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  1. 1

    Promises to keep: achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women. Background paper of the Task Force on Education and Gender Equality.

    Grown C; Gupta GR; Khan Z

    [New York, New York], United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Millennium Project, 2003 Apr 18. [55] p.

    The purpose of the paper is to review progress countries have made in reaching this goal and to suggest recommendations to hasten progress. The paper has four key messages: First, the current MDG gender equality target and indicators do not capture all the major components of gender equality. The paper proposes three domains of gender equality: capability (basic human abilities as measured by education, health and nutrition), opportunity (access to assets, income, and employment), and agency (the ability to make choices that can alter outcomes) and suggests new targets and indicators to augment the ones proposed by U.N. member states. Second, each of these domains is amenable to policy intervention: “capabilities” can be addressed in large part through existing initiatives in health, education, and other sectors; “opportunities” requires some fundamental changes in the economic order; and “agency” is possible through electoral quotas, legislation on violence against women, and other measures. Third, internationally-funded initiatives (such as Education for All), conventions (such as the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women), and other mechanisms (the ILO Decent Work Agenda) that currently exist provide reasonable frameworks for achieving gender equality. These should be complemented by a new international campaign for zero tolerance for violence against women. Finally, the paper urges the international community to translate rhetoric to action by improving the availability and quality of sex-disaggregated data, increasing financial and technical resources for agencies dedicated to promoting the status of women, and enhancing political commitment at the highest levels to end gender inequality and empower women. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Assessing changes in vaginal bleeding patterns in contracepting women.

    Machin D; Farley TM; Busca B; Campbell MJ; d'Arcangues C

    CONTRACEPTION. 1988 Aug; 38(2):165-79.

    Researchers recruited 1216 females to study changes in amenorrhea patterns with successive injections of the long acting injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). The women received an injection of either 100 mg or 150 mg DMPA on the day of randomization and 3 additional injections at 90 day intervals. 1151 (94.7%) women completed a menstrual diary that could be used, but only diaries of at least 60 days were considered in each reference period (90 days). Of the 99 who received only 1 100mg injection, 23 had amenorrhea. Of the 361 receiving 4 injections, 142 experienced no amenorrhea in any of the injection intervals and 30 had amenorrhea in all 4 intervals. Overall 281 women out of 576 who received 1-4 injections of 100 mg DMPA did not experience amenorrhea at all. For those in the 150 mg sample receiving 1-4 injections, 237 out of 575 women did not have amenorrhea. Analysis of change over time suggested an increase incidence of amenorrhea following the 2nd injection. In terms of the probability of a woman accepting a injection, women who experienced amenorrhea with the 1st injection were less likely to accept a 2nd, especially in the 150 mg DMPA group. Additionally, the trend in amenorrhea pattern demonstrated that a 3rd injection was adversely affected by amenorrhea in the 2nd injection interval in the 150 mg group but not the 100 mg group. Nevertheless, the decision to have a 4th injection appeared adversely affected by amenorrhea in the 3rd injection interval in both groups. The conditional probabilities used in this research can also be applied to examine continuation or survival rates in a follow-up study based on any prognostic factors.
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