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  1. 1

    Gender and development in action.

    Rathgeber EM

    In: Feminism / postmodernism / development, edited by Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart. London, England, Routledge, 1995. 204-220.

    This chapter has suggested several possible reasons for the difficulty in operationalizing GAD projects but it may be worthwhile to focus further on what constitutes agreed-upon approaches in the field of development studies and practice and on the language used to justify and popularize different perspectives. As we have seen, development discourse is largely based on assumptions that have not changed substantially during the past thirty years and that never have been questioned very closely. Development practice has generally involved a heavy infusion of resources from outside with a predilection towards the "technological fix." Development theorists and practitioners have learned little from past mistakes, nor have they fundamentally changed their way of thinking or their mode of operation. As a result, isolated knowledge in the form of case studies or academic papers generated in either the North or South has had relatively little impact on most development practice. At the same time, we tend to minimize the recognition that the major actors in the development arena are both politically and economically motivated. In development planning and theorizing we seldom take into account the fact that donors seldom act exclusively from a sense of shared concern for the improvement of living conditions for people of the Third World but out of a desire to improve their own position. New power affiliations emerging out of development assistance have destroyed or eroded many traditional human relationships and values in the South. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Engendering development? Women in Development (WID) in international development regimes.

    Chowdhry G

    In: Feminism / postmodernism / development, edited by Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart. London, England, Routledge, 1995. 26-41.

    This chapter will demonstrate that the so-called WID regime, as implemented by international development agencies, has its origin in two distinct yet overlapping strands of modernist discourse: the colonial discourse and the liberal discourse on markets. The colonial discourse based on the economic, political, social and cultural privileging of European peoples, homogenizes and essentializes the Third World and Third World women. The liberal discourse on markets, based on a negative view of freedom, promotes free markets, voluntary choices and individualism. Its epistemological premises and practical implementations disempower Third World nations in the international political economy. Moreover, as it intersects with colonial discourse, liberal discourse paradoxically tends to disempower poor Third World women (despite its stated objective of helping women to "develop"). In this chapter I argue that this disempowerment of Third World women is exemplified and embodied by the WID regime, because it is situated at the intersection of these two (modernist) discourses. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Including culture in evaluation research.

    Klitgaard R

    In: Evaluation and development: proceedings of the 1994 World Bank conference, edited by Robert Picciotto and Ray C. Rist. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1995. 189-200. (World Bank Operations Evaluation Study)

    Sociocultural settings are missing variables in most evaluations of development projects and policies. This paper argues that evaluators should try to take account of differences in sociocultural contexts. Recent research demonstrates that taking culture into consideration can improve the evaluation of decentralized governance, economic and social development, and educational interventions. This paper uses the related concept of sociocultural setting to refer to shared meanings, customary institutions, and something akin to a collective personality. According to a metaphor by Robert Putnam, local sociocultural conditions are the symbolic soil in which development takes place and policies and projects may work better or worse, depending in part on the soil conditions. An important task for evaluation, indeed for applied social science, is to help in the understanding of these policies by culture interactions. An impending renaissance in applied sociocultural studies will enhance the evaluation research and improve prospects for sustainable development impacts.
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  4. 4

    Cairo and the changing definition of population and development issues.

    Hayes AC


    This article discusses a few intellectual and ideological developments during the 1980s and 1990s which impacted on the goals articulated at the UN International Conference on Population and Development and in its Plan of Action (POA). A major shift occurred between the Bucharest Plan of 1974 and the 1994 POA. The economic view was improved by an emphasis on the ecological, human rights, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) participatory views. The Bucharest Plan promoted the institutionalization of integrated population and development programs. The Cairo POA offered little guidance in how to institutionalize integrated approaches. The main Cairo strategy was radical in promoting the empowerment of women as a means to slow population growth. This strategy will require changes in existing power relations in society, at home, and in traditional morality. Consensus among 180 governments is a powerful statement of support for social change agents and undermines the "moral legitimacy" of those who resist. Scientific understanding of the links between population and development have improved over 20 years. However, political priorities have shifted, demographics have changed, goals for development have risen, and more viewpoints must be accounted for. Agreement on definitions of the problem and solutions will be difficult. Economic, ecological, and other perspectives have evolved into a more complex and conflicting understanding of interrelationships. A brief description of changes in perspectives is given for economic, ecological, human rights, and NGO views.
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  5. 5

    Social goals and economic reality.

