Your search found 26 Results

  1. 1
    334800

    Keys to youth-friendly services: Celebrating diversity.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Oct. [12] p.

    Young people are not a single homogenous group, but a diverse population whose sexual and reproductive health needs are complex, shifting and varied. Youth-friendly service delivery should be based on an understanding of and respect for each person's unique social, cultural and economic identity.
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  2. 2
    351761
    Peer Reviewed

    Care and the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women: a transformative policy space?

    Bedford K

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):197-207.

    In March 2009, UN member states met at the 53rd Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to discuss the priority theme of "the equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including caregiving in the context of HIV/AIDS". This meeting focused the international community's attention on care issues and generated Agreed Conclusions that aimed to lay out a roadmap for care policy. I examine how the frame of "care" - a contested concept that has long divided feminist researchers and activists - operated in this site. Research involved a review of documentation related to the meeting and interviews with 18 participants. Using this research I argue that the frame of care united a range of groups, including conservative faith-based actors who have mobilized within the UN to roll back sexual and reproductive rights. This policy alliance led to important advances in the Agreed Conclusions, including strong arguments about the global significance of care, especially in relation to HIV; the need for a strong state role; and the value of caregivers' participation in policy debates. However, the care frame also constrained debate at the CSW, particularly about disability rights and variations in family formation. Those seeking to reassert sexual and reproductive rights are grappling with such limitations in a range of ways, and attention to their efforts and concerns can help us better understand the potentials and dangers for feminist intervention within global policy spaces. Copyright (c) 2010 UNRISD. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  3. 3
    327133

    Children and vulnerability in Tanzania: a brief synthesis.

    Leach V

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Research on Poverty Alleviation [REPOA], 2007. 26 p. (Special Paper 07.25)

    The intention of this paper is to highlight the key issues of children and vulnerability in Tanzania. The paper states that a national framework for social protection must be established to address these overwhelming facets of insecurity and vulnerability for children in Tanzania. The framework needs to reduce vulnerability, strengthen capabilities and must therefore put priority on improving the rural economy and rural conditions of life, and on improving health care and other services in rural areas to reduce the toll of ill-health on children and their caregivers. According to the paper pre-natal and obstetric care must be improved so that at birth babies and their mothers are provided health services which minimise their risk of death. Moreover, individuals who require special support may be identified through a combination of community and local government systems, with strengthened organised community groups to care for the most vulnerable. The paper further states that the level of support provided by several programmes to a relatively small number of children, for clothing, for example, is far in excess of the average expenditures by the majority of households on their children. The challenge is to provide support mechanisms which are not stigmatising, nor discriminatory, but which ensure that all children, no matter what their circumstances, benefit from and contribute to their own development and that of the nation to their fullest capacity. In conclusion the paper emphasises that the implications of this analysis suggest that investments are most critically needed to ensure that there is equitable access to quality health care, and that much more serious attention is needed towards the social attitudes towards children and young people and practices of caring for children, not only as infants, but also as older children.
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  4. 4
    323585
    Peer Reviewed

    Utility of the WHO ten questions screen for disability detection in a rural community -- the north Indian experience.

    Singhi P; Kumar M; Malhi P; Kumar R

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2007 Dec; 53(6):383-387.

    The utility of the WHO Ten Questions Screen (TQS) was studied in a rural community of North India. The study was done in three villages, in two phases. In phase 1, the TQS was administered to parents of children aged between 2 and 9 years, during a house-to-house survey. In phase 2, all children screened positive and a random sample of 110 screened negative were clinically evaluated in detail. The total population of the three villages was 5830 with 1763 children aged between 2 and 9 years. Seventy-six children were positive on the TQS, of these, 38 were found to have significant disability, 18 had protein energy malnutrition and 19 were found normal on clinical evaluation. All the 110 screen-negative children were normal. Significantly larger numbers of boys were positive on TQS as compared to girls [Odd Ratio (OR) 1.5]. The sensitivity of the TQS for significant disability was 100%; the positive predictive value was 50% and was higher for boys than for girls. Of the 50% children classified as false positive 23% had mild delays due to malnutrition. The estimated prevalence of disability was 16/1000. The TQS was found to be a sensitive tool for detection of significant disabilities among children 2-9 years of age. The low-positive predictive value would lead to over referrals but a large number of these children would benefit from medical attention. (author's)
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  5. 5
    314640

