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  1. 1
    300213

    Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) -- 2nd Meeting on Tuberculosis: trip report.

    Zagorskiy A

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2005 Oct. 15 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)

    RPM Plus has been substantially involved in TB activities in the E&E region both at the country and regional level since 1998, providing technical leadership to StopTB partners and technical assistance to countries in streamlining TB drug management systems as part of overall WHO DOTS strategy. In recognition of the RPM Plus role as a leader in pharmaceutical management, RPM Plus Program Manager for TB Andrey Zagorskiy was elected a member of the WHO/Euro Technical Advisory Group (TAG), with the first meeting in 2004 in Sinaia, Romania. In 2005, RPM Plus continued to provide technical leadership in pharmaceutical management for TB to WHO/Euro TAG, and participated in the second meeting in September 2005, in Copenhagen, Denmark. (author's)
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  2. 2
    051976

    The use of essential drugs. Third report of the WHO Expert Committee.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expert Committee on the Use of Essential Drugs

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1988; (770):1-63.

    This booklet incorporates both guidelines and criteria for establishing national programs for essential drugs, and a suggested list of approximately 250 essential drugs. It is important to emphasize that it is up to each country to decide whether to implement an essential drug policy, and how to adapt the list to their own changing needs. Guidelines for a national program include accepting recommendations by a local committee; using generic names and providing a cross index; providing a drug information sheet to accompany the list; regulation or constant testing of quality of the drugs; deciding on the level of expertise needed to prescribe each drug; administration of supply, storage and distribution. Choice of drugs is based on quality, bioavailability, safety, price and availability. Criteria for selection of drugs for primary health care involves evaluation of existing medical care systems, the national health infrastructure, trained personnel and available supplies, and the pattern of endemic disease. Each agent is listed by its international nonproprietary name (INN), is accompanied by substitutions and complementary drugs, and is described by its route of administration, dosage form and strength. Listings are by category and alphabetically.
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  3. 3
    205134

    The World Bank Population, Health and Nutrition Department, Policy and Research Division fiscal year 1986-1988 work program.

    World Bank. Population, Health and Nutrition Department

    [Unpublished] [1986]. iii, 9, 5 p.

    This note presents the work program of the Policy and Research Division of the World Bank Population, Health, and Nutrition Department for the fiscal years 1988. Although this note was prepared mainly for internal review purposes in the department and in the Bank, it has been circulated outside the Bank to increase awareness of the department policy and research activities. This note 1) lists department staff, 2) gives a brief overview of the department's work, 3) relates the history of the department, and 4) describes the department's activities by objectives. The department's objectives comprise 1) population, 2) population in Sub-Saharan Africa, 3) health, 4) pharmaceuticals, 5) nutrition, 6) intersectoral links, and 7) poverty alleviation. The principal population activities include work on the role of the private sector in family planning, incentives for small family size, cost-effective approaches to the delivery of family planning services, and a population lending review. Work on population in Sub-Saharan Africa centers on adolescent fertility and spatial population distribution. The work program in health reviews health financing and the cost-effectiveness of alternative health interventions. Research on pharmaceuticals examines a range of potential policy interventions on the demand and supply side. A nutrition paper is being prepared on the cost-effectiveness of nutrition interventions, especially as part of primary health care. Intersectoral issues include the links between population, health, and nutrition on one hand and other sectors, such as agriculture and education on the other hand. Work on poverty alleviation examines the extent to which population, health, and nutrition projects should reach out to poor client groups. Research activities in each of these 7 areas are described. An annex lists recent staff papers on these subjects.
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  4. 4
    037920

    How to estimate chloroquine requirements for the first time.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 1984 Oct. 14 p. (Logistics and Cold Chain for Primary Health Care 7; EPI/LOG/84/7)