    Jolly R

    In: The progress of nations 1995, compiled by UNICEF. New York, New York, UNICEF, 1995. 1.

    While there have been global improvements in health and well-being, social development can not be accelerated in a deteriorating economic or physical environment. Nor can the worst aspects of poverty be abolished without addressing unjust and exploitative economic relationships between and within nations. Much of the progress to date in social development can be credited to the efforts of the late executive director of UNICEF, James P. Grant, during 1980-95. James Grant until his death in 1995 acted behind the scenes to force the process of setting goals and mobilizing the political, social, and financial resources to achieving the goals. Poor countries and poor people must be given the chance to earn a fair return for their work. The report "The Progress of Nations" is evidence that some countries are gaining more in social development per economic dollar expended. However, regardless of cost effectiveness issues there is an interrelationship between economic and social progress. Present world conditions include: increasingly desperate poverty, joblessness, landlessness, and crisis conditions that set up the destructive cycles of population growth, environmental pressure, social tensions, and political instabilities. Avoidance of these issues could overwhelm past progress and future hopes. The 1960s development schemes did not result in "trickle down," the new economic order of the 1970s frustrated hopes, and the 1980s was a lost decade. Industrialized nations with control of 75% of the world's wealth and domination of trade, aid, and finance are responsible for the conditions within which developing countries must earn their living.
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  6. 6

    The population summit: reflections on the world's leading problems.

    Perlman M


    It is difficult for social scientists to maintain an academic position on the consequences of population growth against religious or political agendas. Reform lacks both imagination, relevance, and specificity. Reform should give priority in Africa to very real issues, such as widespread tribalism, political corruption, and the lack of decent quality schooling for children, rather than to high birth or AIDS-related death rates. In other parts of the world reform should involve defining how many workers are needed for support of children and the elderly with dignity. Crises force technological solutions to man-made practices affecting, for instance, ozone depletion. The published papers of the 1993 Population Science Summit in New Delhi address a variety of issues about the relationship between population, natural resources, and the environment. This article discusses some of the issues presented in the published papers: the planning framework, reform as a subjective or epistemic system rather than an objective or ontologic system, and doomsday scenarios. The Summit planning framework recognizes that population growth is too high, that solutions involve zero population growth, and an increased standard of living with equality for men and women is desired. The 25 papers by 32 authors focus on the urgency of the population problem, resource use, demographic transition in a gender perspective, family planning and reproductive health, and future policy needs. Demographers and intellectuals confuse value commitment to slowing population growth with objective scientific argument. The Summit papers are subjective and a reflection of beliefs and opinions rather than scientific findings. Few recognize that later in life Malthus considered gluts or oversupplies of materials the cause for doom. Environmentalists posit shortages as a critical problem, while instability in civil society and the level of general poverty are much more pervasive and serious.
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  7. 7

    Second consultative meeting discusses ICPD follow-up actions.


    The second Consultative Meeting of United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Country Directors (CDs), National Programme Officers (NPOs), and Country Support Team (CST) Advisors for East and Southeast Asia was held in Bangkok, March 20-23, 1995. Participants included the following: 1) all CDs in the subregion (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam); 2) the NPOs from the countries in which the CD is not resident (Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Mongolia); 3) Mr. Ghazi Farooq (CST Director); 4) members of the CST Bangkok; and 5) senior officials of UNFPA headquarters, including Mr. Jyoti Singh (Deputy Executive Director, Technical Services), Mr. Saad Raheem Sheikh (Director of Asia and the Pacific Division), and Mr. Jurgen Sacklowski (Director of Planning and Coordination Division). Technical backstopping, national capacity building, the program approach, and collaboration between the Field Offices and the CST were discussed at the meeting. New draft policy guidelines and approaches received from UNFPA headquarters on reproductive health and family planning, population and development, gender, IEC, youth, NGOs, basic data collection, and population distribution and migration were presented at the meeting. The implications of the ICPD Programme of Action for the subregion and individual countries, and the current ideas of UNFPA headquarters on its implementation were discussed.
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  8. 8

    Cairo conference: follow-up. Debate at the 49th session of the General Assembly.

    AFRICAN POPULATION NEWSLETTER. 1995 Jan-Jun; (67):2-5.