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 3. Regional instruments: Africa, Middle East, Asia, Americas. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [385] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    314639

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 1. International instruments: UNHCR, refugees and asylum, statelessness, internally displaced persons, migrants, human rights. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [585] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    314638

    Collection of international instruments and other legal texts concerning refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. 2. International instruments: international humanitarian law, international criminal law, international maritime and aviation law, miscellaneous. Provisional release.

    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2006 Nov. [415] p.

    The first edition of the Collection of International Instruments Concerning Refugees was published in 1979. Thereafter, the compilation was updated regularly as new developments took place in the international law relating to refugees and other persons of concern to UNHCR. The 2006 edition takes account of the increasingly apparent inter-relationship and complimentarity between, on one hand, international refugee law and, on the other, human rights, humanitarian, criminal and other bodies of law. The Collection features over 240 instruments and legal texts drawn from across this broad spectrum. Compared to the earlier edition of the Collection, this edition includes many international instruments and legal texts relating to issues such as statelessness, the internally displaced and the asylum-migration debate (such as trafficking, smuggling, maritime and aviation law and migrants) as well as matters such as torture, discrimination, detention and the protection of women and children. The range of relevant regional instruments and legal texts have also been enhanced, not least to ensure that they are used more effectively while advocating for refugees and others of concern to UNHCR. Today, users can access veritable reference resources by electronic means. The Collection itself is accessible on-line. For users not able to access electronic facilities, it provides, in hard copy, the most important instruments in a manner easy to use in daily work. Indeed, even for those otherwise able to take advantage of electronic facilities, the availability of these instruments systematically in a single source offers unique facility and benefits. (excerpt)
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  8. 8
    302581

    Third Committee: social, humanitarian and cultural; Human rights dominate the development agenda.

    UN Chronicle. 2005 Dec; [3] p..

    In a year that has seen a renewed commitment to social development and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the Third Committee's work on social, cultural and humanitarian issues has been of particular importance. Committee Chairman Francis K. Butagira of Uganda told the UN Chronicle that the 2005 World Summit was an important catalyst. It dealt with such issues as human rights, women in general, gender issues, disabilities and refugees--"all these have a direct bearing on the concept of the development agenda, as emphasized by the Summit", he said. The Committee met 48 times, from early October to late November 2005, and addressed 14 agenda items encompassing issues ranging from international drug control to indigenous rights. Interactive debate on many issues was complemented by reports presented by heads of those UN offices, funds and agencies, whose work directly relates to the Third Committee's agenda, and by special rapporteurs and representatives, who were invited to report on a specific area of investigation. The Committee recommended to the Assembly 59 resolutions, of which 40 were adopted unanimously. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    183959

    [Latin America and the Caribbean. Human rights for the twenty-first century] Latinoamericana y El Caribe. Derechos humanos para el siglo XXI.

    RedAda. 1997 Nov; (25):15-17.

    In December 1998, the United Nations will commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Cognizant of the importance of this event, women the world over are preparing now so that their different voices will not go unheard during this great celebration. In this respect, campaigns are being organized for universal ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, for the approval of an optional protocol on this Convention during that celebration, as well as campaigns for the full recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, the rights of indigenous peoples, persons with disabilities, and so forth. (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    240584

    Demographic yearbook. Special issue: population ageing and the situation of elderly persons. Annuaire demographique. Edition speciale: vieillissement de la population et situation des personnes agees.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistical Division, 1993. viii, 855 p.

