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New York, New York, FPIA, . 227 p.This report summarizes the work of Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) since its inception in 1971, with particular emphasis on activities carried out in 1983. The report's 6 chapters are focused on the following areas: Africa Regional Report, Asia and Pacific Regional Report, Latin America Regional Report, Inter-Regional Report, Program Management Information, and Fiscal Information. Included in the regional reports are detailed descriptions of activities carried out by country, as well as tables on commodity assistance in 1983. Since 1971, FPIA has provided US$54 million in direct financial support for the operation of more than 300 family planning projects in 51 countries. In addition, family planning commodities (including over 600 million condoms, 120 million cycles of oral contraceptives, and 4 million IUDs) have been shipped to over 3000 institutions in 115 countries. In 1982 alone, 1 million contraceptive clients were served by FPIA-assisted projects. Project assistance accounts for 52% of the total value of FPIA assistance, while commodity assistance comprises another 47%. In 1983, 53% of project assistance funds were allocated to projects in the Asia and Pacific Region, followed by Africa (32%) and Latin America (15%). Of the 1 million new contraceptive acceptors served in 198, 42% selected oral contraceptives, 27% used condoms, and 8% the IUD.
IPPF/WHR FORUM. 1987 Aug; 3(2):10.The latest statistics on new acceptors reported by the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) for 1986 show important growth in male methods, condoms and sterilization (up 33%). The area included is Latin America and the Caribbean. The most popular method for new acceptors is the IUD (43% of new users); the second most popular method is the pill (27% of new users); and the third is sterilization (14% of new users). Total increase in new acceptors in clinics and community programs combined was 13%. Other methods, including diaphragms, spermicides, and natural family planning, increased 65% in clinic clients and 223% in community based distribution programs. During 1982-1986, the total number of new acceptors rose by 26% to 1.5 million; total number of visits to a clinic rose 15% to 3.3 million, and the number of clinics rose 39% to 1899.
Arlington, Virginia, International Science and Technology Insitute, Population Technical Assistance Project, 1987 Jul 15. ix, 66,  p. (Report No. 86-099-056)This evaluation of the village family planning program in Indonesia is prepared for USAID, which has supported the program for 15 years, and is to complete support in 1986. It is in general a positive evaluation, prepared by interviews, and visits to 7 out of 27 Provinces, 14 out of 246 Kabupatens (Districts), and 16 Villages. Village distribution centers have increased 38%, new acceptors by 38%, continuing user levels by 57%, and overall contraceptive prevalence by 38%. Access to varieties of contraceptives, especially longer acting methods, has improved, and costs per capita have decreased. Some problems were pointed out, generating several recommendations: physical conditions of the clinics need attention; motivation by consciousness raising has not been matched by better knowledge; the surgical program needs to be expanded; self-sufficiency in cost recovery should be fostered; operations research is needed on payment for field workers and volunteers; and social marketing should be expanded. USAID should continue support for the Outer Islands. In a final list of recommendations were the suggestions that USAID assist clinical programs further, support training of field workers, do more statistical review, continue to support the IEC program, operations research on community-based distribution, and program integration.
Seoul, South Korea, PPFK, 1979 Jan. 26 p.The Korean government and the family planning organizations coordinate the distribution of contraceptives under the PPFK, funded by the IPPF. Import of oral pills must legally be permitted by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; distribution/sales is restricted to licensed pharmacists, unless a nonpharmacist is in the government family planning program. The Korean CBD project was launched as a 3-year program with $620,000 funding. The goal was to increase family planning practice from 45% in 1975 to 60% of all eligible couples by 1981. The approaches utilized were community-based, voluntary participation; full availability of contraceptives; convenience in obtaining contraceptives; unsophisticated procedure of delivery; personalization of distribution; and, self-help practice in family planning practice. Evaluations of the project conducted in November 1976 and December 1977 found that the majority of community leaders, 84.5% in 1976, recommended that the CBD program be expanded at the national level. 86.6% of the consumers in 1977 found the contraceptives conveniently obtained and inexpensive. Younger consumers preferred drug stores; older consumers preferred CBD distributors. Housewives were the primary purchasers. They bought oral pills in 99% of the cases.
