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  1. 1

    Position statement on condoms and the prevention of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2015 Jul 7. [8] p.

    Condoms are a critical component in a comprehensive and sustainable approach to the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are effective for preventing unintended pregnancies. Male and female condoms are the only devices that both reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prevent unintended pregnancy. Condoms have played a decisive role in HIV, STI and pregnancy prevention efforts in many countries. Condoms remain a key component of high-impact HIV prevention programmes. Quality-assured condoms must be readily available universally, either free or at low cost. Programmes promoting condoms must address stigma and gender-based and socio-cultural factors that hinder effective access and use of condoms. Adequate investment in and further scale up of condom promotion is required to sustain responses to HIV, other STIs, and unintended pregnancy. (Excerpts)
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  2. 2

    AIDS update, 1991. A report on UNFPA support in the area of HIV / AIDS prevention.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1992]. [3], 20 p.

    This 1991 report reviews UNFPA efforts to strengthen HIV/AIDS prevention activities throughout the globe. The most recent estimate places the number of HIV infections at 10-12 million people, a figure that is expected to more than triple by the year 2000. Following an introductory section, section II of the report discusses UNFPA country-level support for AIDS prevention. UNFPA support is divided into the following categories: 1) general information and communication activities; 2) in-school and out-of-school AIDS education activities; 3) the supply and distribution of condoms; and 4) training in AIDS prevention. Currently, UNFPA is supporting a wide range of information, education, and communication (IEC) activities in 31 countries. In-school and out-of-school AIDS prevention modules have been initiated in 41 countries. UNFPA is supporting condom distribution program in 30 countries, as well as training in AIDS prevention in 38 countries. Section III briefly reviews regional and interregional AIDS prevention activities, while section IV identifies 4 priority areas in AIDS prevention. The latter include: 1) strengthening collaboration with national AIDS control programs; 2) accelerating and focusing on research and development activities; 3) combating complacency and denial, which threaten to undermine current AIDS preventing activities; and 4) reinforcing efforts in the area of human rights.
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  3. 3

    Condom services to prevent HIV transmission: are they workable? [editorial]

    Friel P


    This editorial argues that in order to increase the use of condoms in the fight against AIDS, WHO's Global Program on AIDS (GPA) must address the problems of weak condom distribution and promotion systems. The available data indicates that condom use can protect against HIV transmission. Studies in Zaire, Denmark, Germany, and Australia reveal that seropositivity among prostitutes who use condoms is much lower than among prostitutes who do not use condoms. However, the use of condoms largely depends on whether services are available to the people who practice risk behavior, and whether such people can be motivated to adopt safe sex practices -- including proper and consistent condom use. In order to bring about this desired behavior change, it is essential to have a strongly managed integrated program that combines condom services and health promotion, as well as specific plans and budgets to distribute and promote condoms. In supporting national AIDS programs, GPA's current strategy for condom services includes the following: 1) the provision of high-quality, low-cost condoms; 2) assistance in developing comprehensive program management and technical support plans and budgets for incorporation into subsequent funding cycles; and 3) support for research and development of new methods for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV -- including barrier methods that can be controlled by women.
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  4. 4

    Barrier contraceptives and spermicides: their role in family planning care.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1987. vii, 80 p.

    This WHO manual on barrier contraceptives and spermicides covers all methods, their effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages, non-contraceptive advantages, uses in special cases, family program considerations, the logistics of supply, monitoring shelf-life and quality control, and application of condoms in AIDS prevention programs. Condoms and foaming tablets are the most appropriate methods for developing countries, especially those in the tropics. Other methods present problems such as expense (diaphragms, foams, sponges), unavailability outside the U.K. and U.S. (caps, sponges), bulk and expense (canned foams). Certain individuals are particularly good candidates for barriers and spermicides: lactating women, people using abstinence or natural family planning, adolescents, older women, women waiting to start using other methods, and those at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Program officials should consider providing supplies in their special environments, with limitations such as transport, reliability of shipments, storage requirements, cultural sensitivity, multiple outlets for supplies, and cost both to the program and to the users. Methods of insuring steady supply and techniques of testing condoms are described. Barrier methods, condoms in particular, help stop the spread of gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia, Candida, Trichomonas and HIV. An appendix describes basic information about AIDS and the relevance of barriers and spermicides, as well as monogamy and abstinence, in preventing AIDS transmission. Other appendices list sources of supply for developing countries, addresses of manufacturers and sources of further information, techniques for using these methods, and teaching methods for illiterates and semi-illiterates.
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  5. 5

    Brief summary of CBD/Korea Project, 1976-1978.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea [PPFK]

    Seoul, South Korea, PPFK, 1979 Jan. 26 p.