    This is the second of two volumes presenting global demographic data for 1991. "In this volume, the focus is on population ageing and on characteristics of the elderly population. The tables show how the age structure of the population has changed in the process of the demographic transition. Also presented are changes in fertility, mortality and living arrangements over the period of forty years from 1950-1990. Characteristics of the elderly population are shown on urban/rural residence, marital status, literacy, economic characteristics and disability. A special section on the living arrangements of elderly persons as developed from population censuses complements this picture. Throughout the Yearbook data are shown by urban/rural residence." (EXCERPT)
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  11. 11
    166512

    An accessible world [letter]

    Hyman J

    New York Times on the Web. 2002 Apr 18; [1] p..

    This brief letter to the editor notes that in addressing the needs of a growing population of older people, the UN should not overlook the most basic and fundamental need of an aging population that will increasingly require the use of a wheelchair or other mobility aid: accessible communities. The author writes that new programs and services are meaningful only if the people they are intended to help can gain access to the buildings and facilities in which they are offered. She says that although the US and other economically advantaged countries have made recent strides in accessibility, many of the countries that will be the focus of the UN's efforts have not.
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  12. 12
    157429

    Home-based long-term care. Report of a WHO Study Group.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Home-Based Long-Term Care

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2000. v, 43 p. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 898)

    Life expectancy is increasing in many parts of the world, whereby not only are more people living to old age, but more are also living with disabling conditions. These conditions include people who are chronically ill, who have serious disabilities, who have HIV/AIDS, who are mentally ill, who are victims of accidents and disasters, and who are elderly. Many of these conditions need continuing care and support, not simply looking after them but enabling them to live their lives as fully and as rewardingly as possible. This report by an international WHO Study Group examines the options of long-term care. It points to the benefits that home-based care offers to the patient, while stressing that the personal and health needs of caregivers in the home must not be compromised. Families have practiced home-based long-term care for centuries, and family members will always remain a valuable resource for care. This report argues that it is time for health systems to take responsibility for providing caregivers in families and communities with the support they need both to help make their tasks more bearable and to bring a greater share of benefit to the patient.
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  13. 13
    134420

    [Health: old and new diseases] La sante: anciennes et nouvelles maladies.

    Khlat M

    In: La population du monde: enjeux et problemes, edited by Jean-Claude Chasteland and Jean-Claude Chesnais. Paris, France, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED], 1997. 435-60. (Travaux et Documents Cahier No. 139)

    The author clarifies the conceptual framework of the study of populations health in an attempt to understand the notions of demographic transition and epidemiological transition. World Health Organization (WHO) statistics are then noted, followed by the presentation of WHO data on the global health situation. Estimated numbers of all cases of morbidity and mortality worldwide by cause are presented for 1993. Where possible, the prevalence, incidence, and number of long-term handicaps caused by each ailment are presented in addition to the number of deaths caused. According to data collected by WHO, approximately 51 million people died worldwide in 1993, of which almost 24% were in developed countries and 76% were in developing countries. The most important groups of illnesses were infectious and parasitic diseases, and causes of maternal, perinatal, and neonatal mortality, responsible for about 40% of all mortality during the year. 99% of these latter deaths occurred in the developing world. Then, circulatory system diseases, chronic lower respiratory system illness, and cancer were together responsible for about the same number of deaths, with the numbers of such deaths divided almost equally between developed and developing countries. External causes, such as accidents, suicides, and homicides caused near to 4 million deaths, or 8% of the overall total. These causes of morbidity and mortality are discussed, followed by consideration of likely future trends for the world s predominant ailments.
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  14. 14
    127134

    The 2000 round of censuses and large surveys: data collection proposals.

    Arriaga E

    In: Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Innovative Techniques for Population Censuses and Large-Scale Demographic Surveys, The Hague, 22-26 April 1996, [compiled by] Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. The Hague, Netherlands, NIDI, 1996. 261-8.

    Measures must be taken to properly plan the year 2000 round of population and housing censuses. Enough time remains to propose questions which will improve the possibility of obtaining information on some population characteristics. However, collecting accurate data is only the first step in the process of census or survey taking. In order for a census to be useful, census data must be processed immediately and quickly disseminated and analyzed. Most of the programs that national and international agencies are implementing throughout the world will largely benefit the upcoming 2000 round of censuses, but only if questions are properly formulated and data quickly processed, disseminated, and analyzed. The following topics, mostly proposed by the UN, should be included in census questionnaires for most developing and some developed countries: disability, education, countries with educational registration systems, countries without educational registration systems, family structure and housing characteristics, fertility, labor force, internal and international migration, morbidity, mortality, and the special case of mortality and fertility.
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  15. 15
    111483

    Children and women in Zimbabwe: a situation analysis. Update 1994.

