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Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2017. 12 p.People who use and inject drugs are among the groups at highest risk of exposure to HIV, but remain marginalized and out of reach of health and social services.
Experiences from the field: HIV prevention among most at risk adolescents in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNICEF, Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, .  p.This document shares experiences in an effort to support programmers, policymakers, and donors to carry out and strengthen further programming among most-at-risk-adolescents (MARA) and other vulnerable adolescents in the Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States Region and beyond. It presents programming experiences from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine. The overarching goal of these programs has been to promote HIV prevention among MARA and to ensure their integration into national HIV / AIDS program strategies and monitoring and evaluation frameworks.
A situation analysis of the education sector response to HIV, drugs and sexual health in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Timor-Leste. Synthesis report.
Jakarta, Indonesia, UNESCO, 2012 Aug.  p.This is a synthesis of situation-response analyses (SRA) on the education sector's response to HIV, drugs, and sexual health undertaken in five countries. The five SRAs were developed in close consultation with the Ministry of Education of each country and in most cases have received official statements of endorsement from each respective ministry. The objectives of this synthesis report are to: Provide an overview of the current state of HIV and AIDS, drugs, and sexual health activities in the education sector in the five countries; Identify the policies, programs, and resources for HIV and AIDS, drugs, and sexual health education that are missing or weak in the education sector; Provide evidence-based information for future education sector HIV and AIDS, drugs, and sexual health education planning and prioritization; Make recommendations on where to properly allocate resources to support the missing or weak responses.
Consultation on strategic information and HIV prevention among most-at-risk adolescents. 2-4 September 2009, Geneva. Consultation report.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2010. 65 p.The Consultation on Strategic Information and HIV Prevention among Most-at-Risk Adolescents (MARA) focused on experiences in countries where HIV infection is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), and those who sell sex. The meeting facilitated the exchange of information across regions on country-level data collection regarding MARA; identified ways to use strategic information to improve HIV prevention among MARA; and suggested ways to build support for MARA programming among decision-makers.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2008. 101 p.This publication shows how various parts of the United Nations system support youth development with a diverse range of programs covering all 15 priority areas of the World Programme of Action for Youth. Several of these priority areas relate to reproductive health and HIV, and numerous UN agencies include activities on these topics in their programming. This document includes illustrative activities for each agency, key publications, and contact information.
Manila, Philippines, World Health Organization [WHO], Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2007. 99 p.Inside Out contains resident education and staff training material primarily for use within drug treatment and rehabilitation centers. Inside Out is specifically written for this purpose: to assist staff and residents of closed settings to act in ways which help prevent the spread of HIV. It is about prevention, prevention, and more prevention. It focuses on providing those in compulsory drug treatment and rehabilitation centers with staff training and resident education materials that promote a harm reduction approach to HIV, both within the center and outside of it: hence the title - Inside Out. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Mar 3; 369(9563):720-721.In December, 2006, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) submitted to its governing board a paper on HIV/AIDS and security--a culmination of wide ranging UN discussions on this subject that began with the historic consideration of AIDS in the Security Council in 2000. The paper reprises frequently raised concerns--ie, that high AIDS-related mortality in the military will compromise security in highly affected countries, or that high costs of AIDS will sap public resources needed to ensure security. UNAIDS notes that such destabilisation has not yet occurred, but that "does not mean that… such a threat will not emerge". In such analyses, the effect of AIDS on military strength and public security overshadows what may be a substantially more important link between AIDS and security--ie, the effect of the unfettered pursuit of a public security agenda, including counterterrorism measures, on the lives of people who are most affected by, or vulnerable to, HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
Peddro. 2001 Dec; 106.The World Health Organization has developed a prevention kit to help educators to inform young people about AIDS risks and the abuse of psychoactive substances. This kit produced by the World Health Organization (WHO) was developed over a period of several years. The first version was brought out in 1995 and submitted for the approval of more than 700 professionals, including social workers and people working for associations in various countries. The WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence is now proposing a fully developed pedagogical tool designed to ensure that it can be widely distributed and easily understood by educators all over the world, whatever experience they may or may not have acquired in this field. Although the contents of the course are fairly general, there is also a handbook explaining how to adapt the way in which information is presented, depending on the specificities of the local context. (excerpt)
