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  1. 1

    The 20-year Programme of Action - Cairo Programme of Action on population and development.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Dec; 31(4):[7] p..

    The 16-Chapter Cairo Programme of Action reaffirms the connection among population growth, poverty, patterns of production and consumption and the environment. it states: "Progress in any component can catalyse improvement in others." The Programme emphasizes the need for harmonizing population trends and patterns of development in order to increase the standard of living of current populations, while at the same time not jeopardizing the needs of future generations. It also emphasizes the imperatives of empowering women and guaranteeing choice in regard to family planning, and stresses that advancing gender equality and ensuring women's ability to control their own fertility are "cornerstones" of population and development programmes. The principle of "sovereignty", which guarantees that each country would decide for itself which programme recommendations are relevant to its conditions and needs, is also enshrined in the Programme. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    UN proclaims 1996 as Poverty Eradication Year: progress on 'Agenda for Development.' - includes related article on outline of program for September 5-13, 1994 International Conference on Population.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Mar; 31(1):[5] p..

    The year 1996 was proclaimed the Year for the Eradication of Poverty by the General Assembly on 21 December. That text was among 52 resolutions and 18 decisions adopted by the General Assembly on the recommendation of its Second Committee (Economic and Financial). Issues considered ranged from the environment to the international economy, from population and human settlements to international humanitarian assistance. The Assembly welcomed the intended completion of the Secretary-General's proposed Agenda for Development" this year. It also decided to convene in Japan in 1994 a World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction. The concept of development had to be rethought, Nitin Desai, Under- Secretary-general for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, told the Second Committee on 8 October. The world today is not the same as 30 years ago, when the concept of development was originally framed, he said. The urge to rethink development had grown from the gap between promise and results, as well as from interdependence, the globalization of production, the impact of regional integration and the effects of global communication. A development policy had to give priority to health and education, as well as such areas as the protection of the environment. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    HIV and the family.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. HIV and Development Programme


    As the UN Development Programme (UNDP) prepares to join with five other UN organizations in a new HIV/AIDS program, it issued the statement contained in this essay for the 1994 World AIDS Day. The family is the most basic social unit which, despite cultural and temporal variations, acts as a source of care and support for its members and provides a context for human development. The AIDS epidemic has affected many families and led to the creation of new configurations, such as families headed by adolescents and families where dying adults are tended by their children. The responsibility of families for the well-being of children is shared by the state which must provide appropriate programs to assist and support families in light of the devastation of the AIDS epidemic. The UNDP holds families at the center of its development strategy and will assist in the development of policies and programs to strengthen sustainable human development. Whereas the HIV/AIDS epidemic makes this goal more difficult to attain, it also makes it more imperative.
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  4. 4

    Population in the UN's "Agenda for Development".

    United Nations. Secretary General


    Responding to the concern that the United Nations puts greater emphasis on peace-keeping than on issues of development, the UN secretary-general has issued a draft Agenda for Development, paralleling the 1991 Agenda for Peace. It is intended to revitalize the vision of development and to stimulate intensified discussion of all its aspects. The report noted the decline in competitive development assistance with the ending of the Cold War. It announced that development was in crisis and concluded by saying that progress is not inherent in the human condition; retrogression is conceivable. In 245 paragraphs the report discussed five key dimensions of development (peace, economic growth, the environment, justice, and democracy) and the role of the United Nations in promoting development. The Agenda was discussed at a week-long meeting held at UN headquarters in New York in June 1994. A senior OECD official described it as relying too heavily on the orthodox development therapy of marketization, privatization, and democracy; the Group of 77 criticized it for sidestepping the issue of the UN's relationships with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; and Brazil put forward a competing agenda. Nevertheless, the Agenda did convey a distinctive vision, one that the UN would not have conceived a decade ago. On population the Agenda was extremely reticent, granting that rapid growth would be a potential problem but not discussing antinatalist policy. The principal stress was placed on strengthening civil society as indispensable for social development and public policy. It was reiterated that the United Nations, as a key mechanism for international cooperation, is the best instrument for managing the world situation with a reasonable expectation of success.
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  5. 5

    The Tokyo Declaration on population and development.

    Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development (1994: Tokyo)

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1994 Mar; 20(1):239-45.