    UNICEF

    Harare, Zimbabwe, UNICEF-Harare, 1994 Jun. v, 113 p.

    This volume provides a situation analysis of social, economic, structural, and political conditions in Zimbabwe. 14 chapters cover a wide range of topics, including history, geography, demography, government and administration, food security and nutrition, information networks, women's status, laws and statutes, health, AIDS' impact on women and children, education, water and environmental sanitation, orphans, refugees, and the handicapped. The overview describes the situation of children in Zimbabwe as dependent on class and race, gender and place of birth, education and job opportunities, marital prospects, and access to land and resources. Zimbabwe is viewed as a young country, which has experienced independence for only 14 years. In 1990, immunization covered 85% of all children. Infant and child mortality declined. Life expectancy increased. Primary school enrollment rose to 2.1 million. Over the past 14 years the government has expanded social services and enacted legislation for improving the status of women. Recently social indicators have declined. The reasons are multiple and complex. Some of the reasons are identified as the 1991-92 drought, the global recession, structural adjustment programs, declines in real per capita spending on social programs, the HIV epidemic and associated epidemics of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases, and decreased investment in infrastructure.
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  16. 16
    078624

    Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20 November 1989.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:95, 485-501.

    This document contains the text of the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Convention opens with a preamble which notes, among other things, that children are entitled to special care and assistance, that the family is the natural environment for the nurturing of children, and that international cooperation is important for improving the living conditions of children, especially in developing countries. Part 1 of the Convention contains 41 Articles which specify the rights of children to such things as protection against discrimination; proper care and protection; survival and development; a name and nationality; a unified family; freedom of expression, thought, conscience, religion, association, and peaceful assembly; access to information; adoption; having special needs met (in the case of handicapped children); health; social security; an adequate standard of living; education; rest and leisure; and protection from economic exploitation, illegal drugs, and sexual abuse. In addition, no child under the age of 15 years should serve in any armed forces. Parts 2 and 3 of the Convention deal with administrative issues such as the establishment of a Committee on the Rights of the Child as well as ratification, reservations, amendments, and denouncements of the Convention.
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  17. 17
    107563

    Viet Nam: the situation of children and women.

    UNICEF; Viet Nam

    Hanoi, Viet Nam, UNICEF, 1990. XX, 185 p.

    This document states the concern for the children of Vietnam, the government's policy goals for children, and the implications for the UNICEF program of cooperation. It presents the findings from a situation analysis of women and children in Vietnam in terms of the water and food supply, sanitation, primary health care, nutrition, early childhood development, basic general education, and women in development. The issues for children are directly addressed in subchapters on infant and child mortality, preventable diseases, immunization programs, disease control programs, health policy and infrastructure, nutritional status, anthropometric status and nutrient deficiencies, disabilities, juvenile delinquency, neglected children, school enrollment and drop-out rates, literacy training, and child care services. Women are profiled in terms of the family, ethnic affiliation, demographic characteristics, health, nutrition, education, employment, and women's groups. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and future UNICEF cooperation is given. The conclusion is drawn that the status of women has improved to a great extent. Further effort should be directed to women's and children's health, nutrition, and education. Government policies of economic liberalization are identified as useful in increasing support for social services, particularly educational and health services. Women's roles as mothers and wage earners or laborers are considered likely to deteriorate in the short term. Recommendations are made to improve the situation of women through increased roles for women in decision making and though improvement in the management of women's groups. The aim is identified as improvement in women's health and economic status. Health improvements are identified as better access to family planning and the reduction of maternal mortality. Research recommendations are made to provide better information on women's health and nutrition status, women's role in agriculture and forestry, and the conditions of ethnic minority women.
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  18. 18
    097249

    UNDP study addresses world's victimization, neglect and human rights abuse of people with disabilities. [Press release].