    The 49th session of the General Assembly passed a resolution endorsing the Program of Action from the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and decided that the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, and a revitalized Population Commission will play the primary role in the follow-up of the implementation of the Program of Action at the intergovernmental level. Regional commissions, other regional and subregional organizations, and the development banks are invited to examine the results of the conference within their respective mandates for the follow-up and implementation of the Program of Action at the regional level. The resolution also asks the Economic and Social Council at its substantive session of 1995 to consider the establishment of a separate board of the UN Population Fund. This article notes some of the suggestions and interests of countries and groups of countries following the conference. In addition, the UNFPA convened a high-level meeting to follow-up the ICPD, and the Commission on Population and Development held its first session at UN headquarters from February 21 to March 2, 1995. Future UNFPA orientations and priorities are noted.
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  9. 9

    Seminar to take ICPD forward.

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1995 Jan-Feb; 15(1):1-3.

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation/South Asia Region organized a 3-day seminar on Post ICPD Challenges; it was held February 6-8, 1995, in New Delhi, India. 48 participants attended, including Mr. Ram Krishna Neupane (FPA Nepal; Director General), Mr. Prabhat Rana (FPA Nepal; Director, Program Support Services Division), Ms. Prabha Thakkar (Manusi), Ms. Maya Giri (Radio Nepal), and Ms. Ami Joshi (Center for Women in Development). Ms. Avabai B. Wadia, President of the Family Planning Association of India, chaired the inaugural session; Mr. G. Verghees made the inaugural address. Dr. Indira Kapoor (IPPF/ASR; Regional Director), Dr. Pramila Senanayake (IPPF; Assistant Secretary General), and Mrs. Sunetra Puri (IPPF; Director, Public Affairs Department) presented papers on different topics highlighting the linkage between the IPPF VISION 2000 and the ICPD Plan of Action, and the need for a collaborating program in this area. Plenary presentation and discussions were held to provide an overview of plans to take the ICPD forward on women's issues (the empowerment of women, unsafe abortion, sexual and reproductive health). Dr. Ram Krishna Neupane represented Nepalese views in this area. This seminar was the first of its kind to draw together representatives of the media, women's organizations, and service providers; it was successful in eradicating misconceptions regarding the modern methods of contraception, in clarifying the misunderstandings between the media and the service providers, in strengthening commitment, and in preparing a plan of action for each member country in order to implement the ICPD Plan of Action.
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  10. 10

    Follow-up for the ICPD Program of Action. Sadik outlines achievements of Cairo and urges follow-up of program's recommendations.

    Sadik N

    JOICFP NEWS. 1995 Jan; (247):1.

    At a meeting in Tokyo on October 27, 1994, Dr. Nafis Sadik, executive director of the United Nations Population Fund, reviewed the achievements of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in September 1994. The meeting was attended by some 200 population experts, parliamentarians, government officials, representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the media. The ICPD adopted a new Program of Action for the next 20 years. The international community has acknowledged that investing in people, in their health and education, is the key to sustainable development. An important focus of ICPD was the need to include the empowerment of women in the formulation of national and international population and development policies to improve the quality of life for everyone. The program recognizes the need to integrate family planning (FP) activities into the wider context of reproductive health. Reproductive health care programs should be designed to serve the needs of women and men, including adolescents, and must involve women in the leadership, planning, decision-making, management, implementation, organization, and evaluation of services. The program recognizes the reproductive rights and reproductive health needs of adolescents in terms of information and services that help them make responsible decisions. NGOs in developed and developing countries alike have a crucial role to play in the provision of reproductive health-care information and services. NGOs in donor countries like Japan can press their governments to fulfill their commitments made at ICPD. Many Japanese NGOs, particularly JOICFP and Japan's Network for Women's Health, Cairo '94, have played an important role in mobilizing support for the goals of the ICPD. The significance of the ICPD will now depend on the willingness of governments, local communities, the NGO sector, the international community, and all other concerned organizations and individuals to turn the recommendations into action.
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  11. 11

    Cairo conference affirms CEDPA priorities.

    Centre for Development and Population Activities [CEDPA]

    CEDPA NETWORK. 1995 Jan; 1-2.

