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Strengthening health systems to respond to women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence: a manual for health managers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 172 p.This manual is intended for health managers at all levels of the health systems. The manual is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines, 2013. Those guidelines inform this manual and its companion clinical handbook for healthcare providers, Health care for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence, 2014. The manual draws on the WHO health systems building blocks as outlined in Everybody’s business: strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action..
Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women. WHO clinical and policy guidelines.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2013. 68 p.A health-care provider is likely to be the first professional contact for survivors of intimate partner violence or sexual assault. Evidence suggests that women who have been subjected to violence seek health care more often than non-abused women, even if they do not disclose the associated violence. They also identify health-care providers as the professionals they would most trust with disclosure of abuse. These guidelines are an unprecedented effort to equip healthcare providers with evidence-based guidance as to how to respond to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women. They also provide advice for policy makers, encouraging better coordination and funding of services, and greater attention to responding to sexual violence and partner violence within training programmes for health care providers. The guidelines are based on systematic reviews of the evidence, and cover: 1) identification and clinical care for intimate partner violence; 2) clinical care for sexual assault; 3) training relating to intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women; 4) policy and programmatic approaches to delivering services; and 5) mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence. The guidelines aim to raise awareness of violence against women among health-care providers and policy-makers, so that they better understand the need for an appropriate health-sector response. They provide standards that can form the basis for national guidelines, and for integrating these issues into health-care provider education.
WPA International Competency-Based Curriculum for Mental Health Providers on Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence Against Women.
World Psychiatry. 2017 Jun; 16(2):223-224.Add to my documents.
Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, World Bank, 2013 Jun. 19 p.In Africa, women are subjected to discriminatory practices that keep them in a vulnerable situation. Their limited access to land, in a continent where the majority of the population depends on agriculture, reduces their access to credit and their capacity to undertake sustainable economic activities to generate income. They hold only 18 percent of agricultural lands and are not better off in administrations. In Cote d'Ivoire, the woman remains marginalized, with a status that is increasingly weakened today by the socio-political situation. Data from the National Statistics Institute highlight their extreme poverty: 75 percent of rural women are living below the poverty line. And they are often deprived of basic social services. Some socio-cultural factors perpetuate traditions that are harmful to girls and women. This report is the culmination of the process initiated by the World Bank as part of the establishment of its program of strengthening the role of women in Ivorian society. It reports summary proposals from the various consultations held both nationally and regionally. Designed in a participatory and decentralized approach, these consultations have made it possible to gather factual and contextual data on the four (04) themes selected for the workshops, as well as proposals that, if translated into actions, would help develop an action plan. This is, and it must be stressed, a study that has the merit of giving the floor directly to hundreds of Ivorian women from all socio-professional categories to develop themselves a roadmap based on their own daily experiences.
[Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2008 Jan. 4 p. (en breve No. 114)In 2001, after a long period of recession, Argentina faced the greatest economic, political and institutional crisis in its history. Unemployment reached levels nearing 18% and the poverty rate reached a peak of 58% in 2002, increasing twofold the number of people living below the poverty line and impacting –in a disproportionate manner- the most vulnerable and poverty stricken families. The crisis also had a tremendous impact on Argentina’s middle-class. Increased unemployment and the freezing of wages and bank deposits forced many families to face poverty for the first time, and to seek new survival strategies. The crisis caused the rupture of traditional roles within the household, forcing many women into the workforce, many young people to leave school in search of a job, and many tradtional breadwinners to remain at home. In many cases, these changes challenged not just the economic viability of households but the role of families. Recognizing the potential impact of the situation, the Government of Argentina approached the World Bank for a small loan ($5 million), aimed at promoting gender equity and the development of families through the Family Strengthening and Social Capital Promotion Project (PROFAM). (excerpt)
World Bank Group gender strategy (FY16-23) : gender equality, poverty reduction and inclusive growth.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2015 98 p.By many measures, 2015 marks a watershed year in the international community's efforts to advance gender equality. In September, with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), UN Member States committed to a renewed and more ambitious framework for development. This agenda, with a deadline of 2030, emphasizes inclusion not just as an end in and of itself but as critical to development effectiveness. At the center of this agenda is the achievement of gender equality and empowerment of all women and girls (SDG 5). In addition to governments, the private sector is increasingly committed to reducing gaps between men and women not just because it is the right thing to do, but because it makes business sense. Gender equality is also central to the World Bank Group’s own goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in a sustainable manner. No society can develop sustainably without transforming the distribution of opportunities, resources and choices for males and females so that they have equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. Promoting gender equality is smart development policy.