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    [Unpublished] 1993 Dec 3. [5] p.

    A study entitled Prejudice and Dignity: An Introduction to Community-Based Rehabilitation by Dr. Einar Helander, Senior Program Coordinator for UNDP's Interregional Programme for Disabled People, reveals the distressing situation of the disabled worldwide, and recommends measures that need to be taken both in industrial and developing countries to address this problem. People with disabilities now comprise 5% of the global population and in 1992 there were 290 million people worldwide with moderate or severe disabilities. Adding to this approximately 23,000 a day, the number of people who are disabled is expected to reach 573 million by the year 2025. With rehabilitation, people with disabilities are enabled to take care of themselves. Governments, however, have often relied on charitable organizations to provide traditional less than satisfactory institutional-based care. A review of existing services in 57 such institutions in an Asian country showed insufficient funding, deplorable physical conditions, apathetic and/or abusive care, untrained or poorly-trained staff, unskilled management, deficient programs, and lack of family involvement. Recently the involvement of a strong organized movement of the disabled themselves has made governments increasingly aware of the problem and has somewhat improved their situation in developed countries. The study proposes a rehabilitation program with equality, social justice, solidarity, and integration. This community-based rehabilitation approach advocates the creation of a caring society by the local community members within a permanent system in which governments provide training for personnel, offer technical supervision, and operate the referral system. A current collaborative endeavor in Ghana, between a number of UN agencies, the national government, several NGOs, the local community, and the disabled themselves provides community-based services for people with disabilities. A community in Portugal all but replaces its geriatric hospital with in-home care provided to the elderly by local volunteers.
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  19. 19
    093547

    School for beggars' children.

    Eferaro S; Uloko SD

    NIGERIA'S POPULATION. 1993 Oct-Dec; 5.

    The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end.
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  20. 20
    084964

    What constitutes good health? Definitions and applications to developing countries.

    Brown SC

    In: International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 1, [compiled by] International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1993. 499-519.

    Under the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH) system there are 3 kinds of disease consequences: impairment, disability, and handicap. The objectives was to demonstrate that: 1) well-being can be defined beyond traditional mortality measures; 2) positive definitions of function can be developed; and 3) quality of life definitions can be applied to populations. The ICIDH assesses health status beyond the level of disease. Well-being means full functioning of bodily organs encompassing 9 broad categories: 1) intellectual; 2) other psychological; 3) language; 4) aural; 5) ocular; 6) visceral; 7) skeletal; 8) disfiguring; and 9) generalized, sensory, and other. At the disability level, functional actions at the person level are of concern and well-being can be viewed as full functioning for personal actions, activities, or behaviors. This assessment of person functioning or the lack of disability encompasses 9 broad categories: 1) behavior, 2) communications, 3) personal care, 4) locomotor, 5) body disposition, 6) dexterity, 7) situational, 8) personal skill, and 9) other activity. Data in the 1979-81 period indicated a disability prevalence rate of 5.5% of the disabled population. Well-being must include measures of quality of life, and its definition should include 3 components: 1) at the organ level, full psychological, physiological, or anatomical function without aid; 2) at the person level, normal ability to perform activities possibly with the aid of an assistive device; and 3) at the interaction with environment or societal/population level in the fulfillment of life roles. Data are presented for Ethiopia, Mali, the Netherlands Antilles, the Philippines, and Saint Helena to show that many of these concepts have become operational in the developing world.
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  21. 21
    084963

    Measurement of morbidity and disability with cross-sectional surveys in developing countries. Review of recent evidence on reliability and validity.

    van Ginneken JK

    In: International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 1, [compiled by] International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1993. 483-97.

