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  1. 1
    065789

    Plan of action for the control of diarrheal diseases in the region of the Americas. Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Control of Diarrheal Diseases (ICC/CDD). Plan de accion para el control de las enfermedades diarreicas en la region de las Americas.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]; UNICEF; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    [Unpublished] [1990]. [3], 32, [3], 32 p.

    The American made remarkable strides in reducing diarrheal mortality and morbidity during the 1980s. All of the nations here had in place a control of diarrheal diseases (CDD) program or CDD activities by early 1989. 1 goal for CDD projects in the region included ORS availability to 80% of all children <5 years old. 17 nations even produced their own oral rehydration solution (ORS). This contributed to the fact that more countries proportionally produced ORS in the Americas than in any other region. Still diarrhea continued to be 1 of the 3 leading causes of death and illness in children <5 years old in most countries in the Americas. Accordingly an Interagency Coordinating Committee (ICC/CDD) Task Force composed of representatives from PAHO, UNICEF, and USAID formed in 1989 to develop a framework for the region and countries to follow in designing plans of action. Each country in the Americas should foster effective cooperation among all organizations involved in CDD activities within that country. If an interagency process, e.g., child survival programs, already exists, the country should include the CDD program into it. National ICC/CDDs should define policies and prepare the plan of action incorporating both technical and financial support from the public and private sectors. They must also coordinate CDD training activities, especially those emphasizing correct case management. Further they should concur on communication projects and coordinate message development and relations with the mass media. These committees must also recognize problems, develop solutions, foster research, and amend national CDD programs as needed. PAHO is the technical secretariat for the regional ICC/CDD which works to foster optimum cooperation among PAHO, UNICEF, and USAID thereby providing maximum assistance to these programs.
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  2. 2
    037653
    Peer Reviewed

    Primary health care and health education in Japan.

    Yamamoto M

    Social Science and Medicine. 1983; 17(19):1419-31.

    The Japanese level of health is one of the highest in the world, although the level is not uniform throughtout Japan. Preventive health care services are not integrated with medical care services. While efforts are being made in the health education subsystem of the primary health care services, organization is weak and funding and training of personnel are inadequate. Health specialists have failed to grasp the real meaning of primary health care, which includes the integration of services. Medical specialists also do not fully understand the idea of comprehensive primary health care. According to the Alma Ata Declaration, a conference sponsored by WHO and UNICEF in 1978, primary health care is to be responsive to sociocultural and political conditions and intimately tied to the development of other sectors of society. The recommendations of the Conference, to be achieved by 2000 are: 1) Primary health care must be linked with all other sectors of development; 2) Maldistribution of health services facilities and personnel must be overcome, so that care is truly accessible to all people; with the help of the community, disparities in health indices can be corrected; 3) Training and education is needed to develop a full understanding of primary health care among the politicians, the administrators, the opinion leaders and the public in general; 4) Training in health education should be a part of the basic training of health policy decision makers. Health education for the public should emphasize planning and organizational skills as well as more basic health education; 5) Training and education is needed to develop among medical specialists a respect for the work of allied health professionals, an awareness of the necessity of team work in primary health care, and a willingness to participate in team efforts; 6) Medical practitioners must help foster awareness of components of healthy living and encourage lay people to assume greater responsibility to the medical practitioners; 7) Paramount is the need for integration of medical care services and health care services at all levels. The Ministry of Health and Welfare has recently proposed special legislation which would integrate health activities and medical care for the aged. Tables and charts provide statistical summaries of mortality, causes of death, age structure projections, urban-rural residence, life expectancy, medical expenditures, clinical load for physicians, number of hospital beds, and staffing of health centers for Japan and selected comparisons to other Western Countries.
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  3. 3
    803173

    A discussion paper on the oral rehydration therapy component.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1980. 13 p.

    UNICEF and WHO are jointly sponsoring an education and supply program of oral rehydration therapy for the treatment of diarrheal diseases in developing countries. Studies on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of (ORS) oral rehydration salts have been conducted in many developing countries and have proven the worth of the therapy. The UNICEF/WHO program seeks to provide wide distribution and educational activities in these areas. General public health education will help the population in medical self help in the area of diarrheal diseases. For countries which have reached the appropriate state of program development, aid in establishing manufacturing facilities for ORS should be the next step. The UNICEF-supported program has plans for operation in at least 51 national programs. Tables present the level of UNICEF support which has already been provided in a great many countries, categorized by region.
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