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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2018. 100 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual snapshot of the state of the world’s health. This 2018 edition contains the latest available data for 36 health-related Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators. It also links to the three SDG-aligned strategic priorities of the WHO’s 13th General Programme of Work: achieving universal health coverage, addressing health emergencies and promoting healthier populations.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 184 p. (Interactive Visualization of Health Data)In order to reduce health inequalities and identify priority areas for action to move towards universal health coverage, governments first need to understand the magnitude and scope of inequality in their countries. From April 2016 to October 2017, the Indonesian Ministry of Health, WHO, and a network of stakeholders assessed country-wide health inequalities in 11 areas, such as maternal and child health, immunization coverage and availability of health facilities. A key output of the monitoring work is a new report called State of health inequality: Indonesia, the first WHO report to provide a comprehensive assessment of health inequalities in a Member State. The report summarizes data from more than 50 health indicators and disaggregates it by dimensions of inequality, such as household economic status, education level, place of residence, age or sex. This report showcases the state of inequality in Indonesia, drawing from the latest available data across 11 health topics (53 health indicators), and eight dimensions of inequality. In addition to quantifying the magnitude of health inequality, the report provides background information for each health topic, and discusses priority areas for action and policy implications of the findings. Indicator profiles illustrate disaggregated data by all applicable dimensions of inequality, and electronic data visuals facilitate interactive exploration of the data. This report was prepared as part of a capacity-building process, which brought together a diverse network of stakeholders committed to strengthening health inequality monitoring in Indonesia. The report aims to raise awareness about health inequalities in Indonesia, and encourage action across sectors. The report finds that the state of health and access to health services varies throughout Indonesia and identifies a number of areas where action needs to be taken. These include, amongst others: improving exclusive breastfeeding and childhood nutrition; increasing equity in antenatal care coverage and births attended by skilled health personnel; reducing high rates of smoking among males; providing mental health treatment and services across income levels; and reducing inequalities in access to improved water and sanitation. In addition, the availability of health personnel, especially dentists and midwives, is insufficient in many of the country’s health centres. Now the country is using these findings to work across sectors to develop specific policy recommendations and programmes, such as the mobile health initiative in Senen, to tackle the inequalities that have been identified.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO , 2017. 116 p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health statistics for its 194 Member States. World Health Statistics 2017 compiles data on 21 health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets, with 35 indicators, as well as data on life expectancy. This edition also includes, for the first time, success stories from several countries that are making progress towards the health-related SDG targets.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 164 p.In 2015, 26% of the deaths of 5.9 million children who died before reaching their fifth birthday could have been prevented through addressing environmental risks – a shocking missed opportunity. The prenatal and early childhood period represents a window of particular vulnerability, where environmental hazards can lead to premature birth and other complications, and increase lifelong disease risk including for respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disease and cancers. The environment thus represents a major factor in children’s health, as well as a major opportunity for improvement, with effects seen in every region of the world. Children are at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals, because it is children who will inherit the legacy of policies and actions taken, and not taken, by leaders today. The third SDG, to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages,” has its foundation in children’s environmental health, and it is incumbent on us to provide a healthy start to our children’s lives. This cannot be achieved, however, without multisectoral cooperation, as seen in the linkages between environmental health risks to children and the other SDGs. This publication is divided by target: SDGs 1, 2 and 10 address equity and nutrition; SDG 6 focuses on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); SDGs 7 and 13 call attention to energy, air pollution and climate change; SDGs 3, 6 and 12 look at chemical exposures; and SDGs 8, 9 and 11 study infrastructure and settings.
Addressing the Child and Maternal Mortality Crisis in Haiti through a Central Referral Hospital Providing Countrywide Care.
Permanente Journal. 2016 spring; 20(2):59-70.The neonatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates in Haiti are the highest in the Western Hemisphere, with rates similar to those found in Afghanistan and several African countries. We identify several factors that have perpetuated this health care crisis and summarize the literature highlighting the most cost-effective, evidence-based interventions proved to decrease these mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries.To create a major change in Haiti's health care infrastructure, we are implementing two strategies that are unique for low-income countries: development of a countrywide network of geographic "community care grids" to facilitate implementation of frontline interventions, and the construction of a centrally located referral and teaching hospital to provide specialty care for communities throughout the country. This hospital strategy will leverage the proximity of Haiti to North America by mobilizing large numbers of North American medical volunteers to provide one-on-one mentoring for the Haitian medical staff. The first phase of this strategy will address the child and maternal health crisis.We have begun implementation of these evidence-based strategies that we believe will fast-track improvement in the child and maternal mortality rates throughout the country. We anticipate that, as we partner with private and public groups already working in Haiti, one day Haiti's health care system will be among the leaders in that region.