    The objective of this module is to enable the users to estimate the 1st requirement for chloroquine tablets. This could be for a new health center or an existing center receiving chloroquine tablets for the 1st time. The 5 steps are as follows: estimate the size of the target population; estimate the incidence of malaria; estimate the coverage; decide on the standard treatment; and calculate the amount of chloroquine tablets needed for the 1st month's supply. Exercises are included.
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  5. 5
    037918

    The cold chain game.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 1984. 24 p. (Logistics and Cold Chain for Primary Health Care 12; EPI/LOG/84/12)

    This booklet is a guide for those who already have played the cold chain game, a game for teaching logistics for primary health care, and who want to organize their own game. The cold chain game was developed originally by the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) as a method of teaching people how to distribute vaccine effectively. In this booklet, the game has been adapted to teach how to distribute chloroquine tablets as well as vaccines. The cold chain game is designed for 5-10 people or 11-20 people depending on how it is organized. 2 or 3 supervisors are needed, one to direct the game and the others to assist the participants. The game's purpose is learning. The players learn by discovering the problems of trying to manage a cold chain and solving thse problems by themselves. The players take on the roles of cold chain workers, storekeepers, supervisors and learn the complex nature of these tasks. This booklet describes what the game is designed to teach, how to set up the game, how to run the game, and how to devise one's own cold chain game.
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  6. 6
    037913

    How to control quality of stocks.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 1985 Feb. 21 p. (Logistics and Cold Chain for Primary Health Care 5; EPI/LOG/84/5)

    This module provides instructions for controlling the quality of the supplies in a store and for distributing or dispensing supplies. The module advises the user on how to decide if a product (a condom, pill, or a vaccine) is still good to use. Simple tests can be performed to determine if a product is still good. These tests are described under the headings of: vaccines; oral rehydration salts (ORS) packets; maternal and child health supplies; essential drugs; and chloroquine. There are 4 ways of controlling the quality of vaccines: by regularly monitoring the storage temperature; by potency testing; by checking if it has been frozen; and by using a cold chain monitor. Vaccines should not be used if they have passed their expiration date; if they have been exposed to high temperatures; if a vial has been partly used in a previous session; if the cap on the vial is leaking or damaged; if the label has come off and the vaccine cannot be identified; if they have been to the field 2 or 3 times without being used; and if DPT, DT, or TT have been frozen. ORS in sealed laminated aluminum foil can be kept for about 3 years. If the content of ORS packets is brown, dark brown, or liquified, it should not be used. Tables provide information on when one's stock of maternal and child health items is still good to use and when to throw away drugs.
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  7. 7
    267341

    Primary health care bibliography and resource directory.

    Montague J; Montague S; Cebula D; Favin M

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Federation of Public Health Associations [WFPHA], 1984 Aug. vii, 78 p. (Information for Action)

    This bibliograph contains 4 parts. Part 1 is anannotated bibiography covering the following topics: an overview of health care in developing countries; planning and management of primary health care (PHC): manpower training and utilization; community participation and health education; delivery of health services, including nutrition, maternal and child health, family planning, medical and dental care; disease control, water and sanitation, and pharmaceutical; and auxiliary services, Part 2 is a reference directory covering periodicals directories, handbooks and catalogs, in PHC, as well as computerized information services, educational aids and training programs, (including audiovisual and other teaching aids), and procurement of supplies and pharmaceuticals. Also given are lists of international and private donor agencies, including development cooperation agencies, and directories of foundations and proposal writing. Parts 3 and 4 are the August 1984 updates of the original May 1982 edition of the bibliography.
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  8. 8
    025018

    Executive Board monitors progress towards health for all.

    Who Chronicle. 1984; 38(2):47-59.