    In January 1994, a meeting convened in Tokyo by the government of Japan of 15 experts in the field of population, development, and international cooperation resulted in adoption of a document entitled "Towards a Global Partnership in Population and Development: The Tokyo Declaration." This declaration prefigured the key issues and action recommendations of the September 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The Declaration (presented in this document in its entirety) opens with an introduction which describes the current (and changing) political climate in regard to population issues in which the ICPD will take place. Part 1 of the declaration includes a consideration of the relationship between population and sustainable development, women's role in decision-making and the status of females, reproductive health and family planning (FP), population distribution and migration, and south-south cooperation. The declaration contains specific recommendations for action in each area, with the recommendations addressed to governments, the UN, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), donors, and the international community. Part 2 stresses a move from commitment to action and strongly recommends that by the year 2015 all governments 1) ensure the completion of the equivalent of primary school by all girls and boys and, as soon as that goal is met, facilitate completion of secondary educational levels; 2) in cases where mortality rates are highest, achieve an infant mortality rate below 50/1000 live births with a corresponding maternal mortality rate of 75/100,000 births; 3) in cases with intermediate levels of mortality, achieve an infant mortality rate below 35/1000, an under age 5 years mortality rate below 45/1000, and a maternal mortality rate below 60/100,000; and 4) provide universal access to a variety of safe and reliable FP methods and appropriate reproductive health services (with safe and effective FP methods available in all country's national FP programs by the year 2000). The international community is further urged to support the goals of the ICPD, and the international donor community is asked to support the participation of NGOs in the ICPD. Part 2 ends with an appeal to the international community to mobilize resources to meet these goals. Finally, the declaration calls upon the international community to stabilize world population and address the interrelated issues, and the participants of the Tokyo meeting pledged their individual support to this effort.
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  6. 6

    Government of Sierra Leone. National report on population and development. International Conference on Population and Development 1994.

    Sierra Leone. National Population Commission

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, National Population Commission, 1994. [4], 15, [4] p.

    The government of Sierra Leone is very concerned about the poor health status of the country as expressed by the indicators of a high maternal mortality rate (700/100,000), a total fertility rate of 6.2 (in 1985), a crude birth rate of 47/1000 (in 1985), an infant mortality rate of 143/1000 (in 1990), and a life expectancy at birth of only 45.7 years. A civil war has exacerbated the already massive rural-urban migration in the country. Despite severe financial constraints, the government has contributed to the UN Population Fund and continues to appeal to the donor community for technical and financial help to support the economy in general and population programs in particular. Sierra Leone has participated in preparations for and fully supports the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. This document describes Sierra Leone's past, present, and future population and development linkages. The demographic context is presented in terms of size and growth rate; age and sex composition; fertility; mortality; and population distribution, migration, and urbanization. The population policy planning and program framework is set out through discussions of the national perception of population issues, the national population policy, population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program [including maternal-child health and family planning (FP) services; information, education, and communication; data collection, analysis, and research; primary health care, population and the environment; youth and adolescents and development; women and development; and population distribution and migration]. The operational aspects of the program are described with emphasis on political and national support, FP service delivery and coverage, monitoring and evaluation, and funding. The action plan for the future includes priority concerns; an outline of the policy framework; the design of population program activities; program coordination, monitoring, and evaluation; and resource mobilization. The government's commitment is reiterated in a summary and in 13 recommendations of action to strengthen the population program, address environmental issues, improve the status of women, improve rural living conditions, and improve data collection.
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  7. 7

    Programme review and strategy development report: Jordan.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. vii, 58 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 31.)

    This report provides a review of Jordan's National Population Programs and demographic and socioeconomic trends and describes the proposed general and sectoral strategies for Jordan's Population Program and for UN Population Fund (UNFPA) activities. King Hussein is credited with recognizing the link between population and development at the 1984 International Population Conference in Mexico. Jordan has a National Population Commission but no official policy. Proposed strategies, which are under consideration by the Commission, include provision of birth spacing services in government, nongovernmental, and private health facilities and implementing supportive IEC programs. Other proposals include programs for reducing mortality and morbidity, improving population distribution, and restructuring the education system. UNFPA activities were initiated during the same period as the formulation of the first five year development plans for the period 1976-80. At that time there was awareness of the high population growth rate, the young age of the population, and the increased levels of urbanization. UNFPA has used data collection and research to help define demographic conditions and their implications. Government has made a number of efforts to reach sustainable development. For instance, Her Royal Highness Princess Basma has highlighted the importance of integrating population into development plans and urged women's development. The latest survey in 1990 provides needed data on demographic conditions. A coherent population program is constrained by the lack of an explicit policy and conceptual framework, strains on Jordan's economy from the Gulf Crisis, and the lack of awareness among the general population of the link between high population growth and depletion of resources. The general recommended strategy for government is to improve the standard of living by a comprehensive approach to development that balances population, environment, and resources.
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  8. 8

    [Proposal for the world action plan on population] La propuesta del plan de accion mundial sobre poblacion.