    The measurement of morbidity and disability is reviewed. Information on perceived, self perceived, or subjective morbidity is obtained by 1) rating the state of health in general; 2) questions on signs, symptoms, and diseases; 3) algorithms on diagnosis of diseases; and 4) sets of questions on disability focusing on the behavioral consequences of morbidity. The 3rd and 4th approach have more potential than the 1st and 2nd. Data collection methods for objective morbidity studies comprise cross-sectional, population-based studies; longitudinal, populations based studies; and medical records. Data collection for perceived morbidity studies consists of cross-sectional, population-based studies; longitudinal, population-based studies; and anthropological studies. The existing techniques to check on the quality of data fall into 3 categories; internal consistency checks, reinterviews and comparison with other sources of data. The internal consistency checks validate the length of the recall period or advantages and disadvantages of open or closed questions. Reinterviews and external comparisons facilitate it to draw conclusions on the quality of information of results of health interviews. Aspects of cross-sectional interview surveys with relevance for measurement of morbidity are: incidence, duration, and prevalence; accuracy of information and length of the recall period; phrasing, sequence, and number of questions; open vs. closed questions; self vs. proxy reporting; and training and supervision of interviewers. Health interviews and other sources of data are often compared with medical examinations medical records, mother's definition with standard definition, and 2 cross-sectional surveys. Instruments used in cross sectional surveys are very sensitive to length of the recall period, wording of the question, open vs. closed questions, and self vs. proxy reporting.
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  22. 22
    084962

    Meaning of morbidity measures in the Third World.

    Adjei S

    In: International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal 1993, 24 August - 1st September. Volume 1, [compiled by] International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1993. 477-82.

    The definition of morbidity, its measurement, and the data collecting techniques commonly used are presented. Morbidity measures must be interpreted in a way that: 1) common definitions of good health and of morbidity must be used; 2) the measures of morbidity must be explained; and 3) the data collection technique employed in assessment of the morbidity state are also examined. WHO has defined health as not merely the absence of disease but includes social and mental well-being. The distinction between disease and illness derives from the contrast between biomedical definitions and culturally determined phenomena. The International Classification of Impairments, Disability and Handicaps (ICIDH) is the framework for classification of disease using 3 levels of disease consequences: impairment, disability, and handicap. The classification allows for assessment of functional activities at the personal level. These include behavior, communication, and personal care. Handicapping conditions deal with disadvantages that limit fulfillment of a normal role. The classification allows for a variety of rates to be calculated for specific age and sex groups. One paper dealt with morbidity causes and morbidity derived from signs, symptoms, laboratory test results, health examination, and medical records. Individual factors for selecting use of health service include accessibility, availability, and the socioeconomic status of the individual. Qualitative techniques employed include observational methods, focus group interviews, and in 2 depth interview. Cultural conceptions of illness in the measurement of morbidity and local ethnomedical classification of illness must be considered. The commonly employed quantitative method is the large-scale household survey. Comparison of the results of diarrhea prevalence by the Demographic Health Survey and CDD/WHO survey found that a close agreement between the 2 figures occurred in only 1 country. There is a marked contrast between medically defined morbidity and mortality reported by a person interviewed.
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  23. 23
    072480
    Peer Reviewed

    Estimated number of leprosy cases in the world.

    Noordeen SK; Lopez Bravo L; Sundaresan TK

    BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1992; 70(1):7-10.

    World leprosy estimates are discussed and generated for 1991. In an effort to identify 5.5 million registered leprosy cases in the world for 1991 it was found that there also are 2-3 million people with deformities due to leprosy. The rehabilitative requirements of this population need to be served in addition to the continued multidrug therapy (MDT) needed to control prevalence. Successful leprosy control has led to a reduction from prior estimates of 10-12 million cases. There are many problems in estimating because of the low frequency of occurrence and its uneven distribution. Well-planned sample surveys are practical and cost effective only in limited areas, rather than for countries as a whole, and also include nonsampling errors. Multimethods were used to derive the world estimates, and the estimates have been adequate for planning purposes. The magnitude of the problem was addressed in 1966 by the WHO which reported 10,786,000 cases which remained stable through 1972. A 1983 estimate by the WHO Study Group on Epidemiology of Leprosy in Relation to Control was 11,525,000 cases. 95% of registered cases are from 25 countries, of which 5 countries contribute 82% (Nigeria, Brazil, Myanmar, Indonesia, and Bangladesh). The current estimates focused on these countries. In the 5 countries, not only were correction factors applied to registered cases, but intensive reviews of all available information and discussions with relevant program managers were conducted. Correction factors for each region were used unless more reliable information was available. The correction factor was calculated as the ratio of registered cases in the top 25 countries in the region to earlier country estimates. There were 5 reasons why estimates in 1991 were significantly lower: 1) cases cured through MDT, 2) removal of cases not fitting the WHO definition which requires a case to be someone receiving MDT treatment or needing treatment, 3) late effects of an intensive dapsone-based control effort, 4) strengthened control activities, and 5) natural declining trends. The patients needing rehabilitation were estimated by considering the past case records over 50 years and the proportion with deformities, the survival rate of those deformed, and the nature of control activity. Estimates and registration of cases is given for 25 countries.
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  24. 24
    070902

