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New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Jan. 34 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 746)This paper accepts the premise that positive sum games exist in all dimensions of North-South economic contacts but that the management of conflicts concerning the distribution of the gains requires careful attention. It then proceeds to analyze the current state of play and the character of these conflicts in each of the main arenas, focussing heavily on trade, but also discussing public and private capital movements, technology transfer and intellectual property rights issues and labor mobility. It concludes with a discussion of possible changes in international institutions and governance. (author's)
Enhancing support of African development - includes a definition of the African Initiative - Special Initiative on Africa - Cover story.
UN Chronicle. 1996 Summer; 33(2): p..The Special Initiative on Africa, launched globally on 15 March by the Secretary-General along with the executive heads of all UN agencies and organizations represented in the Administrative Committee on Coordination (ACC), aims to give practical expression to the policy commitments made in the past, such as the UN New Agenda for the Development of Africa in the 1990s. Unprecedented in scope, the Initiative reflects the priority accorded to Africa's development by the international community, the mandates emanating from the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and major UN conferences, as well as the undertakings made individually and collectively by African Governments to accelerate the development of their countries. (excerpt)
UNCHS - Habitat: global facilitation of human settlements efforts - United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, includes a related article announcing an April 1996 Washington, D.C. conference on Habitat II.
UN Chronicle. 1996 Spring; 33(1): p..The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS)--widely known as Habitat--was established in Nairobi in 1978, two years after the first Habitat Conference. It formulates and implements relevant UN programmes and serves as a think-tank within the UN system, assisting Governments in improving the development and management of human settlements. Habitat activities are based on the concept that human settlements "are the physical articulation of the social, economic and political interaction of people living in communities", states a UNCHS brochure. "Whether the communities are urban or rural, their development involves a transformation of the environment from its natural state to a built one. The elements required to meet basic human needs include housing and its related infrastructure, places of work, social services and recreation, and the institutions to produce and manage them." (excerpt)
Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO, Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Regional Clearing House on Population Education, 1996. , 154 p. (Abstract-Bibliography Series 13)This book provides a bibliography and abstracts of publications on the linkages between environmental degradation, population growth, and sustainable development in the Asia and Pacific region. The seven sections are titled: Environmental Problems, Population Problems, Sustainable Development, Policy Statements and World Meetings, Linkages, Population and Environmental Programs for Special Interest Groups (such as women and children), and Curriculum Materials. Each section includes a review and synthesis of information on the topic and lengthy and substantive abstracts of the selected referenced materials. The book cites 73 recent publications, including research studies, monographs, technical papers, reports, and journal articles. Cross referencing is made possible by the use of author and subject indexes included in the appendix. This volume is directed to population program planners, managers, and educators. The aim is to provide an overview of how problems of population and sustainable development are inseparably linked and interrelated to problems of poverty, income disparities, and wasteful consumption. Some potential solutions are provided. To date, the information indicates that economic tools must be combined with political change and policy implementation.
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1996 Sep; 22(3):594-600.This article discusses and reproduces two documents that outline the population goals of the UN. The first document is the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) new mission statement, which was revised in April 1996 to reflect the strategy contained in the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The mission statement defines the three areas of concern to UNFPA as 1) working toward universal access to sexual and reproductive health by the year 2015, 2) supporting capacity-building in population programming, and 3) promoting awareness of population and development issues and advocating for the mobilization of resources and political will to address these issues. The mission statement affirms the commitment of UNFPA to reproductive rights, gender equity and male responsibility, and the empowerment of women as development goals. Finally, the statement acknowledges the responsibility of UNFPA in overseeing the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action and in assisting in the mobilization of resources to meet the ICPD goals. The second document is the "Common Advocacy Statement on Population and Development" adopted to establish a commonly-shared language for the entire UN system and to integrate population into all UN development strategies. This statement defines sectoral linkages between population and poverty eradication, environmental protection, food security, women's empowerment, employment, education, and health. The ICPD Programme of Action's quantitative goals in the areas of education, mortality reduction (covering infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy), and reproductive health (including family planning and sexual health) are annexed to the statement.
Americas in harmony. Health and environment in sustainable human development. An opportunity for change and a call to action.
Washington, D.C., PAHO, 1996. vii, 42 p.This report presents summaries of the presentations, views, recommendations, and criticisms of the 1995 Pan American Conference on Health and the Environment in Sustainable Human Development. This conference was convened in response to government and societal commitments, the current global crisis, and the effects of ongoing global changes. Inequities and social injustices have assumed large proportions. The economy is an end in itself, regardless of the needs of humankind. There is a lack of permanent, balanced, genuine, open, and effective dialogue, especially between economic parties that formulate national policies and development plans and parties in the social domain. The conference aimed to foster increased and shared understanding of the links between health, environment, and sustainable development. The aims also were to formulate effective ways for integrating social needs and health and environmental concerns within national policies, plans, and development programs; and to find means of support. It is expected that the conference will bring about appropriate national and hemispheric dialogue, stronger political leadership, and opportunities for coordinating technical and financial international assistance and cooperation in support of national processes. Seven panel discussions focused on a variety of country, regional, and Charter strategies. An open forum addressed community participation in practice. Seven addresses focused on sustainable development. The report focuses its chapters on the present and future context and 10 areas for action.
