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  1. 1
    037653
    Peer Reviewed

    Primary health care and health education in Japan.

    Yamamoto M

    Social Science and Medicine. 1983; 17(19):1419-31.

    The Japanese level of health is one of the highest in the world, although the level is not uniform throughtout Japan. Preventive health care services are not integrated with medical care services. While efforts are being made in the health education subsystem of the primary health care services, organization is weak and funding and training of personnel are inadequate. Health specialists have failed to grasp the real meaning of primary health care, which includes the integration of services. Medical specialists also do not fully understand the idea of comprehensive primary health care. According to the Alma Ata Declaration, a conference sponsored by WHO and UNICEF in 1978, primary health care is to be responsive to sociocultural and political conditions and intimately tied to the development of other sectors of society. The recommendations of the Conference, to be achieved by 2000 are: 1) Primary health care must be linked with all other sectors of development; 2) Maldistribution of health services facilities and personnel must be overcome, so that care is truly accessible to all people; with the help of the community, disparities in health indices can be corrected; 3) Training and education is needed to develop a full understanding of primary health care among the politicians, the administrators, the opinion leaders and the public in general; 4) Training in health education should be a part of the basic training of health policy decision makers. Health education for the public should emphasize planning and organizational skills as well as more basic health education; 5) Training and education is needed to develop among medical specialists a respect for the work of allied health professionals, an awareness of the necessity of team work in primary health care, and a willingness to participate in team efforts; 6) Medical practitioners must help foster awareness of components of healthy living and encourage lay people to assume greater responsibility to the medical practitioners; 7) Paramount is the need for integration of medical care services and health care services at all levels. The Ministry of Health and Welfare has recently proposed special legislation which would integrate health activities and medical care for the aged. Tables and charts provide statistical summaries of mortality, causes of death, age structure projections, urban-rural residence, life expectancy, medical expenditures, clinical load for physicians, number of hospital beds, and staffing of health centers for Japan and selected comparisons to other Western Countries.
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  2. 2
    755312

    Interim report of International Contraceptive Study Program (ICOSP).

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UN. April 14, 1975. 39 p

    Any shortage in the supply of oral contraceptives (OCs) or condoms in the next 5-10 years will be a result of the planning and procurement system rather than shortages of raw materials or production capacity. Production of OCs could be doubled with existing facilities and trebled (if manufacturers were assured of demand) within 2 years; production of condoms is at capacity but could be increased quickly if industry were assured of demand. Because of the rapid growth of the public sector contraceptive market, which will probably overtake commercial sales within 5 years, an organized system that uses longer term planning for future needs and single-point negotiations with suppliers is needed to hold down costs and ensure continuity of supply. As part of this planning, manufacturers, family planning program directors, and international agencies support the institution of a data system to report contraceptive distribution on a regular basis by country, method, and sector, with the capacity to forecast demand by method and country over a 5-year period.
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