    EPI target diseases: measles, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, pertussis, and diphtheria.

    Rodrigues LC

    In: Disease and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, edited by Richard G. Feachem, Dean T. Jamison. Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1991. 173-89.

    In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), 1% of all children die of neonatal tetanus, 9% of measles, 3% of tuberculosis (TB), and 4% of pertussis. Further, .6% acquire paralytic polio. 20% of the .6% who acquire diphtheria die. Even though vaccination can control these diseases, only 20% of children in SSA receive the complete course of vaccination against the 6 diseases targeted by WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). But high vaccine coverage is not always a cure-all. For example, in the Gambia coverage is high but high mortality levels persist. Of the EPI diseases, measles is the greatest threat since it kills 2 million people annually in developing countries. Measles related mortality is highest in the 9 months following the disease. Even though tetanus is a major cause of death in neonates, tetanus also kills adults such as those that work with the land. Further the tetanus vaccination is effective in adults, but no adult program operates in SSA. Trained midwives reduce neonatal tetanus mortality by 76.6% and vaccination of pregnant mothers with 2 doses of tetanus toxoid reduces mortality 93.3%. Lameness surveys in SSA countries show that, contrary to earlier beliefs, paralytic polio is quite common (range 0.7-13.2). Administration of the oral polio vaccine and improved sanitation are responsible for a real fall in polio cases in the Gambia, the Ivory Coast, and Cameroon. TB was introduced into SSA in the 19th century. It mainly occurs in adults. The estimated life long risk of developing smear positive TB in SSA is 63. The case fatality rate of pertussis in the 1st year of life is high (3.2) and infants do no acquire maternal immunity against it, so the best control measures are early vaccination and identifying secondary cases among young siblings. Of the EPI diseases, scientists know the least about diphtheria in SSA. Its case fatality rate is high (11-38%) yet it is treatable. Primary problems of adequate vaccination coverage for the EPI diseases are managerial problems rather than technological.
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  25. 25
    001251

    The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong's Services for the mentally handicapped.

    Lam P

    [Unpublished] 1981. 9 p.

    Recognizing a need to provide help to mentally handicapped women with fertility related problems, the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong established a clinic for the mentally handicapped in May 1979. The basic rationale for the service was the United Nations 1971 proclamation of a Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons and its call for the protection of these rights. Articles of particular interest in the declaration are listed. After studying the situation, the Association began by introducing a series of educational activities and establishing the special clinic. Several pilot programs were conducted with the cooperation of the Pine Hill Village schools following the workshop organized for professionals working with mentally handicapped youths. Experience from those projects indicated that special skills and materials would be required in order to teach sex education to the mild to moderate grade mentally handicapped youths. 9 welfare agencies cooperated in a project to develop sex education. A monthly sex education course for parents of mentally handicapped children was initiated in September 1980 to help them understand aspects of the child's sexual behavior and how to cope with it. Since May 1979 the Association has been operating a pilot special clinic with a team made up of a gynecologist, psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, counselor, and nurse. Services include self-management skills in menstrual hygiene and preliminary assessment for determining appropriate birth control methods. The clinic has handled 92 cases thus far, and 4 case histories are presented to illustrate the nature and scope of the services.
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