vaccines, priority in the last 2 years has gone to training and manpower development, the dissemination of experience and information, cooperation in the procurement and production of essential drugs, technical cooperation among developing countries, and contracts with nongovernmental organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. During the far ranging discussion that ensued in the Executive Board, members addressed themselves in considerable detail to numerous aspects of the action program. The Board approved a new and carefully phased procedure for the review of substances to be recommended for international drug control.