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The global partnership for development: A review of MDG 8 and proposals for the post-2015 development agenda.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2013 Jul.  p. (CGD Policy Paper No. 026)The eighth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 8) covered a ‘global partnership for development’ in areas including aid, trade, debt relief, drugs and ICTs. We have seen progress as well as gaps in the areas which were covered: more aid, but with quality lagging and a link to progress in MDG areas that was weak; a better rich world performance on tariffs but one that misses increasingly important parts of trade; broadly successful debt relief but an agenda on the support for private investment left uncovered; mixed progress on drugs access and absence of a broader global public health agenda; and a global ICT revolution with weak links to the MDGs or a global partnership. Migration, non-ICT technologies, the global environment, and global institutional issues were all completely unaddressed in MDG 8. Looking forward, by 2030, a global compact on development progress linking OECD DAC aid and policy reform to low income countries as target beneficiaries (the implicit model of MDG 8) would be irrelevant to three quarters of the world. Half of the rich world will be in non-DAC countries and the share of aid in global transfers will continue to shrink. Global public goods provision will increasingly require the active participation of (at least) the G20 nations. A post-2015 global partnership agenda should involve a mixed approach to compact and partnership issues: binding ‘global compact’ targets under specific post-2015 sectoral goals focused on the role for aid alongside a standalone global public goods goal with time bound, numerical targets covering trade, investment, migration, technology, the environment and global institutions.
Promoting access to medical technologies and innovation. Intersections between public health, intellectual property and trade.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2012.  p.Medical technologies -- medicines, vaccines and medical devices -- are essential for public health. Access to essential medicines and the lack of research to address neglected diseases have been a major concern for many years. More recently, the focus of health policy debate has broadened to consider how to promote innovation and how to ensure equitable access to all vital medical technologies. Today’s health policy-makers need a clear understanding both of the innovation processes that lead to new technologies and of the ways in which these technologies are disseminated in health systems. This study captures a broad range of experience and data in dealing with the interplay between intellectual property, trade rules and the dynamics of access to, and innovation in, medical technologies. The study is intended to inform ongoing technical cooperation activities undertaken by the three organizations (World Trade Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization and World Health Organization) and to support policy discussions. Based on many years of field experience in technical cooperation, the study has been prepared to serve the needs of policymakers who seek a comprehensive presentation of the full range of issues, as well as lawmakers, government officials, delegates to international organizations, non-governmental organizations and researchers.
Millennium Development Goal 8, The Global Partnership for Development: Time to deliver. MDG Gap Task Force Report 2011.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2011.  p.The objective of MDG 8 is to assist all developing countries in achieving the goals through a strengthened global partnership for international development cooperation. The present report describes how that partnership is producing significant results on many fronts, but notes that many important gaps between expectations and delivery remain. (Excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Sep; 84(9):685-764.The International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT) aims to put a stop to the deadly trade in fake drugs, which studies suggest kill thousands of people every year. "We need to help people become more aware of the growing market in counterfeit medicines and the public health risks associated with this illegal practice," said Dr Howard Zucker, Assistant Director-General for the Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals cluster of departments at WHO. The taskforce will encourage the public, distributors, pharmacists and hospital staff to inform the authorities about their suspicions regarding the authenticity of a drug or vaccine. In a parallel move, the taskforce will help governments crack down on corruption in the sections of their police forces and customs authorities charged with enforcing laws against drug counterfeiting. Drug manufacturers will be encouraged to make their products more difficult to fake. (excerpt)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1992; (823):i-vi, 1-134.The WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations reports that several national and regional drug regulatory authorities have adopted guidelines for good manufacturing practices for drugs similar to those recommended by the Committee. Annex 1 discusses these practices and makes up most of the Committee's 32nd report. The report also presents