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2008 Sep; 102(3):223-225.The editors of Contemporary Issues in Women's Health solicited reporters and correspondents from throughout the world to make contributions to this feature. Items submitted were stories on breastfeeding, FGM, Saudi women and ban on female drivers, and useful sources for women's health information.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 2008 Jun; 34(2):98.Physical and sexual intimate partner violence may have lasting effects on a woman's health, according to a recent multicountry study by the World Health Organization. Compared with women who had never been abused, those who had suffered intimate partner violence had 60% greater odds of being in poor or very poor health, and about twice the odds of having had various health problems, such as memory loss and difficulty walking, in the past four weeks. (excerpt)
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/52)Reaffirming that discrimination on the basis of sex is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments, and that its elimination is an integral part of efforts towards the elimination of violence against women. Reaffirming the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993. Recalling all its previous resolutions on the elimination of violence against women, in particular its resolution 1994/45 of 4 March 1994, in which it decided to appoint a special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. Noting all General Assembly resolutions relevant to elimination of violence against women. Welcoming the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted in September 1995 by the Fourth World Conference on Women (A/CONF.177/20, chap. I), follow-up action by the Commission on the Status of Women on violence against women and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled "Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century". (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1034.The association between domestic violence and the first five Millennium Development Goals is bidirectional. Violence has a negative effect on efforts to alleviate poverty (MDG 1), and poverty has been shown to increase the likelihood of violence. Similarly, education, women's empowerment, child mortality, and maternal health are all linked to domestic violence. Simwaka and colleagues discussed the association between women's empowerment and violence against women and poor access and control over resources, and recommended putting gender issues in the African agenda to achieve MDG 5. Hence, monitoring the progress in preventing violence should not be separated from monitoring the development process in developing countries. Other challenges such as discrimination, inequity, extremism, religious fanaticism, human rights violations, and the faded democracy process have hampered efforts to combat violence in these countries. Ammar stated that "Egypt would be able to combat public violence (eg, terrorism) better if it addresses co-occurrence of spousal and child abuse than by changing its school curriculum". Moreover, we will not be able to estimate properly the magnitude of domestic violence if its economic costs are not investigated. Therefore, the growing political will to take action against violence is not enough in itself, especially when women feel that spousal abuse is justified and when judges and lawyers are part of a culture that tolerates violence against women. (full text)
Human Rights Dialogue. 2003 Fall; (10):14-15.Historically, the popular understanding of torture has helped to maintain a gender-biased image of the torture victim: it is the male who pervades the political and public sphere and thus it is the male who is likely to be targeted by state violence and repression. Such an image, however, neglects women's experiences as victims and survivors of torture. Until recently, women's human rights organizations often did not pursue women's issues within the framework of the mainstream human rights treaties but instead concentrated on CEDAW. While this tendency is logical--CEDAW is an important and effective instrument for ensuring specifically women's rights--it is equally important to draw on the strengths of other human rights tools. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2007. 31 p.This report, the third of its kind, reviews the progress that has been made in the field of violence prevention since the October 2002 launch of the World report on violence and health and the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention. More importantly, it sets out what the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners can do over the next 5 years to expand violence prevention programming and to demonstrate, in terms of lives saved lives and suffering averted, the impact of violence prevention. Violence is a major obstacle to health and development, but as Nelson Mandela said in the foreword to the World report on violence and health, "Violence can be prevented. Violent cultures can be turned around ... Governments, communities and individuals can make a difference". As well as increased awareness that violence is preventable, notable achievements of the first 5 years of the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention detailed here include consolidating and disseminating normative guidance on how to prevent violence; carving a niche within government health ministries for focal persons to promote violence prevention; and taking stock of the scale and nature of the violence problem and the responses to it. At the individual level, tens of thousands of people in scores of countries have been touched by violence prevention programmes and thousands of victims have been helped to cope with the aftermath of their experience through services established as part of the Global Campaign for Violence Prevention. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005 Mar. 30 p.The Millennium Project Report identifies the mounting of vigorous campaigns to combat violence against women as a possible "quick win" action that should be taken to accelerate achievement of the MDGs. The goal is to mobilize leadership at the national, regional and global levels to make violence unacceptable. The Network of African Women Ministers and Parliamentarians has made a commitment to combating gender-based violence (GBV) by taking the lead in developing innovative interventions including: drafting and lobbying for appropriate legislation; raising awareness through advocacy; building partnership by enhancing national, regional and international networks; and raising community awareness about gender-based violence. This kit is a contribution to the realization of the Network's goal. It is a tool whose aim is to outline the problem of gender-based violence, elaborate its linkages to poverty, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS and conflict, and discuss its impact on a nation's development. The kit refers to international commitments made by governments combined with other regional and international instruments, which they can use to mount national campaigns to halt gender-based violence in all its forms. It is designed to serve as a basis for advocacy work, and as a tool to assist policy and decision makers to contribute to the achievement of the MDGs. (excerpt)
