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  1. 1

    Health economics in developing countries.

    Abel-Smith B


    This general discussion on health economics provides an historical overview as well as a discussion of some of the developments and deficiencies in health economics in developing countries, broadly focused on expenditure and financing studies, cost benefit and cost effectiveness, local costing studies and health planning. In 1963, it was found that as GDP rose so did health expenditures, that countries with similar per capita income spent different percentages of GDp on health services, that the private sector involvement was greater than the public, and that hospitals received most of the money. Countries were encouraged to conduct further studies. The World Bank has successfully stimulated discussion. However, lacking the expenditure studies, cost benefits are hampered by the availability of epidemiological data and poor cost information, and geared toward studies on how to cut costs for immediate goals, or specific diseases, rather than on practical advice to governments. 1 such study helped identify that most cost effective allocation of resources. The limited local cost studies are particular to understanding specific costs of immunization versus antenatal visits; however, the usefulness of such preliminary information reveals wide variability between countries. The Health for All initiatives and the limited resources in developing countries have placed health planning in a central position with Ministries of Health. Due to prior mistakes in planning an excess number of trained medical staff are underutilized and present needs have been defined as developing local PHC support staff. The WHO expectation of 5% of GNP for health service was unfulfilled because larger donor aid and local resources have not been sufficient even with strong posturing, and over ambitious plans were made unrealistically. Since 1987, WHO has provided economic strategies but the economic crises changed the needs. Many questions remain and consultants are too few, improperly trained, or unavailable for the appropriate time period: unacceptable solutions, coupled with a confusing World bank prospectus for action when more research is needed. Intersectorial collaboration has not provided answers to priorities or addressed the interactions among nutrition and agricultural policy, education and lifestyle, water and sanitation and the economy. The research agenda should include: the identification of the determinants of health, key elements of primary health care (PHC), cost of delivering PHC, hospital efficiency, health manpower mix, adequate procurement and distribution, appropriate technology, user charges for financing, health insurance, and community financing.
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  2. 2

    Essential drugs and developing countries: a review and selected annotated bibliography.

    Mamdani M; Walker G

    London, England, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Evaluation and Planning Centre for Health Care, 1985 Winter. 97 p. (EPC Publication No. 8)

    Many developing countries spend sizeable sums on the purchase of drugs yet an estimated 60-80% of their populations, particulary in rural areas, do not have constant access to even the most essential drugs. The provision of adequate amounts of effective drugs to treat the most important and common disease conditions is crucial if health services are to be effective and credible. Many problems are associated with the provision and utilization of therapeutic drugs in developing countries: inequitable access to cost-effective safe drugs; inequitable production and consumption with market concentration in the hands of a few multinationals encouraging competition based on product differntion and not price; escalating drug costs; inefficient procurement, distribution, management; and irrational prescription and consumption. To combat these problems, the essential drug concept was introduced by the WHO in 1977. In 1981, WHO established a special Action Program on Essential Drugs. This is a worldwide collaborative program that aims at urging member states to adopt national drug policies, as well as helping developing countries procure and use essential drugs. Several countries have implemented some of the suggestions of the Drug Action Program. Though some progress has been made towards achieving an increase in the use and availability of cost-effective drugs, very few countries have succeeded in decreasing the use of unsafe drugs and those of low cost-effectiveness. Effective legislation is a prerequisite to the effective use of drugs. Recommended action for governments of developing countries to involve the private sector include: creating incentive for increased domestice production; controlling promotional practices; and exerting price controls.
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  3. 3

    On a national drug policy for Bangladesh.

    Islam N

    Tropical Doctor. 1984 Jan; 14(1):3-7.

    On April 27, 1982 the Ministry of Health of the government of Bangladesh, set up an 8-man expert committee to evaluate all the registered pharmaceutical products presently available, and to formulate a draft National Drug Policy. Objectives are: 1) to provide support for ensuring quality and availability of drugs; 2) to reduce drug prices; 3) to eliminate useless, nonessential, and harmful drugs from the market; 4) to promote local production of finished drugs; 5) to ensure coordination among government branches; 6) to develop a drug monitoring and information system; 7) to promote the scientific development and application of unani, ayurvedic, and homeopathic medicines; 8) to improve the standard of hospital and retail pharmacies; and 9) to insure good manufacturing practices. 16 criteria were agreed on as guidelines for evaluating the drugs on the country's market. Drugs in Bangladesh have been classified into 3 categories. The 1st is drugs that are positively harmful. They should be banned immediately and withdrawn from the market. There are 265 locally manufactured drugs and 40 imported drugs in this category. The 2nd, drugs to be slightly reformulated by eliminating some of their requirements. There are 134 drugs in this category. The 3rd is drugs that do not conform to 1 or more of the 16 criteria/guidelines. There are over 500 drugs in this category. The new drug policy will produce a saving of 800 million taka (US $32.4 million). Drug supply in Bangladesh is a problem. The public sector distributes 20% of the total. In the private sector, drugs are supplied through import and local production. Investment for research by the pharmaceutical companies is essential. The principles laid down by the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations for the supply of good medicine needs to be put into practice.
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