Peddro. 2001 Dec; 4.The world has been responding to HIV/AIDS for twenty years, and some universal lessons have been learned during that period. One is that effective AIDS responses have to start with the world as it is, not as we would like it to be. A second lesson is that blaming or castigating people at risk of HIV infection simply adds to the stigma, drives risky behaviour underground and fails to stop the spread of the epidemic. And a third lesson is that no matter how well-hidden it may be, HIV transmission via injecting drug use has been at least partly responsible for the epidemic nearly everywhere. Up to now, 114 countries have reported the occurrence of HIV infection among their drug injecting communities. Injecting drug use is either the main mode of transmission of HIV infection or one of the main modes in many countries in Asia, Latin America, Europe, and North America. Even in the epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, although the great bulk of HIV transmission is attributable to sex, injecting drug use is also a source of risk. Since sharing injecting equipment causes a great deal of contamination, this practice can be responsible for the unpredictable mushrooming of the epidemic. But the spread of HIV as the result of injecting drug use is never confined to the injecting drug users alone: injecting drug users also have sexual partners, and may also be mothers needing to protect their infants from HIV, and in many places the sex trade and drug abuse are closely associated. HIV transmission via injecting drug use therefore has the potential to kick-start much wider epidemics, such as that which occurred at the end of the 1980s in Thailand. (excerpt)
Condemned to death: thanks to the US-led drug war, AIDS is exploding among injection drug users. (Thailand).
Nation. 2004 Apr 26; 278(16): p..In addition to the obligatory red ribbons, the logo for the XV international AIDS Conference features three Asian elephants raising their trunks as if in welcome. The world's most important gathering of AIDS specialists will be held this July in Bangkok, a location chosen not only because Asia is thought to be the site of the next big wave of HIV infections but because Thailand is one of only a few developing countries that have thus far seemed able to control them. International experts have hailed Thailand's 100 percent condom program, which in the 1990s distributed some 60 million condoms for free sex establishments, engaged brothel owners and government officials alike to make sure they were used and helped bring down rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections as much as fourfold. Thailand is also the first developing country to create a functional program to stop mother-to-child HIV transmission, providing free prenatal care and preventive medication to more than three-quarters of pregnant women testing positive for HIV. Last June Kofi Annan's praise of Thailand was one of the few bright spots in an otherwise grim report to the UN General Assembly on lack of global progress against AIDS. (excerpt)
Human Rights Commission: effects of irregular armed forces, drug traffickers, child abuse, protection of minorities - United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2): p..The Commission on Human Rights, at its forty-sixth session, covered a wide range of topics, including the consequences of actions by irregular armed forces and drug traffickers, child abuse, the rights of victims of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the protection of rights of many minorities, including indigenous populations and migrant workers. It also reviewed specific human rights situations in 14 countries and territories, including reports on initial missions to Iran and Romania by Special Representatives. UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar was asked to report in 1991 on the results of his ongoing contacts with Cuba regarding the human rights situation there. The 43 member body also dealt with alleged human rights violations in southern Africa, the Middle East and other regions. No action was taken on proposed drafts related to China and Iraq. A report on the situation in Myamnar (formerly Burma) was received. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23: p..The World Health Assembly at its thirty-ninth session (Geneva, 5-16 May) called for action to improve health strategies of developing countries and to combat drug abuse, tobacco use and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) eqidemic. Delegates representing most of the 166 member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) expressed support for the WHO "Global Strategy for Health for All by the Year 2000' and appealed to developed countries and international organizations and agencies to assist developing countries with their national health strategies. The appeal, contained in a resolution adopted on 15 May, was made in view of the "widespread economic crisis which had resulted in a fall in living standards in many countries and provoked serious unemployment and formidable austerity policies', which in some countries resulted in substantial cuts in health care. The crisis, particularly in developing countries, had been aggravated by the persistent rise in the foreign debt and deterioration of the balances of trade', and endangered the possibility of reaching the goal of health for all by the year 2000. (excerpt)
Economic and Social Council considers issues relating to human rights, women, drugs, homeless, southern Africa.