    Guerra Garcia M

    REVISTA PERUANA DE POBLACION. 1994; (4):175-9.

    This article is a five-page description of the proposed Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, September 1994, which was approved at the third preparatory conference in New York in April 1994. The basic feature of the Plan of Action is its respect for the unique conditions of each country. The document contains 16 chapters, including a preamble and a declaration of principles. The third chapter, on population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development, stresses the need to alleviate poverty and improve living conditions. The fourth chapter urges an end to discrimination against women and recognition of the rights of girls. Other chapters contain recommendations regarding the family, population growth and structure, reproductive rights and family planning, morbidity and mortality, the need for better health care, population distribution and migration, and international migration. There are also chapters on population, education, and development; and technology, research, and development. The Plan recommends incorporating population issues into development plans and policies, fostering international cooperation, and collaborating with the nongovernmental sector.
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  9. 9

    Key action recommendations from the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD).

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    POPULATION. 1994; 14(1):8-10.

    According to this description of the Programme of Action that came out of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, the Programme does not establish demographic targets but urges actions that allow for all people to make their own choices about childbearing. World goals of social equity, environmentally sustainable development, and sustained economic growth can be satisfied by investing in people. 15 principles in the Programme of Action are intended to guide population and development activities. The Programme embodies the realization that population issues affect other social and economic issues. Essential features of slowing population growth and attaining sustainable development are improvements in women's social, economic, political, and health status. The aim is to give women a greater role in policy making and to improve their ability to earn income and become self-reliant. The Programme acknowledges that families have come under pressure from rapid social and economic changes, and it calls for better support for and stability of the family. The Programme forecasts almost 56% of the population living in urban areas in 2015; the urban population of developing countries is expected to increase from 26% in 1975 to 50% by 2015. Action needs to be taken to encourage small and medium size cities, to develop rural areas, and to improve the quality of life in cities. The Programme recognizes that environmental degradation, population growth, and inequalities are push factors in internal and international migration. Other factors include poverty, the lack of peace and security, and human rights violations. Although family planning access and use increased over the decades, there are still about 350 million couples without access to a full range of methods and services. The ability to meet unmet contraceptive needs is expected to determine whether population will reach 12.5 billion or 7.8 billion in 2025. The Programme calls for reductions in maternal mortality and infant mortality, increases in educational opportunities for women, improvements in program management, incorporation of women's views into research plans, and greater international cooperation. Parliamentarians are urged to enact appropriate legislation.
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  10. 10

    Awareness, resource mobilization, legislation and monitoring.

    Sadik N

    In: ICPPD '94 update. International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Cairo. Follow up, November 1994. [Cairo, Egypt], International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1994 Nov. 3.

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, executive director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in her keynote address at the inaugural session of the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD), called upon parliamentarians to implement the ICPD Plan of Action (Cairo). She stressed four tasks: 1) to create awareness among the general public about the relationships between population and sustainable development; 2) to mobilize national support for the allocation of financial resources for population and development programs; 3) to prepare and enact legislation that enables governments to implement the actions and recommendations of the Programme of Action; and 4) to create or improve parliamentary mechanisms to ensure and periodically monitor the activities undertaken in accordance with the Programme of Action. Dr. Sadik stated that the resources committed to population and development programs would have to increase substantially to meet ICPD objectives; the international community would have to increase its assistance to cover one-third of the costs. The US, Japan, and the United Kingdom have already announced that they will substantially increase their support. The four themes of the ICPD Plan of Action discussed at this ICPPD included reproductive health and family planning, empowerment of women, the imperative to reduce mortality rates in developing countries, and resource mobilization.
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  11. 11

    Contributions of the IUSSP to the International Conference on Population and Development.