Sexual health in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD): implications for measurement and beyond.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2015 Nov; 23(46):185-92.This paper examines different dimensions of sexual health as related to the measurement of sexual health indicators and the proposed changes in the International Classification of Diseases to address issues related to sexuality and sexual health with an aim of informing health policy-making and programming. The lack of mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating sexual health outcomes has impeded the development of policies and programmes that support sexual health. The potential impact of changes to the ICD-11 is major and far-reaching given that the ICD is used by countries to define eligibility and access to health services and to formulate relevant policies and laws, and is used by health professionals as a basis for conceptualizing health conditions, treatments and outcomes. Improving the measurement of sexual health-related indicators builds the evidence base on scientific knowledge of sex, sexuality, sexual health and rights. As we stand on the cusp of the post-2015 era and the development agenda transitions to the Sustainable Development Goals, a unique opportunity presents itself to further consider how sexual health is defined, conceptualized, and monitored.
Neglected chronic disease: The WHO framework on non-communicable diseases and implications for the global poor.
Global Public Health. 2017 Apr; 12(4):396-415.The current global framework on noncommunicable disease (NCD), as exemplified by the WHO Action Plan of 2012, neglects the needs of the global poor. The current framework is rooted in an outdated pseudo-evolutionary theory of epidemiologic transition, which weds NCDs to modernity, and relies on global aggregate data. It is oriented around a simplistic causal model of behavior, risk and disease, which implicitly locates ‘risk’ within individuals, conveniently drawing attention away from important global drivers of the NCD epidemic. In fact, the epidemiologic realities of the bottom billion reveal a burden of neglected chronic diseases that are associated with ‘alternative’ environmental and infectious risks that are largely structurally determined. In addition, the vertical orientation of the framework fails to centralize health systems and delivery issues that are essential to chronic disease prevention and treatment. A new framework oriented around a global health equity perspective would be able to correct some of the failures of the current model by bringing the needs of the global poor to the forefront, and centralizing health systems and delivery. In addition, core social science concepts such as Bordieu's habitus may be useful to re-conceptualizing strategies that may address both behavioral and structural determinants of health.
Contraception. 2016 Sep; 94(3):193-194.Add to my documents.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p. (WHO/RHR/15.07)This executive summary contains all the new recommendations that will be incorporated into the fifth edition of the Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. In addition to the recommendations themselves, the summary provides an introduction to the guideline, a description of the methods used to develop the recommendations for this fifth edition, and a summary of changes (from the fourth edition to the fifth edition of the MEC). It is anticipated that the Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, fifth edition will be available online by 1 July 2015. In the interim, the fourth edition of the guideline, along with this summary of new recommendations provides the complete set of WHO recommendations on medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use.
Africa Renewal. 2013 Jan; 26(3):23.The increased access to communications technologies has given rise to the emerging concept of â€œmobile health,â€ or mHealth, involving the use of mobile phones for healthcare purposes. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) are currently testing mobile solutions to help people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The agencies hope to promote health behavior change, including smoking cessation, diet and exercise. Mobile phones have been shown to help health care providers offer better care as the technology has been applied to send daily medication reminders and medication shortage alerts in healthcare settings that see patients with HIV/AIDS and malaria. ITU reports that by early 2012, there were more than 6 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide, without developing countries accounting for the bulk of this growth. In this context, mHealth could be one of the best ways to reach the largest numbers of patients and healthcare providers. However, several aspects of mHealth interventions warrant further research as they bring up issues of cost and uncertainties if mHealth can help induce behavioral change among patients and improve their adherence to treatment regimens. Some success has been observed in three African countries, which have made the most progress in adopting information and communications technology (ICT) while lowering costs of ICT services. Despite the surge in mobile-broadband subscriptions, these lowered prices still remain too high for the general populations in low-income countries. Efforts must be made, both by the national governments and providers, to increase mobile connectivity in rural areas and make it affordable to the masses. Furthermore, with the explosion of mobile phones in Africa, several new "apps" (pieces of software that can run on mobile phones) are being developed. In Kenya, mobile phone users are utilizing an app to denounce inadequate or missing public services, through which text messages can be sent to alert elected officials and community, thus fostering a user-generated platform to talk about pressing issues. The citizen-driven platform has recently been extended to Uganda, Mozambique and Nigeria.
Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, WHO, Regional Office for Africa, 2012.  p.With over 730 million inhabitants in 46 countries, the African Region accounts for about one seventh of the world’s population. This statistical atlas provides the health status and trends in the countries of the African Region, the various components of their health systems, coverage and access levels for specific programmes and services, and the broader determinants of health in the Region, and the progress made on reaching the Millennium Development Goals. Each indicator is described, as appropriate, in terms of place (WHO regions and countries in the African Region), person (age and sex) and time (various years) using a bar graph. The aim is to give a comprehensive overview of the health situation in the African Region and its 46 Member States. The main source for the data is WHO-AFRO’s integrated database, based on the World Health Statistics 2012. Other UN agency databases have been used when necessary. All the data and figures in this atlas can be accessed through the African Health Observatory..
