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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 1984 Oct. 14 p. (Logistics and Cold Chain for Primary Health Care 7; EPI/LOG/84/7)The objective of this module is to enable the users to estimate the 1st requirement for chloroquine tablets. This could be for a new health center or an existing center receiving chloroquine tablets for the 1st time. The 5 steps are as follows: estimate the size of the target population; estimate the incidence of malaria; estimate the coverage; decide on the standard treatment; and calculate the amount of chloroquine tablets needed for the 1st month's supply. Exercises are included.
Social Science and Medicine. 1983; 17(19):1419-31.The Japanese level of health is one of the highest in the world, although the level is not uniform throughtout Japan. Preventive health care services are not integrated with medical care services. While efforts are being made in the health education subsystem of the primary health care services, organization is weak and funding and training of personnel are inadequate. Health specialists have failed to grasp the real meaning of primary health care, which includes the integration of services. Medical specialists also do not fully understand the idea of comprehensive primary health care. According to the Alma Ata Declaration, a conference sponsored by WHO and UNICEF in 1978, primary health care is to be responsive to sociocultural and political conditions and intimately tied to the development of other sectors of society. The recommendations of the Conference, to be achieved by 2000 are: 1) Primary health care must be linked with all other sectors of development; 2) Maldistribution of health services facilities and personnel must be overcome, so that care is truly accessible to all people; with the help of the community, disparities in health indices can be corrected; 3) Training and education is needed to develop a full understanding of primary health care among the politicians, the administrators, the opinion leaders and the public in general; 4) Training in health education should be a part of the basic training of health policy decision makers. Health education for the public should emphasize planning and organizational skills as well as more basic health education; 5) Training and education is needed to develop among medical specialists a respect for the work of allied health professionals, an awareness of the necessity of team work in primary health care, and a willingness to participate in team efforts; 6) Medical practitioners must help foster awareness of components of healthy living and encourage lay people to assume greater responsibility to the medical practitioners; 7) Paramount is the need for integration of medical care services and health care services at all levels. The Ministry of Health and Welfare has recently proposed special legislation which would integrate health activities and medical care for the aged. Tables and charts provide statistical summaries of mortality, causes of death, age structure projections, urban-rural residence, life expectancy, medical expenditures, clinical load for physicians, number of hospital beds, and staffing of health centers for Japan and selected comparisons to other Western Countries.
In: National Council for International Health [NCIH]. Pharmaceuticals and developing countries: a dialogue for constructive action. Washington, D.C., NCIH, 1982 Aug. 27-33.The Pharmaceutical Program of the Center for Public Resources encourages cooperation among the leaders of the pharmaceutical industry in Europe and the US, the bilateral and international public agencies, and the ministries of health of the developing world in addressing issues relating to the availability of pharmaceutials in primary health care systems. Incentives for cooperation among the parties include a professional incentive to discuss common concerns, an economic incentive to find additional financial and technical resources for health care activities within development assistance, a political incentive to avoid public conflict, and a public relations incentive. The barriers to sustained cooperative resolution of pharmaceutical problems are: 1) 3rd world countries account for a very small part of the business of must US companies, 2) corporate structures lack clear foci of responsibility and are difficult to work with, 3) corporate goals and short-term time perspectives discourage cooperation, and 4) the vagaries of the international economy affect the ability of companies to put money into cooperative efforts. Trade associations hamper cooperation because they interject themselves between the company and the country, introducing problems of communication and decision making. Barriers involving the public sector also impede effective partnerships on pharmaceutical issues: 1) public agenices must be willing to take risks and to take public positions on controversial issues, difficult tasks for developing country leadership; 2) it is difficult for public agencies to modify positions already taken on issues; 3) health lacks status in the national economies of developing countries and it may be financially difficult to implement whatever is discussed; and 4) it is difficult to achieve consensus within national bilateral public agencies and international agencies. Prerequisites to overcoming these barriers include agreeing that the participants cannot seek to defeat one another; carefully choosing issue areas so that issues with some mutual understanding are intially chosen; identifying and cooperating with the individuals able to make decisions within each organization; maintaining the neutrality of the forum; and following through on decisions to show that they can be implemented.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, EPI, 1983 Jun. 14 p. (Logistics and Cold Chain for Primary Health Care 10; EPI/LOG/84/10)This module enables the user to estimate the 1st requirements for contraceptives. This could be for a new health center or an existing center providing contraceptives for the 1st time. With each calculation an empty column has been left entitled "Your area." In this space one can change the assumptions given in the module and put in the figures for his/her own area. The module covers 5 steps for estimating requirements for a new store: estimate the size of the target population; estimate the needs for contraceptives; estimate the coverage; decide on the standard treatment; and calculate the amount of contraceptives needed for the 1st month's supply. Exercises are included as is a summary table.