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) that was held in Cairo during September adopted a 20-year Programme of Action endorsing the empowerment of women as the foundation of sustainable development. 178 countries and more than a 1000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), including the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), from 100 countries attended the conference and the parallel NGO forum. The final document sets out specific steps for achievement of universal access to a full range of voluntary, quality family planning and reproductive health services for women and men; provision of services for the special needs of adolescents; closure of the gender gap in education; and empowerment of women via education, health care, and economic options. The CEDPA network of alumnae from 30 countries had worked over the 3 years prior to the conference for the inclusion of women's priorities in policies and to achieve consensus among the government and NGO caucuses. 14 alumnae, including Peggy Curlin (CEDPA President and US delegate), were appointed to their countries' delegations and directly influenced the Programme of Action. The NGO Forum provided a place to exchange experiences and expertise; CEDPA mounted an exhibit, "Empowering Women." The network's theme was "Access, Choice, and Participation." With support from the United Nations Population Fund, CEDPA developed a manual, "After Cairo: A Handbook on Advocacy for Women Leaders," which has been distributed at training sessions and workshops and was translated into French (with support from the US Agency for International Development in Mali) for distribution at the Dakar conference in November in preparation for the World Conference on Women. CEDPA and The Global Committee for Cairo honored the secretary-general of the conference, Dr. Nafis Sadik, for her leadership of the ICPD and UNFPA, and Aziza Hussein, co-chair of the NGO steering committee, at a luncheon; Dr. Sadik received the Global Committee for Cairo Award. Planning the implementation of the Programme of Action has already begun among CEDPA partners and network NGOs. Advocacy networks have already been organized in India and Kenya, with support from CEDPA, to monitor and promote the Programme of Action.
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  12. 12

    A major mobilization. ICPD follow-up.

    POPULI. 1995 Jan; 22(12):4-5.

    According to speakers from 45 countries, at a UN General Assembly debate (November 17-18), "a major mobilization of resources and effective monitoring of follow-up actions are needed" in order to implement the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Algeria spoke for developing countries in the Group of 77 (G77) and China; commended the Programme's recognition of the key role played by population policies in development and its new approach that centered on people rather than numbers; called for concerted international mobilization to meet ICPD goals for maternal, infant, and child mortality, and access to education; and, since G77 had agreed at the Cairo Conference that developing countries should pay two-thirds of the implementation costs of the Programme, asked industrialized countries to provide the remaining third from new resources, rather than by diversion of existing development aid. It was reported that G77 is preparing a draft resolution which will address distribution of ICPD follow-up responsibilities. Germany spoke for the European Union; commended the shift of focus from demographics and population control to sustainable development, patterns of consumption, women's rights, and reproductive health; and suggested that the World Summit on Social Development and the Fourth World Conference on Women, which will be held in 1995, could carry on the Cairo agenda (a point underscored by Thailand). It was reported that several Western European countries had already pledged substantial increases in population assistance. Indonesia and South Korea addressed increasing South-South cooperation in population and development. Nigeria and the Holy See noted the emphasis on national sovereignty in regard to law, religion, and cultural values. Many called for a global conference on international migration. To ensure a common strategy for ICPD follow-up within the UN system, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali has asked UNFPA Executive Director Nafis Sadik to chair an inter-agency task force. All UN agencies and organizations have been asked to review how they will promote implementation of the Programme of Action.
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  13. 13

    Struggling for the soul. World Summit for Social Development.

    Aslam A

    POPULI. 1995 Feb; 22(2):9-11.

    After its third meeting, the Preparatory Committee for the UN World Summit for Social Development had reached agreement on 95% of the prose in the nonbinding documents to be endorsed at the Summit. However, problems remain, including the fact that some 30 nongovernmental organizations and church groups have accused the Social Development documents of backsliding on the women's issues agreed upon at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The 100 heads of state to attend the Social Development Summit are expected to sign a political Declaration and a Programme of Action. The draft Declaration contains commitments to create an "enabling environment" for social and economic progress; to eradicate poverty; to promote full employment; to promote "social integration"; to achieve equality and equity for women; to accelerate economic, social, and human resource development in African and least developed countries; to ensure that structural adjustment programs include social development goals; to increase the resources allocated for social development; and to improve the framework for international cooperation in social development. The draft Programme of Action has chapters on creating an "enabling environment" for social development, on poverty eradication, on employment, on social integration, and on implementation and follow-up. While the language of the draft documents is equivocal in some key areas, they do represent a number of breakthroughs in the areas which they address. One critic contends that the draft documents lack coherent analysis and fail to emphasize that poverty, employment, and social integration are inseparable. It will be difficult to defend a new framework of women's rights, health needs, and empowerment at the Summit because major economic interests will be threatened by this work.
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