UN Chronicle. 1986 Aug; 23: p..Action by the 54-member Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1986 concerned a wide range of issues, including human rights, illicit drug traffic, the homeless, the status of women, crime control, racial discrimination, population, youth and the disabled. Particular situations relating to southern Africa, the Middle East and other areas of the world were also the focus of Council attention. The Council, in adopting 43 resolutions and 35 decisions during its four-week session (New York, 28 April-23 May), also reviewed matters relating to the International Year of Peace, being observed during 1986. Debate on some human rights situations and issues concerning southern Africa, including transnational corporations (TNCs) and mercenaries, resulted in votes reflecting opposing views. The Council condemmed collaboration by TNCs with South Africa in the nuclear, military and economic fields, and the increased recruitment, financing, training, assembly, transit and use of mercenaries to destabilize and overthrow certain African Governments. (excerpt)
Rights of older persons backed by Economic and Social Council. Acts on human rights, women, drugs, and other social issues.
UN Chronicle. 1991 Sep; 28(3): p..Older persons have the right to make decisions about their care and quality of life, and should be able to reside at home as long as possible and remain integrated in society, according to a draft set of Principles for Older Persons, recommended for adoption by the General Assembly. In a resolution adopted by the Economic and Social Council at its first regular session of 1991, Governments will be asked to incorporate the Principles to their national programmes. The Principles are based on the International Plan of Action on Ageing, adopted by the World Assembly on Ageing convened by the UN in Vienna in 1982. The Council adopted 109 texts 49 resolutions and 60 decisions-at the session. Many had been recommended by its subsidiary bodies, including the Commission on Human Rights, the Commission for Social Development, the Commission on the Status of Women and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Jul 2; 366(9479):1.Last week, WHO distributed to all European ministries of health one of the most important documents on prison health ever published. The report, Status Paper on Prisons, Drugs and Harm Reduction, brings together the wealth of evidence that shows that infectious disease transmission in prisons can be prevented and even reversed by simple, safe, and cheap harm-reduction strategies. Perhaps most importantly, the paper affirms WHO’s commitment to harm reduction, despite opposition from many governments who view such approaches as a tacit endorsement of illegal behaviour. The public-health case for action is strong, but political commitment to this method of combating health problems in prisons remains elusive. Indeed, health problems in prisons are numerous. Prisoners are often from the poorest sectors of society and consequently already suffer from health inequalities. Being in prison commonly exacerbates existing health problems—incarcerating anyone, especially vulnerable groups such as drug users and those with mental illness, has serious health and social consequences. (excerpt)
New York, New York, Human Rights Watch, 2005 Feb-Mar. (1) 2 p.The Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) is the central agency in the United Nations system responsible for setting international drug policy. At its 48th session from March 7-14, 2005 in Vienna, the Commission will focus on HIV/AIDS. This year the U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) chairs the consortium of U.N. agencies that makes up the Joint U.N. Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), making the Commission’s focus on HIV/AIDS particularly timely. Of the approximately five million new HIV infections in 2004, an estimated 10 percent stemmed from injection drug use. In some countries, such as Russia, injection drug use accounts for up to 75 percent of reported HIV cases. HIV/AIDS among injection drug users is spread chiefly through the sharing of blood-contaminated syringes. This makes it critically important for drug users to have access to noninjected drug opiate substitutes (such as methadone and buprenorphine), as well as sterile injection equipment, until such time as they can stop using drugs. This is especially true given the chronic and relapsing nature of drug addiction and the worldwide scarcity of effective drug treatment. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of HIV / AIDS, 2005.  