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012.  p.The World Health Statistics series is WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. This year, it also includes highlight summaries on the topics of noncommunicable diseases, universal health coverage and civil registration coverage.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012.  p.Across the world, the number of deaths among children under 5 has been on a continuous decline for over two decades, says the 2012 Progress Report on Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed. Data released today by UNICEF and the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation show that the number of children under the age of 5 dying globally has dropped from nearly 12 million in 1990 to an estimated 6.9 million in 2011. The report combines mortality estimates with insights into the top killers of children under 5 and the high-impact strategies that are needed to accelerate progress. The report shows that all regions of the world have seen a marked decline in under-5 mortality since 1990. Neither a country’s regional affiliation nor economic status need be a barrier to reducing child deaths; low-, medium- and high- income countries all have made tremendous progress in lowering their under-5 mortality rates. But under-5 deaths are increasingly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. One in every nine children in sub-Saharan Africa dies before reaching the age of 5. And progress in lowering child mortality rates lags behind among disadvantaged and marginalized people, around the world. Undernutrition is a factor in one third of all under-5 child deaths. If disease and undernutrition are to be tackled successfully, broader issues such as water supply, sanitation and hygiene and education will also have to be addressed. The report provides further impetus for a renewed global movement to end preventable child deaths.
Global health and the new bottom billion. What do shifts in global poverty and the Global Disease Burden mean for GAVI and the Global Fund?
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2011 Oct.  p. (Center for Global Development Working Paper No. 270)After a decade of rapid growth in average incomes, many countries have attained middle-income country (MIC) status. At the same time, the total number of poor people hasn’t fallen as much as one might expect and, as a result, most of the world’s poor now live in MICs. In fact, there are up to a billion poor people or a ‘new bottom billion’ living not in the world’s poorest countries but in MICs. Not only has the global distribution of poverty shifted to MICs, so has the global disease burden. This paper examines the implications of this ‘new bottom billion’ for global health efforts and recommends a tailored middle-income strategy for the Global Fund and GAVI. The paper describes trends in the global distribution of poverty, preventable infectious diseases, and health aid response to date; revisits the rationale for health aid through agencies like GAVI and the Global Fund; and proposes a new MIC strategy and components, concluding with recommendations.
Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2011 Nov; 56(6):598-607.In the late 1990s, the World Health Organization (WHO) created the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC), which provide evidence-based recommendations for safe and effective contraception in women with medical problems. The WHO MEC incorporate the best available evidence, are periodically updated, and are designed to be modified for specific populations. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published US MEC in 2010. Changes to WHO guidelines for use in the US population include the following areas: breastfeeding, intrauterine device use, valvular heart disease, ovarian cancer, uterine fibroids, and venous thromboembolism. Medical conditions not covered by WHO recommendations but added to the US MEC include contraceptive guidance for women with inflammatory bowel disease, history of bariatric surgery, rheumatoid arthritis, endometrial hyperplasia, history of peripartum cardiomyopathy, and history of solid organ transplant. This article reviews the changes and additions to WHO MEC found in the US MEC. (c) 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Journal of Women's Health. 2011 Jun; 20(6):825-8.Abstract Women with unintended pregnancies are more likely to experience poor pregnancy outcomes. For women with medical conditions, unintended pregnancy may worsen the condition and carry even greater risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and perinatal death. Although safe and highly effective contraceptive methods are available to prevent unintended pregnancy, there may be concerns about the safety of contraceptive methods among women with medical conditions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recently developed the U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, which provides evidence-based recommendations for the safety of contraceptive use among women with medical conditions. Most women, even those with medical conditions, can safely use most methods of contraception.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011.  p.World Health Statistics 2011 contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 193 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets. This volume's indicators, taken together, provide a comprehensive summary of the current status of nine aspects of national health and health systems: life expectancy and mortality; cause-specific mortality and morbidity; selected infectious diseases; health service coverage; risk factors; health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines; health expenditure; health inequities; and demographic and socioeconomic statistics.
Adaptation of the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use for use in the United States.