Forced Migration Review. 2007 Jan; (27):48-49.Conflict and massive population movements in Burundi have resulted in dramatic increases in rape and other forms of sexual violence. Alarm about the high incidence of sexual violence against Burundian women was first sounded during the 1993-2003 civil war when large numbers of rebels and Burundian armed forces occupied villages and towns. Peace accords were finally signed in 2003, and general elections held in 2005, but Burundian women and girls continue to suffer high levels of sexual violence. In postconflict Burundi, the influx of returning refugees and displaced persons, the presence of large numbers of demobilised excombatants, the high prevalence of female-headed households, widespread lack of economic opportunity and general breakdown in social norms all contribute to increased levels of sexual violence. (excerpt)
WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women. Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women's responses. Summary report.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 205.  p.The WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women is a landmark research project, both in its scope and in how it was carried out. For the results presented in this report, specially trained teams collected data from over 24 000 women from 15 sites in 10 countries representing diverse cultural settings: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, Thailand, and the United Republic of Tanzania. The use of a standardized and robust methodology has substantially reduced many of the difficulties that affected earlier work on violence against women, and produced results that permit comparison and analyses across settings. Other strengths of the study include the multinational participatory method used to develop the research protocol and questionnaire, the involvement of women's organizations in the research teams, the attention to addressing ethical and safety considerations, and the emphasis on careful selection and training of interviewers and on capacity building of all members of the research teams. Another important feature was the Study's link with policy processes, achieved through the cooperation of members of the research team with policy-making bodies on violence, and the involvement of consultative committees that included key stakeholders at the country level. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and a gender perspective: violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Mission to the Russian Federation.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2006 Jan 26. 27 p. (E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.2)The present report contains the findings of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, of her visit to the Russian Federation from 17 to 24 December 2004. It addresses violence related to the prevailing insecurity in the North Caucasus and domestic violence in the Federation at large, and identifies key measures and initiatives needed to protect and promote women's rights and eliminate violence against women. The Soviet legacy and the recent transition to a market economy are important elements that have shaped the current patterns of human rights violations of women in the Federation. Although the 1993 Constitution ensures the equal rights of women and men and Russia is party to many of the human rights instruments, including the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and its optional protocol, women disproportionately endure the adverse impact of the transition process. Together with the upsurge of patriarchal values, transition has resulted in a general loss of status for women and increased the risk of multiple forms of violence in public and private spheres. Women in the North Caucasus bear the additional burden of the multifaceted hardships in the region. The lack of a domestic legislation on violence, gender biases in particular in law enforcement and the judiciary, difficulties in accessing subsidized housing, residency registration practices, insufficient shelters for victims of violence as well as the extraordinary circumstances in the North Caucasus are among the factors that hinder women's access to justice in the Federation. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2006 Oct 21; 333(7573):822.A United Nations report on violence against children says that each year more than 50 000 children are killed as a result of homicide. Millions are subjected to physical and psychological abuse, discrimination, neglect, maltreatment, and sexual exploitation. The report says, however, that much of this violence "remains hidden" or unreported and asserts that its figures underestimate the problem. Nevertheless the data assembled by the independent expert, Sérgio Pinheiro, who founded the Center for the Study of Violence at the University of São Paulo, show that the problem is widespread and pervasive. World Health Organization figures that are based on limited country level data show that "almost 53 000 children died worldwide in 2002 as a result of homicide," the report says. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, .  p. (What's Real. Issue No. 2)Violence against women is a global health crisis of epidemic proportions and often a cause and consequence of HIV. Violence and the threat of violence dramatically increase the vulnerability of women and girls to HIV by making it difficult or impossible for women to abstain from sex, to get their partners to be faithful, or to use a condom. Violence is also a barrier for women in accessing HIV prevention, care, and treatment services. That is why the UNAIDS-led Global Coalition on Women and AIDS has made stopping violence against women a top priority. (excerpt)
Suffering in silence: a study of sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) in Pabbo camp, Gulu district, northern Uganda.