provisional guidelines on inspection of pharmaceutical manufacturers. It reviews the WHO Certification Scheme on the Quality of Pharmaceutical Products Moving in International Commerce. The Committee-endorsed scheme depends on a more effective exchange of information to more rigorously control all international trade of pharmaceuticals. Chapter 6 looks at the international pharmacopoeia and related activities, including quality specifications for drug substances and dosage forms, validation of analytical procedures, a simple test methodology, national laboratories for drug surveillance and control, and quality control of products derived from medicinal plants. The report discusses and lists the International Chemical Reference Substances and International Infrared Reference Spectra. it also addresses stability of dosage forms and extemporaneous preparations. Annex 4 presents guidelines to guarantee the quality of pharmaceutical and biological drugs prepared by recombinant DNA technology. Another annex looks at validation of analytical procedures used to examine pharmaceutical materials. The last annex discusses the protocol for a proposed study on the quality of some drugs at the point of use in developing countries. WHO has already asked Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Uganda, and Tanzania in Africa, Bangladesh and Myanmar in Asia, and Guatemala and Peru in the Americas to participate.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002; 80(9):762-763.This article reports that the 144 member countries of the World Trade Organization have approved another extension of the period during which least-developed countries can manufacture pharmaceuticals without paying royalties on their patents. There remains a highly contentious issue on the agenda for Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement: how to allow poor countries without manufacturing capacities of their own to import urgently needed patented drugs from countries with generic drug industries.
CONTRACEPTIVE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE. 1989 Jun; 10(6):77-81.Although generic oral contraceptives (OCs) are bioequivalent to brand-name formulations, many family planning professionals do not prescribe the significantly lower-priced generics. The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, for example, has refused to approve generic OCs for use in the organization's clinics, presumably because of concerns about their equivalent efficacy and safety. However, much of this skepticism may be fueled by misleading marketing by brand-name OC manufacturers. Sales representatives have reportedly told clinicians that generic OCs can be as much as 20% different from brand-name formulations, despite evidence collected by the US Food and Drug Administration confirming that there is virtually no difference except in terms of inert ingredients. In the case of many formulations, the variability between the generic and brand-name products is no different than the variability found between different lots of the same brand-name drug. Another obstacle to wider use of generic OCs is that discounts for large volume purchases make brand-name OCs the best buy for family planning clinics. Clinicians also note that clients complain of minor side effects whenever OC brands are changed, even if the compounds are the same. As the price of medication continues to rise, the more widespread availability of generic OCs will be especially important for teenagers and other low-income clients.
In: Shirley O, ed. A cry for health. Poverty and disability in the Third World. Frome, England, Third World Group for Disabled People, 1983. 73-8.Disability in developing countries is largely a social, political and economic disease, a symptom of underlying conditions of great injustice and inequality. The author asks to what extent do the multinational corporations (MNCs) sustain poverty and disability in developing countries. MNCs usually operate within environments where the emphasis in national development and growth is overwhelmingly on the security and prosperity of the relatively welathy minority. There is no international supervision over MNCs at all and control within the developing country tends to be weak since home governments have a vested interest in earning foreign exchange. Also, MNCs are extremely effective in making and marketing goods and in persuading people that these goods bring advantage to them. The multinational pharmaceutical industry represents concentrated capacity and wealth; just 10 companies control 25% of the world's total drug production while the top 110 companies control 90% of the total. By contrast, the average developing country represents concentrated incapacity and ill-health. There is distortion of national health priorities in many developing countries in that most of the drugs which are bought and sold are not essential. In addition, multinational drug companies usually observe lower standards in developing countries than elsewhere. An example is provided of the sale of Lomotil to control diarrhea in developing countries by G.D. Searle, a pharmaceutical manufacturer. Lomotil is an anti-diarrheal drug; it doesn't treat the condition that caused the diarrhea in the 1st place. It was found by the World Health Organization that this drug was not appropriate for the type of diarrhea found in developing countries, and a leaflet was produced by the US Food and Drug Administration to that effect.