    Mertens W

    Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP], 1994. 20 p. (Policy and Research Papers No. 1)

    This policy and research paper addresses the contributions of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in the preparatory meeting, in its international conferences, and in its own activities. Most IUSSP members are also involved with ICPD planning as staff or consultants for the UN, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. Many IUSSP are involved in the Expert Group meetings preparatory to ICPD. IUSSP members are involved daily in development planning or social welfare policies in a research or academic teaching capacity. Every 4 years the IUSSP has an international conference to review the state of knowledge worldwide and to indicate where the gaps in knowledge are. IUSSP also holds regional and thematic conferences. The Scientific Committees and Working Groups share similar interests with the ICPD working groups on fertility, adult mortality, historical demography, population and health and family planning, gender and population, south-north migration, anthropological demography, population and the environment, economic demography, computer software, and AIDS. Special policy monographs are being prepared for the ICPD meetings. Thirty-two recommendations were made at the 1993 IUSSP Conference in Montreal and pertained to health, education, economic opportunities, the role of adolescents, and the role of men. The view was held that women's advances in health, education, employment, sexuality, and family planning were mutually reinforcing and should be focused on as a whole. The promotion of women's empowerment was considered important in both private and public spheres. Recognition was given to the importance of gender relations in the household and compatibility with other interventions. Family responsibilities should include men. Regional population growth rates are different and will require adequate attention. 162 recommendations were made regarding population policies.
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  12. 12

    Human survival depends on outcome of ICPD.

    Sakurai S

    In: ICPPD '94 update. International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, Cairo. Follow up, November 1994. [Cairo, Egypt], International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1994 Nov. 5.

    In his statement at the UN International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Mr. Shin Sakurai, Secretary General of the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD), presented the ICPPD Cairo Declaration of Population and Development, the product of deliberations of five working groups during two days of discussion at a conference, preparatory to the ICPD, that was attended by 285 parliamentarians from 104 countries. Mr. Sakurai stated that it was essential for the outcome of any international conference to be fully respected and implemented, and that parliamentarians had come together at this time to fulfill their mission as the elected representatives of the people. Food is the most important issue for population and development, and the environment for food production is deteriorating every day, according to the Honorable Takeo Fukuda, Former Japanese Prime Minister and leader of the Global Parliamentarians Movement on Population and Development. Mr. Sakuri told the conference that there was no time to waste debating different views and positions; ensuring human survival, while maintaining a good balance between population and sustainable development, depends upon the outcome of the ICPD.
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  13. 13

    Towards an effective and operational international convention on desertification.

    Speth JG

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the Third INC-D Session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee on the International Convention on Desertification, United Nations, New York, 17 January 1994. 4 p.

    In his speech before the intergovernmental negotiating desertification committee of the UN on January 17, 1994, Gus Speth addressed the issues of sustainable food security, the importance of the deterioration of land resources, the global mechanisms for environmental change, and country targets and negotiations. He recognized the role of desertification as a barrier to sustainable food security and sustainable livelihoods. 13-18 million people die each year from hunger, malnutrition, and poverty-related causes. One billion are too poor to obtain the food necessary to sustain a normal work load. Half a million people are too poor to obtain food for minimal activity. Every third child is underweight by the age of five years. Approximately 2500 calories of food per day are consumed by the four billion world population. World food output must triple in order to meet demand. The desertification committee has the capacity to meet these challenges by focusing on agreements and actions with results for real people. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) is working on desertification in Africa and has five goals for helping countries deal with the problems. Severe land degradation can be stopped by the formation of action plans by involved countries and with support from new donors. Success will depend upon the extensive involvement of nongovernmental organizations, affected communities, women's groups, and grassroots organizations which should focus on underlying causes. Targets should be set for slowing or reversing the process over a 10-year period or longer. UNDP aims to support each country's development plans and policies for combating desertification, to strengthen local community institutions, to build capacity for disaster mitigation and preparedness, and to improve the information base on environment and natural resources. UNDP wants to bring together all relevant UNDP initiatives (UNSO, Capacity 21, GEF, the SDN, the CDF, UNIFEM, and the core program) and make a concerted effort to attack severe desertification areas. A global partnership is needed. UNDP is working to enhance the participation of some of the most affected countries and to provide technical and financial assistance.
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  14. 14

    The Cairo conference [editorial]


    The Christian Science Monitor's editorial response to the approaching International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) indicated appreciation for the US role in the consensus that population growth must be slowed. The US position at the 1984 conference in Mexico City was to place population growth as a neutral factor in economic development. The ICPD agenda is supportive of noncoercive population programs as a key component of economic development and of giving women in developing countries greater control over family planning decisions and over opportunities for education and income. Human dignity can be attained and progress can be achieved with such an emphasis. The ICPD draft plan of action is a good faith effort to balance a short-term and a long-term strategy for slowing population growth and increasing development. The plan provides a framework upon which specific countries can build their own development strategies. Opposition to the draft plan has come from religious groups who perceive the strategy as encouraging permissiveness, immorality, and the destruction of the family. Criticism is expected for such a deeply human and moral issue. However, it is hardly ennobling to accept poverty and degradation that forces husbands to abandon families and seek work in cities or to accept families selling children into servitude or prostitution. The moral and religious upbringing of children is not enhanced by fear, repression, and ignorance. Women must not be viewed as mere reproductive machines. Criticism does not address labor migration from population pressure and the increase in nationalism, racism, and conflict as a response to population issues. The ICPD itself was threatened by radical Muslim sects, who opposed the conference objectives.
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  15. 15

    Statement of Romania.