Gulu, Uganda, Gulu District Sub Working Group on SGBV, 2005 Jan.  p.The study looks at the nature, causes and effects as well as the current interventions related to SGBV in Pabbo IDP camp. The purpose of the study was to generate information to enable the Sub Committee on Sexual and Gender-Based Violence to identify needs of the people in Pabbo camp and inform future interventions. The Gulu District Sub-Committee on Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) Group chaired by the District Community Service Department and co-chaired by UNICEF, commissioned the study. The research was conducted in Pabbo IDP camp between the 6th and 25th September 2004. (excerpt)
Connections. 2006 Feb;  p.When most people think of the women they care about--their mothers, wives, sisters, or friends--they don't generally associate them with violence. The sad reality for an estimated one out of every six women worldwide, however, is that they will suffer physical or sexual abuse at the hands of an intimate partner at least once in their lifetime. According to a recent report issued by the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of women who have been victims of domestic violence ranges from 29 to 62 percent in most nations, developed and developing alike. This staggering statistic is a sad testament to the widespread and undiscriminating nature of intimate partner violence the world over. Some 24,000 women from both rural and urban areas in 10 countries--Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Samoa, Serbia and Montenegro, Tanzania, and Thailand--were interviewed for this global survey, which was conducted in collaboration with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, PATH, and national research institutions in the participating countries. According to the resulting report-- WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women--evidence of physical or sexual violence ranging from 15 percent of women in Japan to 71 percent in rural Ethiopia exists in each of these nations. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 Feb; 24: p..The General Assembly on 4 December called on Member States to approve, as a matter of priority, effective measures to implement the Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, adopted in July 1985 at the Nairobi Conference on the United Nations Decade for Women (1976-1985). The measures, it stated, should include establishment or strengthening of appropriate mechanisms for the advancement of women and for implementation of the Strategies, in order to ensure the full integration of women in the political, economic, social and cultural life of their countries. The Assembly acted by adopting resolution 41/110 on the role of women in society without a vote. Governments and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations were asked to pay due attention to the role of women in society "in all its interrelated aspects - as mothers, as participants in the economic development process and as participants in public life". (excerpt)
Violence against women: ringing the alarm to awake the conscience of society - includes related article on famous athletes' panel discussion of domestic violence - Fourth World Conference on Women - Cover story.
UN Chronicle. 1995 Jun; 32(2): p..Women have also been the victims of the ethnic, religious, communal and political conflicts which have marked the end of the cold war. According to a European Union fact-finding team, 20,000 women were raped in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the first months of the war in the former Yugoslavia. Many women abused in wars are from the most marginalized and vulnerable sectors of society, such as indigenous, refugee or displaced women. Yet, most women who are terrorized and assaulted during wars take no active part in the conflict. And the participation of women in decision-making for the resolution of these wars is lower than in any other area. The Secretary-General has therefore concluded in a recent report that women must be given "more say in decisions related to war or peace; reconciliation or violence, which would allow them to contribute to preventing such tragedies rather than becoming their victims". (excerpt)
Draft declarations against violence approved by Commission - United Nations Commission on the Status of Women - includes related article on the rights of married women.
UN Chronicle. 1993 Jun; 30(2): p..A draft declaration on the elimination of violence against women was unanimously approved by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-seventh session (17-26 March, Vienna). It was among 13 resolutions approved by the 45-member Commission on issues ranging from women's role in development to preparations for the 1995 World Conference on Women. The non-binding declaration, which is to be submitted to the forty-eighth General Assembly for adoption later this year, states that violence against women is an obstacle to the achievement of equality, development and peace--the three main goals of the UN to advance the status of women. It contains a comprehensive definition of violence against women and identifies the responsibilities of States and organizations in applying remedial measures. That definition includes physical and psychological violence within the family, marital rape and female genital mutilation, as well as sexual harassment and intimidation at work and in schools. States are called on not to "invoke any custom, tradition or religious or other consideration" to avoid their obligations to implement the declaration. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Apr. 40 p.The objective of this study is to present available empirical evidence obtained through household surveys in order to estimate the prevalence of child marriage and to identify and understand the factors associated with child marriage and cohabitation. The presentation of the empirical evidence and analysis is structured around the indicators presented previously. The term 'child marriage' will be used to refer to both formal marriages and informal unions in which a girl lives with a partner as if married before the age of 18. The report presents a global assessment of child marriage levels, differentials in child marriage rates according to socio-economic and demographic variables, characteristics of the union, and knowledge and access to sexual and reproductive health information and materials. Statistical associations between indicators can reveal potential linkages in programming to promote the delay of marriage and point to opportunities to integrate advocacy and behaviour-change campaigns toward the prevention of child marriage and a multivariate analysis allows for the illumination of the net effect of each variable. Anomalies to general trends are often highlighted in the text in order to direct programmers and researchers towards case examples that may require further study or circumstances that may provide models for eradication efforts. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 26; 331(7527):1228.Pregnancy is a dangerous time for women in some parts of the world, shows a study for the World Health Organization on domestic violence. Between 4% and 12% of pregnant women in rural areas of developing countries told investigators that they had been beaten up while expecting a baby. More than 90% of them said that they had been abused by the father of the unborn child, and between a quarter and half of them had been kicked or punched in the abdomen. The survey, by researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and WHO, involved interviews with 24 000 women from urban and rural areas in 10 countries. The study, which was also sponsored by the Washington based PATH (Program for Appropriate Technology in Health), was released this week in London and Geneva. The 10 countries in the survey were Tanzania, Serbia and Montenegro, Namibia, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Brazil, Thailand, Peru, Japan, and Samoa. (excerpt