    The Korean government and the family planning organizations coordinate the distribution of contraceptives under the PPFK, funded by the IPPF. Import of oral pills must legally be permitted by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; distribution/sales is restricted to licensed pharmacists, unless a nonpharmacist is in the government family planning program. The Korean CBD project was launched as a 3-year program with $620,000 funding. The goal was to increase family planning practice from 45% in 1975 to 60% of all eligible couples by 1981. The approaches utilized were community-based, voluntary participation; full availability of contraceptives; convenience in obtaining contraceptives; unsophisticated procedure of delivery; personalization of distribution; and, self-help practice in family planning practice. Evaluations of the project conducted in November 1976 and December 1977 found that the majority of community leaders, 84.5% in 1976, recommended that the CBD program be expanded at the national level. 86.6% of the consumers in 1977 found the contraceptives conveniently obtained and inexpensive. Younger consumers preferred drug stores; older consumers preferred CBD distributors. Housewives were the primary purchasers. They bought oral pills in 99% of the cases.
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  6. 6

    Condoms: manufacturing perspectives and use.

    Quinn J

    In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ, ed. Vaginal contraception: new developments. Hagerstown, Md., Harper and Row, 1979. 66-81.

    Although condoms are still produced from a variety of materials, the popularity of the condom increased mainly after the dipped latex process was developed in the 1930s. Condoms went with US troops all over the world during World War Two. It is only in recent years that strict quality standards were established. Many countries, including the US, measure quality in the number of pinholes acceptable per unit, the number of acceptable holes varying considerably between countries. Japan has made a standard based on leakage as measured by sodium ion concentration. Various types, colors, names, and sizes of condoms are popular in different countries. Large scale distribution in recent years has raised the question of shelf life. It is generally thought that a condom kept in a sealed tinfoil package will stay good indefinitely. Nonetheless, for management as well as safety purposes smaller shipments are preferred over large shipments in mass distribution programs. Condom popularity is partly associated with the number and accessibility of distribution points; therefore, it has become more prevalent to use both government units and regular commercial distribution points for popularizing the condom, and there is reason to believe that this type of program will grow. In light of the current interest in integration of contraceptive programs with health care and development efforts, population specialists should look closely at the condom and the commercial resources available for its distribution. A series of tables gives gross numbers of condoms supplied by international donor agencies in the developing countries, 1975-78.
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  7. 7

    Evaluation of the Haitian condom vending machine project.

    Sanhueza HS; Santee BA

    New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1979. 38 p.

    Condoms have proven to be acceptable to Haitian men. In 1978, 43,000 condoms were supplied free in the clinics. All types of contraceptives are sold at the pharmacies; oral contraceptives are sold without prescription since there are no laws governing them. The prices vary according to brand; average cost of 1 pill cycle is about $1.50 (U.S.), 10? for a condom. The condoms in pharmacies are too expensive, those in the clinics too inaccessible. Condoms in vending machines in commercial areas would lower the price and provide access. This report compiles the results of a vending machine network which would eliminate the possibility of store clerk embarrassment. The project was headed by an M.D. who spends about 10% of her time running it while the day-to-day management is conducted by a Coordinator, 2 assistants, and a repairman. A competing program by AID which distributed 29 million condoms in 3 1/2 years free through National Health Clinics may explain the low figures resulting from the project. The costs of the machines, maintenance, and administration of the program also made it less than cost-effective. However, the project overall had enough success and potential to become a permanent network. The project established a network of 135 locations for use in future; it also opened the way for foam and vaginal tablets to be sold in shops where the machines are.
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  8. 8

    Interim report of International Contraceptive Study Program (ICOSP).

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UN. April 14, 1975. 39 p

    Any shortage in the supply of oral contraceptives (OCs) or condoms in the next 5-10 years will be a result of the planning and procurement system rather than shortages of raw materials or production capacity. Production of OCs could be doubled with existing facilities and trebled (if manufacturers were assured of demand) within 2 years; production of condoms is at capacity but could be increased quickly if industry were assured of demand. Because of the rapid growth of the public sector contraceptive market, which will probably overtake commercial sales within 5 years, an organized system that uses longer term planning for future needs and single-point negotiations with suppliers is needed to hold down costs and ensure continuity of supply. As part of this planning, manufacturers, family planning program directors, and international agencies support the institution of a data system to report contraceptive distribution on a regular basis by country, method, and sector, with the capacity to forecast demand by method and country over a 5-year period.
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  9. 9

    A brief summary of the community-based distribution of contraceptives project in Korea.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea [PPFK]

    October. 1975; 7.

