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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 645)In this report of the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparation, focus is on the following: 1) quality assurance in pharmaceutical supply systems; 2) revisions of the International Pharmacopoeia (methods of drug analysis, monographs for pharmaceutical raw materials, monographs for dosage forms, monographs for pharmaceutical aids); 3) international chemical reference substances for pharmaceuticals (reports from the WHO Collaborating Center, certificates, secondary reference substances, international cooperation, revision of guidelines); 4) quality requirements for oral dosage forms (tests for solid oral dosage forms, tests for liquid oral dosage forms, guidelines for in-process control of the manufature of some types of dosage forms); and 5) basic tests (basic tests for pharmaceutical substances, simple tests for the absence of gross degradation, basic tests for tablets and capsules, publication of basic tests). The Committee concluded that the term "quality assessment" was appropriate to the activities of governmental agencies who have been authorized to assess by inspection, surveillance and other means how closely manufacturers and distributers comply with drug quality requirements. Manufacturers are considered fully responsible for the quality of their products.
Seoul, South Korea, PPFK, 1979 Jan. 26 p.The Korean government and the family planning organizations coordinate the distribution of contraceptives under the PPFK, funded by the IPPF. Import of oral pills must legally be permitted by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; distribution/sales is restricted to licensed pharmacists, unless a nonpharmacist is in the government family planning program. The Korean CBD project was launched as a 3-year program with $620,000 funding. The goal was to increase family planning practice from 45% in 1975 to 60% of all eligible couples by 1981. The approaches utilized were community-based, voluntary participation; full availability of contraceptives; convenience in obtaining contraceptives; unsophisticated procedure of delivery; personalization of distribution; and, self-help practice in family planning practice. Evaluations of the project conducted in November 1976 and December 1977 found that the majority of community leaders, 84.5% in 1976, recommended that the CBD program be expanded at the national level. 86.6% of the consumers in 1977 found the contraceptives conveniently obtained and inexpensive. Younger consumers preferred drug stores; older consumers preferred CBD distributors. Housewives were the primary purchasers. They bought oral pills in 99% of the cases.
Problems of distribution, availability, and utilization of agents in developing countries. A. Industry perspectives.
In: Institute of Medicine. Division of International Health. Pharmaceuticals for developing countries. (Conference proceedings, Washington, D.C., January 29-31, 1979) Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 1979. (IOM-79-001) p. 211-227A spokesman for the drug industry emphasizes that the health and well-being of the peoples of the developing world are far more dependent on political and economic decisions than on scientific and technological developments. The following tables provide evidence for the superiority of private sector drug distribution vs. public: 1) leading therapeutic classes by sales through retail pharmacies in selected developed and developing markets (e.g., all of Latin America together consumes less antidiabetic drugs than Holland); 2) national expenditure on health as a percentage of gross national product (i.e., GNP; in general, developed countries spend 5-8% of GNP on health care, of which 10-20% represents expenditure on drugs; whereas in low-income countries drug expenditure rarely rises to 2 U.S. dollars and often accounts for up to 50% of total health care); 3) distribution of public finance in selected developing countries (1975); 4) health care and development aid provided by major donor nations (1976); 5) structure of aid to health in capital aid only; 6) comparative rankings of the leading 10 therapeutic classes in selected developing countries; and 7) patent protection for pharmaceuticals in selected developing countries. It is pointed out that policies which restrict activities in multinational corporations, especially patent and trade name restrictions, have resulted in a heavy pull-out of multinationals from participation in drug delivery in developing countries. This is seen as further debilitating the already woeful, by industry standards, state of public sector health care delivery in developing nations.
Studies in Family Planning. September 1978; 9(9):235-237.The National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) of Indonesia began a program of expansion of services in mid-1977. On Java and Bali there are 25,000 contraceptive resupply posts. In the 10 outer-island provinces where program services began in 1973-74 village family planning volunteers work in 4000 communities. The BKKBN has been conducting intensive training programs for community leaders to manage local fertility programs since 1977. The major responsibility for maintaining family planning acceptors will be transferred from government agencies to local organizations. The total family planning budget for fiscal year 1975-76 was U.S. $25.5 million, 50% of which came from the Indonesian government and 50% from donor agencies, including USAID. USAID provided 34 million monthly cycles of oral contraceptives in 1976. Indonesia will be able to supply most of its own contraceptives by 1983-84. The number of family planning service points for all of Indonesia have increased to 1.8/1000 married women in 1976 to 3.8/1000 in 1978. These should increase to 5.4/1000 by 1982.
London, England, IPPF, 1977. 428 p.This report describes IPPF's world-wide program from 1975-77. Financial and statistical statements are accompanied by narrative texts. In 1975 the number of family planning acceptors increased by about 5% or 1.8 million reached directly by IPPF-funded service programs. Between 1971 and 1974 the overall acceptance rate for organized family planning programs in countries with government programs was about 35/1000 women aged 15-44. The acceptance rate of IPPF-supported programs increased from 2.1 to 2.7/1000. IPPF's contribution was about 8% of the 1974 total. As a distributing and purchasing agency for contraceptive supplies and medical equipment, IPPF purchased $8.5 million worth of commodities in 1975, $7.5 million in 1976, and $7 million in 1977. About 2/3 represent oral contraceptives and condoms. The world summary of projected expenditures, 1977, includes 20.7%/information and education, 21.6%/medical and clinical, 20.4%/administration, 14.2%/commodities, 7.6%/community-based distribution, 6.2%/training, 3.2%/evaluation, and 1.6%/fund raising. Regional reports include a program description of the regional office, financial statements, clinic service statements, program descriptions of grant receiving associations, and a brief summary of expenditure.
People. 1975; 2(4):5-11.A survey of selected countries to illustrate the variety of approaches used in supplying contraceptives through the community is presented; and the agencies involved are listed. The various types of community-based distribution schemes in 33 countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia are identified and briefly described. The personnel and methods utilized in individual countries include rural community leaders, fieldworkers, satisfied contraceptive users, paramedical and lay distributors, women's organizations, commercial marketing, education programs, market day strategies, and government saturation programs. The community-based program for distributing oral contraceptives with technical assistance from BEMFAM, an IPPF affiliate, in northeastern Brazil is described in detail, with emphasis onsocial marketing techniques and the mobilization of resources. In addition to IPPF, other agencies working in community-based distribution include Family Planning International Assistance, International Development Research Centre, Population Services International, The Population Council, UNFPA, USAID, and Westinghouse Health Systems Population Centre.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation. (IPPF). Proceedings of the 7th conference of the IPPF, Singapore, February 10-16, 1963: changin g patterns in fertility. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica, 1964. (International Congress Series No. 72) p. 583-5892 lists of availability and manufacture of contraceptives, referring mainly to spermicides, in South East Asia are presented. The 1st list states those countries that manufacture contraceptives, those countries that rely on imports, and those countries that both manufacture and import. The 2nd lists the main exporting firms, stating the countries in Asia to which they export and giving information about the dating of products and the control of prices. Information about 2 subcommittees o f the Medical Committee of the IPPF who evaluate contraceptive products and recommend standards for field trials is also given.