In: The progress of nations, 1996, [compiled by] UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, 1996. 33-4.This article's author argues that, at present, governments are the only resource allocation agency for promoting positive rights (PRs) and preventing widespread human destitution or ill-being. Market forces allocate resources according to purchasing power rather than need and can create poverty. Poverty, rapid population growth, and environmental degradation are forces that push people into destitution. Honoring PRs is fundamental to economic progress, social cohesion, and political stability. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child seeks to promote positive (something to be done) and negative rights (something not to be done). PRs in the Convention are the right to adequate nutrition, primary health care, and a basic education. PRs are dependent upon resources, which are affected by scarcity and competition. Negative rights are feasible without limitations and are available in rich or poor countries. Article 24 of the Convention urges countries to reduce infant and child mortality and combat disease and malnutrition. Article 4 allows that countries shall undertake the aforementioned measures to the maximum extent of their available resources. The difficulty with the Convention is the ability of countries to assess whether governments guarantee PRs to the maximum extent of available resources. The "Progress of Nations 1993" identifies the National Performance Gap as an assessment measure of the percentage of children adequately nourished, the percentage being educated to at least grade 5, and the percentage surviving to age 5 against gross national product per capita. Some argue that services and commodities necessary for better health and adequate nutrition are not rights but needs. The counterargument is that needs become rights when countries are capable of meeting that need and the need becomes essential to human well-being.
EARTH TIMES. 1996 Oct 16-31; 9(18):14.Heads of state at the 1995 World Summit for Social Development agreed to Commitment 8, a resolution to make sure that structural adjustment programs include social development goals such as the eradication of poverty, the promotion of full and productive employment, and the enhancement of social integration. The cooperation of international financial institutions in adhering to the commitment can be requested by interested countries. As a result of this agreement, official World Bank/International Monetary Fund policy now views structural adjustment as a tool in service to social development. This development would suggest that fiscal stability is ultimately inseparable from social sustainability. However, the author notes that despite high-level awareness of the commitment, financial planners and investors largely conduct business as usual. It remains to be determined who or what will be the watchdog of social development when pressing and difficult fiscal decisions must be made. The author also notes the absence of women in high-level international financial policy making. Commitment 8 nonetheless represents positive progress in safeguarding the survival and quality of life of populations during periods of structural adjustment.
WORLD OF WORK. 1996 Sep-Oct; (17):8.Guatemala's recent ratification of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention regarding indigenous and tribal peoples (1989, No. 169) represents a commitment to guarantee the rights of the country's majority Mayan population. Ratifying governments are obligated to respect the traditional values and land rights of tribal and indigenous peoples and to consult with them on any decisions affecting their economic or social development. Ratification of this Convention was a key element in an eight-part UN-sponsored negotiation aimed at ending the civil war in Guatemala. Efforts are underway to promote dialogue between organized civil society and government. Negotiations in May 1996, conducted with ILO assistance, resulted in a socioeconomic agreement under which Guatemala will increase social investment in education, undertake agrarian reform, and institute tripartite consultation on all major social and economic issues. However, two key issues in the peace negotiations--the role of the army in civil society and constitutional reform--remain unresolved. The final global peace accord is expected to be signed in September 1996. UN organizations are already working to mobilize international support for transforming these agreements into political and social realities for the Guatemalan people.
POPULATION - FAMILY PLANNING NEWS. 1996 Jan-Jun; (2):3.Following the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Viet Nam government translated the ICPD Programme of Action into Vietnamese and disseminated it widely. Several workshops were organized; one concerned reproductive health, and another addressed the new priorities required after the ICPD. Senior ministers and officials from the population, health, and economic coordinating and planning ministries, and representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with women's health and reproductive health attended. A Programme Review and Strategy Development (PRSD) exercise facilitated the delineation of the Viet Nam country program. By the time of the PRSD mission in October 1995, the government had issued updated directions for cooperation between its national agencies and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA); reproductive health, family planning, population and development policy, advocacy, and capacity building were emphasized. These themes are addressed at UNFPA's Fifth Programme of Assistance for Viet Nam (1996-2000). The government is also committed to implementing the ICPD Programme of Action through programs being developed by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), Deutsche Gesellschafte fur Technische Zumsammenarbeit (German Agency for Technical Cooperation-GTZ), Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau (KfW), and the World Bank. National and international NGOs have focused on gender and reproductive health, adolescent health, women's empowerment, and the integration of programs promoting family planning and combatting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).