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London, IPPF, 1979 Oct. 47 p.The development of family planning programs in Colombia is outlined in this IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation)-sponsored report. Introductory demographic data are provided including information on the geography, economy, population dynamics, and available health services; this section is followed by a discussion of the government policy, which first became evident in 1968 with the inception of the national Maternal Child Health (MCH) program; the development of this program was in the face of active Catholic opposition and active leftwing proponents. Through 1979 the MCH program is still functioning with 100,000 new acceptors/year; in addition, the government only minimally inhibits the actions of nongovernment programs, such as PROFAMILIA, and allows for liberal regulations on such matters as prescription of contraceptives. The report then details the developments of individual family planning programs, some of which failed to survive the politically turbulent 1970s, e.g., ASCOFAME (Asociacion Colombiana de Facultades de Medicina), and others of which remain viable, e.g., PROFAMILIA; both of these programs are basically medical and have resulted in the following statistics of contraceptive protection from .1 in 1965 (per 1000 woman/years)-484.2 in 1975. Details of funding are provided, and expenditures and costs are presented tabularly. In addition to clinic programs, rural programs such as CBD (an adjunct of PROFAMILIA) were pioneered in Colombia, the structure of which has been emulated by all other field programs. Aspects of marketing (social marketing and mail order, e.g.,) are described and the personnel structure of PROFAMILIA is outlined. External funding of PROFAMILIA represents about 65% of its funding, and locally derived income provides the additional 35%.
San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
Country Profiles. 1971 Apr; 12.The 1970 estimated population of Indonesia was 118,000,000, making it the fifth largest nation in the world. In 1961 the mean age at marriage for males was 24.3 years, for females 19.2 years. The birthrate is estimated at 43 to 45 per 1000, and the death rate at 17-19, causing a growth rate of about 2.8%. In 1970 about 50% of the population was literate. Rapid population growth is helping to restrict economic development, increasing unemployment problems, and negating expansion of social welfare programs. While the government of Indonesia supports family planning, it still maintains several pronatalist policies. Existing health facilities are utilized for family planning information and to stimulate referrals to clinic facilities. In 1969, 26,400 new acceptors chose IUDs, 15,000 chose orals, and 9,000 chose other methods. While in the past the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association conducted an equal role with the National Family Planning Institute. Because of grave economic problems Indonesia is now attaching high priority to the national family planning program to reduce the rate of population growth.