Studies in Family Planning. September 1978; 9(9):235-237.The National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) of Indonesia began a program of expansion of services in mid-1977. On Java and Bali there are 25,000 contraceptive resupply posts. In the 10 outer-island provinces where program services began in 1973-74 village family planning volunteers work in 4000 communities. The BKKBN has been conducting intensive training programs for community leaders to manage local fertility programs since 1977. The major responsibility for maintaining family planning acceptors will be transferred from government agencies to local organizations. The total family planning budget for fiscal year 1975-76 was U.S. $25.5 million, 50% of which came from the Indonesian government and 50% from donor agencies, including USAID. USAID provided 34 million monthly cycles of oral contraceptives in 1976. Indonesia will be able to supply most of its own contraceptives by 1983-84. The number of family planning service points for all of Indonesia have increased to 1.8/1000 married women in 1976 to 3.8/1000 in 1978. These should increase to 5.4/1000 by 1982.
People. 1975; 2(4):5-11.A survey of selected countries to illustrate the variety of approaches used in supplying contraceptives through the community is presented; and the agencies involved are listed. The various types of community-based distribution schemes in 33 countries of Latin America, Africa and Asia are identified and briefly described. The personnel and methods utilized in individual countries include rural community leaders, fieldworkers, satisfied contraceptive users, paramedical and lay distributors, women's organizations, commercial marketing, education programs, market day strategies, and government saturation programs. The community-based program for distributing oral contraceptives with technical assistance from BEMFAM, an IPPF affiliate, in northeastern Brazil is described in detail, with emphasis onsocial marketing techniques and the mobilization of resources. In addition to IPPF, other agencies working in community-based distribution include Family Planning International Assistance, International Development Research Centre, Population Services International, The Population Council, UNFPA, USAID, and Westinghouse Health Systems Population Centre.
Costa Rican Demographic Association (Asociacion Demografica Costarricense (ADC): the coupon system controversy.
Managua, Nicaragua, Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas, 1973. 43 p. (INCAE Management Case No. 9-575-601)This case study was developed as a teaching tool for administrative family planning personnel. The Costa Rican Demographic Association (ADC) assumed responsibility for the distribution of oral contraceptives (OCs) through commerical outlets in a program started by Alberto Gonzalez. Gonzalez had organized a rural distribution system of OCs by recruiting local women to sell OCs to friends and relatives at reduced prices. The number of women involved grew so rapidly, Gonzalez, who was a founder of ADC and its first Executive Director, expanded the distribution system to urban areas. In 1964, however, stiff opposition to the distribution system was made by the College of Pharmacists, for OCs were being sold at greatly reduced prices through noncommerical outlets. After difficult negotiation, the College agreed, in 1967, to allow the ADC to import and distribute contraceptives providing a pharmacist supervised the distribution, a doctor's prescription was obtained, and the ADC disburse OCs in pharmacies. The latter provision forced ADC to abandon its highly successful system of individual distributors. Instead, a woman had to go to a clinic, obtain a doctor's prescription as well as a blue (minimal charge) or green (no charge) coupon and then find an authorized outlet to purchase the OCs at a reduced price. The pharmacist had to keep special inventories and maintain a coupon system in order to obtain credit from ADC. ADC had to make sure inventories were maintained and that proper controls were placed on the distribution process. By 1971, 233,309 cycles of OCs were distributed through the coupon system. Nonetheless, questions were raised by USAID and other organizations about control procedures and pricing. It was suggested that it might be more convenient for the patient if the clinics themselves could assume the responsibility of supplying OCs to patients.
Country Profiles. 1971 Apr; 12.The 1970 estimated population of Indonesia was 118,000,000, making it the fifth largest nation in the world. In 1961 the mean age at marriage for males was 24.3 years, for females 19.2 years. The birthrate is estimated at 43 to 45 per 1000, and the death rate at 17-19, causing a growth rate of about 2.8%. In 1970 about 50% of the population was literate. Rapid population growth is helping to restrict economic development, increasing unemployment problems, and negating expansion of social welfare programs. While the government of Indonesia supports family planning, it still maintains several pronatalist policies. Existing health facilities are utilized for family planning information and to stimulate referrals to clinic facilities. In 1969, 26,400 new acceptors chose IUDs, 15,000 chose orals, and 9,000 chose other methods. While in the past the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association conducted an equal role with the National Family Planning Institute. Because of grave economic problems Indonesia is now attaching high priority to the national family planning program to reduce the rate of population growth.