p.The epidemic of HIV infection and AIDS among injecting drug users (IDUs) and its spread from IDU populations to their sexual partners and the wider community is an important but often neglected aspect of the global AIDS pandemic. This neglect has resulted from: ignorance of the existence or extent of the epidemic; cultural, social and political constraints on the development of responses; and prejudice against people engaged in illegal behaviour such as drug use. Nevertheless, the major reasons these epidemics are so often neglected are the lack of understanding of the importance of controlling the epidemic, ignorance of effective methods for controlling the epidemic and a lack of knowledge about how to develop effective responses. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2005 May; 5:262.US objections to harm-reduction drug policies to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS appeared to have been bowed to, at least partly, by the UN after the 48th session of the UN’s main drug policy-making body, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), held in Vienna in March. The annual CND meeting sets international drug-combating priorities, but this year was overshadowed by an ideological clash between the USA and countries that support harm-reduction approaches such as needle exchange. The USA has adopted a hardline opposition to needle exchanges and harm-reduction programmes as a way of combating drug abuse and HIV infection—it is the only country in the world to explicitly ban the use of federal funds for needle exhange—while the other countries, including much of the EU and Latin America, have stood firmly behind them. (excerpt)
Bangkok, Thailand, UNAIDS, Asia Pacific Intercountry Team, 2000 Oct. 236 p.Drug use in Asian countries continues to increase and new and ever more hazardous and harmful drug use patterns are continuing to emerge. Many use multiple substances, inject in preference to smoking, ‘chasing’ or snorting, share needles, syringes, drug paraphernalia and drug solutions and preparations indiscriminately, and use alcohol and other psychoactive drugs excessively. These drug use behaviours occur in the context of countries in Asia, which are highly affected by HIV/AIDS. The present study was commissioned by the UNAIDS Asia Pacific Inter-country Team, Bangkok, to follow upon the report ‘Situation Assessment of Injecting Drug use in South East and East Asia in the context of HIV’ which was conducted by the Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN) in 1997. The situation assessment indicated that urgent action is needed to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS among drug users and their sexual partners. (excerpt)
International responses to drug abuse among young people: assessing the integration of human rights obligations.
Boston, Massachusetts, Harvard School of Public Health, François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, 2000. 15 p.Drug use and abuse among young people is increasing worldwide. Young people are starting to take drugs at younger ages and report use of a wide variety of drugs including heroin, cocaine and amphetamines. It is estimated that the entire illicit drug industry is worth US$500 billion per year, dwarfing the US$62 billion spent on development assistance per year. The health impacts of drug abuse are evident: dependency, addiction, overdose and sometimes death. The goal of this paper is to highlight the intersection of health and human rights with respect to drug abuse among young people. The paper argues two points. The first is that the failure of governments to respect, protect and fulfill human rights leads to less effective prevention drug abuse as well as to less effective treatment of drug abusers. The second point, which comprises the bulk of this paper, is that the international community, and international drug control bodies in particular, because of their focus on drug supply reduction, are in large part responsible for States’ human rights violations against young people who use and abuse drugs, as well those who are vulnerable to drug abuse. The paper is divided into four sections. The first will discuss why drug abuse is a human rights issue. The second will provide readers with some definitions that are central to this topic. The paper will then explore international responses to drug prevention and abuse among young people and suggest how governmental responses are shaped by international responses. The last section will provide the reader with recommendations for how the international response to drug abuse could be more effective in terms of the integration of human rights principles and obligations. (excerpt)
Prevention of HIV / AIDS and Drug Abuse. Final report of the regional workshop, Beijing, 25-29 August 1997.