Contraception. 2010 Jul; 82(1):3-9.BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently adapted global guidance on contraceptive use from the World Health Organization (WHO) to create the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (MEC). This guidance includes recommendations for use of specific contraceptive methods by people with certain characteristics or medical conditions. STUDY DESIGN: CDC determined the need and scope for the adaptation, conducted 12 systematic reviews of the scientific evidence and convened a meeting of health professionals to discuss recommendations based on the evidence. RESULTS: The vast majority of the US guidance is the same as the WHO guidance and addresses over 160 characteristics or medical conditions. Modifications were made to WHO recommendations for six medical conditions, and recommendations were developed for six new medical conditions. CONCLUSION: The US MEC is intended to serve as a source of clinical guidance for providers as they counsel clients about contraceptive method choices. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Contraception. 2010 Jul; 82(1):113-8.This article aims to stimulate research to address gaps in the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use so that more women have access to the most appropriate contraceptive methods, based on safety and effectiveness, for their particular condition and characteristics. It identifies the three conditions for which further research is needed; contraception for obese women, contraception for breastfeeding women, and contraception for women with HIV or AIDS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010.  p.World Health Statistics 2010 contains WHO's annual compilation of data from its 193 Member States, and includes a summary of progress towards the health-related Millennium Development Goals and targets. This volume's indicators, taken together, provide a comprehensive summary of the current status of nine aspects of national health and health systems: mortality and burden of disease; cause-specific mortality and morbidity; selected infectious diseases; health service coverage; risk factors; health workforce, infrastructure and essential medicines; health expenditure; health inequities; and demographic and socioeconomic statistics.
Public health, innovation and intellectual property: Report of the Expert Working Group on Research and Development Financing.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2009 Dec 23. 19 p. (EB126/6 Add.1)There is persistent and growing concern that the benefits of the advances in health technology are not reaching the poor. The emphasis of the developed world is naturally on the solution of the problems that affect it predominantly. This is in spite of the evidence of the heavy burden of disease on the poor, which in addition to being one of the more egregious manifestations of inequity, could undoubtedly affect overall global stability. There is convincing evidence of the poor bearing a double burden of disease, but there is still no indication of adequate research and development to address the Type II and III diseases. This growing focus on the diseases of the poor has led to examination of the relationship between intellectual property rights, innovation and public health, and the gap in the innovation cycle with the concern that the commercial incentives provided by intellectual property rights have not resulted in sufficient improvements in public health in developing countries or to access to the benefits of innovations that take place in the developed world. The Director-General of WHO established an expert working group to address some of these challenges in the context of the Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2009 Dec.  p.Lack of access to quality health care and clean water and sanitation, undernutrition, and other preventable or treatable causes lead to the deaths of tens of thousands of children worldwide every day. But new estimates from UNICEF, WHO, the World Bank, and the UN Population Division show that under-5 mortality has declined steadily since 1990, and that progress has accelerated this decade. In 1990, nearly 13 million children died before their fifth birthday. By 2008, that number had been cut to 9 million.
Keeping evidence-based recommendations up to date: the World Health Organization's global guidance for family planning.
Contraception. 2009 Oct; 80(4):323-4.This editorial explains the different tools that the World Health Organization's (WHO) Department of Reproductive Health and Research in collaboration with international partners have been creating and updating as global guidance for family planning. It discusses that the tools are based on the best scientific evidence and stresses the importance of updating the recommendations in the tools.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2008. 2 p.There is now widespread agreement that the earth is warming, due to emissions of greenhouse gases caused by human activity. It is also clear that current trends in energy use development and population growth will lead to continuing - and more severe - climate change. The changing climate will inevitably affect the basic requirements for maintaining health: clean air and water, sufficient food and adequate shelter. Each year, about 800 000 people die from causes attributable to urban air pollution, 1.8 million from diarrhoea resulting from lack of access to clean water supply, sanitation, and poor hygiene, 3.5 million from malnutrition and approximately 60 000 in natural disasters. A warmer and more variable climate threatens to lead to higher levels of some air pollutants, increase transmission of diseases through unclean water and through contaminated food, to compromise agricultural production in some of the least developed countries, and increase the hazards of extreme weather. Climate change also brings new challenges to the control of infectious diseases. Many of the major killers are highly climate sensitive as regards to temperature and rainfall, including cholera, and the diarrhoeal diseases, as well as diseases including malaria, dengue and other infections carried by vectors. In sum, climate change threatens to slow, halt or reverse the progress that the global public health community is now making against many of these diseases. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Dec 15; 370(9604):1975.A UNICEF report published on Dec 10 gives the most comprehensive data to date on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Although there has been much international attention focused on MDG-4-to reduce under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015-the report also details child-focused statistical information on all of the eight MDGs, in addition to data on World Fit for Children targets. These targets cover important factors in child health and wellbeing which are not included in the MDGs, such as child labour, violence, and discrimination. The report combines all appropriate and latest available information and relies on data from UNICEF global databases, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, and Demographic and Health Surveys, which vary in the time period in which information is collected and collated. Therefore, although some statistics in the report are new, other figures are more familiar. (excerpt)