    The 73rd session of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Executive Board met in January 1984 to review progress in implementing strategies for health for all by the year 2000, based on information emanating from the countries themselves. This monitoring function was assigned to the Board by the World Health Assembly in 1981 and calls for the Board to evaluate progress towards health for all at regular intervals and to report back to the Health Assembly. The 1st country reports together with comments of the regional committees and relevant information provided by theSecretariat were examined in November 1983 by the Board's Program Committee. Emphasis at this stage was placed on reviewing the relevance of national health policies to the attainment of health for all and the progress being made in implementing national strategies. Actual evaluation of the strategies will begin in 1985. As many of the country reports submitted were not as complete or as accurate as they could have been, the overall progress report submitted were not as complete or as accurate as they could have been, the overall progress report suffered from a lack of detailed and precise informattion on many important aspects that were crucial to national health for all strategies. Dr. Brandt, presenting the Program Committee's views, told the board that the report did indicate that a high level of political sensitization had occurred and that the political will to attain the goal of health for all existed in a large majorithy of the countries that had reported. The report indicated that to a large extent the Secretariat had met its responsibilities. It was the Member States that had to shoulder the responsibility and reaffirm their commitment by action. The Program Committee's progress report points to the existence of specific technical needs, particularly in national capability to carry out health policies. Among the areas requiring strengthening are information analysis and management, financial analysis, assessment of status of public information, competence in planning and management, effective involvement of relevant sectors in health, and measurement of intersectoral action for health. The Board urged Member States to give highest priority to the continuing monitoring and evaluation of their health for all strategies and to assume full responsibility for this process. In regard to the action program on essential drugs and vaccines, priority in the last 2 years has gone to training and manpower development, the dissemination of experience and information, cooperation in the procurement and production of essential drugs, technical cooperation among developing countries, and contracts with nongovernmental organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. During the far ranging discussion that ensued in the Executive Board, members addressed themselves in considerable detail to numerous aspects of the action program. The Board approved a new and carefully phased procedure for the review of substances to be recommended for international drug control.
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  9. 9
    019879

    Health for all by the year 2000: the countdown has begun.

    Roy BN

    Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 1983 Apr; 80(7-8):108-11.

    In 1977 the World Health Assembly launched the movement for "Health for all by the year 2000." The 1st step was taken at the International Conference on Primary Health Care in Alma Alta, USSR, in 1978. The conference declared that primary health care (PHC) was the key to realizing the goal of health for all by 2000. It also emphasized the need for urgent and effective national and international action to develop and implement a PHC program throughout the world. A general review of the progress in terms of the indicators will facilitate tracing the progress and realizing the magnitude of the tasks ahead. In terms of the 1st 2 indicators, the target has been endorsed at the highest official level by parliaments or governments in most countries and the mechanism has been strengthened in most of the developing countries to involve people in the implementation of the health development programs. The trouble begins with the 3rd indicator which requires countries to spend at least 5% of the gross national product (GNP) on health. For most of the developing countries where health development is inextricably linked with socioeconomic development, investing 5% of the GNP on health is difficult. It is almost an impossibility for the least developed countries (LDCs). The position of the developing countries like India, though somewhat better than that of the LDCs, is not very encouraging either. In India's 6th Plan the allocation on health as percentage of total allocation in the budget was 2.40 in 1978-79 and 2.10 in 1979-80. India's position with regard to the 4th global indicator, requiring that a reasonable percentage of national health expenditure be devoted to the local health care, is not yet satisfactory though considerable efforts have been made in this area. In regard to the 5th indicator, namely, equitable distribution of resources on various population groups or geographical areas, the desired standard has not been achieved. A most important indicator, indicator 7, set by the WHO for monitoring the progress of the global strategy is that PHC should be available to the entire population. About 361 million of India's rural population do not have adequate drinking water facilities and sanitation facilities. In respect to the drug requirement of indicator 7, only a few of the essential drugs of the 20 required, are available. About 50% of the children live in conditions of poverty, deprivation, and malnutrition, and about 40% of all deaths in the country occur among children below age 5 and 10% of all children born do not live to celebrate their 1st birthday. Despite the conditions, child care continues to receive low priority from the government of India. Nutrition programs have been launched, but most of these programs have only touched on the problem.
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