[Unpublished] 1997.  p.This is a report of the Workshop on "Prevention of HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse through Quality Improvement of Curriculum and Teaching/Learning Materials in Asia and the Pacific" held from 25 to 29 August 1997, in Beijing, China. The Regional Strategy, which is considered the most important outcome of the Workshop, is published in a separate document. The Regional Strategy aims to inform policy on "Preventive Education against HIV/AIDS" in the school setting. Participants to the Workshop were from several Asian countries-China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand and representatives of several organizations, e.g. the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization Regional Tropical Medicine and Public Health Network (SEAMEO-TROPMED); UNDCP and UNESCO Bangkok and Jakarta. In total twenty-two (22) participants and one (1) resource person were present at the workshop. The involvement of UNDCP represents a deliberate strategy to coordinate and streamline activities of common interest across HIV/AIDS and drug use prevention issues. The workshop outcomes are: the Situation Analysis on Preventive Education Against HIV/AIDS in seven countries; the identification of 'best practice' from the region; the formulation of a regional strategy framework and the regional and country plans for follow-up actions. According to the participants, this project is a 'milestone' on preventive education, because in addition to the professional outcomes it has a value-added component which has encouraged the desire to mobilize resources and expertise among partners. The participatory process of the workshop created strong teamwork and encouraged motivation for further work. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2002.  p. (UNICEF Fact Sheet)The world’s young people are threatened by HIV/AIDS. Of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS, more than a quarter are aged 15 to 24. Half of all new infections now occur in young people. Young people are a vital factor in halting the spread of HIV/AIDS, and many of them are playing a significant role in the fight against it. But they, and children on the brink of adolescence, urgently need the skills, knowledge and services to protect themselves against becoming infected with HIV. (excerpt)
The new lepers. HIV-positive people are treated as social outcasts while the government fails to cope.
London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting [IWPR], 2003 Aug 8. 3 p. (Belarus Reporting Service No. 28)More and more people in Belarus are finding themselves in her position – 50 or 60 new HIV cases are recorded every month. At the beginning of August, the number of people carrying the virus reached 5,150, and experts fear that the figure will be more than double that in 2005. More worryingly, some say the recorded figures should be multiplied by a factor of three or more since they fail to capture drug users who have not been seen by the health authorities. Although HIV and AIDS are advancing rapidly, neither the government nor society in general appear able to come to terms with it. A survey conducted jointly by the United Nations and the Centre for Sociological and Political Research in Minsk found that three quarters of the people polled thought people with HIV should not be allowed to care for their own children, and more than 40 per cent said they should not be allowed to travel around the country or choose where they want to live. (excerpt)
Best infection control practices for intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular needle injections. [Pour de meilleures pratiques de surveillance des infections dans le cas des aiguilles à injections intradermiques, sous-cutanées et intramusculaires]
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003 Jul; 81(7):491-500.Objective: To draw up evidence-based guidelines to make injections safer. Methods: A development group summarized evidence-based best practices for preventing injection-associated infections in resource-limited settings. The development process included a breakdown of the WHO reference definition of a safe injection into a list of potentially critical steps, a review of the literature for each of these steps, the formulation of best practices, and the submission of the draft document to peer review. Findings: Eliminating unnecessary injections is the highest priority in preventing injection-associated infections. However, when intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular injections are medically indicated, best infection control practices include the use of sterile injection equipment, the prevention of contamination of injection equipment and medication, the prevention of needle-stick injuries to the provider, and the prevention of access to used needles. Conclusion: The availability of best infection control practices for intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular injections will provide a reference for global efforts to achieve the goal of safe and appropriate use of injections. WHO will revise the best practices five years after initial development, i.e. in 2005. (author's)
New York Times. 2003 Feb 8;  p..In this gritty township [Khayelitsha] near Cape Town, the relief agency Doctors Without Borders provides free triple-therapy treatment to about 330 people and reports remarkable results, Doctors treat even the sickest of the sick, patients who can barely walk or swallow. After six months of treatment, most people show dramatic improvements, gaining as much as 20 pounds and the strength to fight off killer diseases. (excerpt)