    A project for the community-based distribution of oral contraceptives (OCs) and condoms in Korea is outlined. The project is to run from October 1975 to September 1978, in 3 areas (to test the 3 models of government-, mothers'-club-, and commercial-centered delivery systems). The target population for the 1st year is 14,900; after expansion in the 2nd year, it will be 24,000. The project is to mobilize members of family planning mothers' clubs and other rural organizations as distributors, to correct negative popular attitudes toward contraceptives, and to devleop a self-supporting and expanding organized supply system. The condoms and OCs will be sold, but about 10% of them may be given free of charge to those who cannot pay. The project is conducted under the auspices of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea.
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  10. 10

    The condom: increasing utilization in the United States.

    Redford MH; Duncan GW; Prager DJ

    San Francisco, San Francisco Press, 1974. 292 p.

    Despite its high effectiveness, lack of side effects, ease of use, and low cost, condom utilization has declined in the U.S. from 30% of contracepting couples in 1955 to 15% in 1970. The present status of the condom, actions needed to facilitate its increased availability and acceptance, and research required to improve understanding of factors affecting its use are reviewed in the proceedings of a conference on the condom sponsored by the Battelle Population Study Center in 1973. It is concluded that condom use in the U.S. is not meeting its potential. Factors affecting its underutilization include negative attitudes among the medical and family planning professions; state laws restricting sales outlets, display, and advertising; inapplicable testing standards; the National Association of Broadcasters' ban on contraceptive advertising; media's reluctance to carry condom ads; manufacturer's hesitancy to widen the range of products and use aggressive marketing techniques; and physical properties of the condom itself. Further, the condom has an image problem, tending to be associated with venereal disease and prostitution and regarded as a hassle to use and an impediment to sexual sensation. Innovative, broad-based marketing and sales through a variety of outlets have been key to effective widespread condom usage in England, Japan, and Sweden. Such campaigns could be directed toward couples who cannot or will not use other methods and teenagers whose unplanned, sporadic sexual activity lends itself to condom use. Other means of increasing U.S. condom utilization include repealing state and local laws restricting condom sales to pharmacies and limiting open display; removing the ban on contraceptive advertising and changing the attitude of the media; using educational programs to correct erroneous images; and developing support for condom distribution in family planning programs. Also possible is modifying the extreme stringency of condom standards. Thinner condoms could increase usage without significantly affecting failure rates. More research is needed on condom use-effectiveness in potential user populations and in preventing venereal disease transmission; the effects of condom shape, thickness, and lubrication on consumer acceptance; reactions to condom advertising; and the point at which an acceptable level of utilization has been achieved.
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  11. 11

    Tentative inventory (by country) of commercial sector activity.

    Population Council

    [Unpublished] 1973 Apr. 33 p.

    A tentative inventory of 31 countries' efforts in commercial distribution of contraceptives is presented in outline form. Funding sources for each project are usually listed, as well as a very brief description of the project. Examples range from contraceptive distribution through a coupon system in Costa Rica to the marketing of condoms through barbershop promotion in Korea.
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  12. 12

    UNFPA allocations for contraceptives as of 31 December 1981 [tables]

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1982 Apr. 63 p.

    A series of 3 lengthy tables provide data as of December 1981 on: 1) UNFPA allocations for contraceptives from 1969-84, 2) distribution of contraceptives by type from 1969-77 to 1981 by regions within agencies, and 3) distribution of contraceptives by type from 1969-84 by regions within agencies. Data in the 1st table are presented for the periods 1969-77 and subsequent single years for individual countries within the regions Subsaharan Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East separately for condoms, pills, IUDs, injectables, spermicides, and others. As of 1984, it is estimated that the UNFPA will have provided 6,727,626,000 gross of condoms, the overwhelmining majority in Asia and the Pacific; 7,464,607,000 cycles of pills; 4,372,305,000 IUDs; and 2,696,937,000 doses of injectables, mostly in Asia and the Pacific. Cumulative country and regional totals are provided. The 2nd table provides information on distribution of contraceptives by project within regions for the period 1969-77 and subsequent single years through 1981 by the UNTCD, International Labour Organization (ILO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), UNFPA, non-governmental organizations, and UNICEF for condoms, pills, IUDs, injectables, spermicides, and others. The 3rd table follows the format of the 2nd but the initial period covered is 1969-81, with single year data provided for 1982-84 and cumulative totals for 1969-84.
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