    Gherman O

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [5] p.

    The president of Romania, Mr. Ion Iliescu, sent a message to the International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo, September 5-13, 1994. Romania considers the current draft Program of Action to outline a consistent body of principles and objectives, with the means to implement them, entailing the common responsibilities of states to each other and to mankind in general. All programs aiming at the improvement of the human condition have to overcome poverty, particularly in view of the increasing gap between the rich and poor nations. These discrepancies also need to be eliminated because global migratory movements cause major dislocations for recipient nations, create xenophobia, and deprive sending countries of much needed talent. Family planning is often unavailable for impoverished couples. Each person should have free access to air, water, education, and contraceptives. The equality of the sexes also requires equal allotment of duties between them, thereby alleviating the excessive workloads of women. The previous dictatorship in Romania pursued a destructively pronatalist policy to boost the population. The rebuilding of Romanian society requires the strengthening of the family. The Romanian government appreciates the technical assistance in family planning extended by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities as well as the assistance received from the European Union through the PHARE program, from UNICEF, and from the World Bank. The basic issues of the UN Agenda for Development are supported and the successful conclusion of the conference is wished.
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  16. 16

    Final "PrepCom" meeting held for 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.

    POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1994 May; (230):4-5.

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) will examine population and related issues, such as gender equity and women's empowerment, and their implications for social and economic development. The goal of universal access to family planning programs is among the proposed aims of the conference. The third and final session of the Preparatory Committee for the ICPD concluded April 22, 1994, with the approval of five chapters of the draft program of action to be submitted to the ICPD when it meets at Cairo September 5-13, 1994. Among the chapters approved at the final meeting was a text on reproductive rights. Language still subject to agreement includes references to fertility regulation, sexual and reproductive rights, sexual and reproductive health, and family planning. Summaries of approved chapters are presented.
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  17. 17

    [The NGO paper (editorial)] O papel das ONG's

    BEMFAM NOTICIAS. 1994 Jan-Mar; 3(1):1.

    The International Conference on Population and Development was held in September, 1994. Recent events have reinforced the vital role of this conference, including the UN Conference on the Environment and Development in 1992. The 1994 conference continued the discussions of previous conferences in 1974 in Bucharest and in 1984 in Mexico City, which examined the close connection between population growth and sustainable economic development. Within this theme, 6 topics will unfold in the next decade: 1) the complex relationship between population, development, and the environment; 2) mobilization of national and international resources for appropriate plans and programs; 3) the connection between population dynamics and the social and economic conditions of women; 4) family planning, health, and welfare programs; 5) the relationship between demography and socioeconomic development; and 6) the socioeconomic aspects that influence national and international migrations and the consequences of urban and rural development. Preparatory activities started already in 1991. In Brazil a national committee was formed from ministries, parliamentary observers, and a representative of civil society. In order to elaborate the Brazilian position 3 seminars were organized: 1) on population growth, demographic structure, and spatial mobility; 2) on public policies, social agents, and development; and 3) on women in the context of population policy. The Economic and Social Council of the UN solicited the participation of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). These NGOs, in particular family planning groups and women's groups, have been involved in activities related to population in cooperation with governments and will draw up plans for the implementation and evaluation of programs and policies in this area. In Brazil this line of work involves the NGOs in general and in particular BEMFAM, which has expanded its services not only to its clinics, but (in association with the state) to health posts in 1200 towns of the country.
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  18. 18

    Family planning: a basic development need.

    IPPF OPEN FILE. 1994 Jun; 1.

    The 1994 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) proposes a 20-20 Human Development Compact based on shared responsibilities between poor and rich nations, whereby poor and rich nations would help unmet basic human development needs such as primary education, primary health care, safe drinking water, and family planning over the next 10 years. This would require an additional US $30 to US $40 billion annually. Developing countries would commit 20% of their budgets to human priority concerns instead of the current 10% by reducing military expenditure, selling off unprofitable public enterprises and abandoning wasteful prestige projects. Donor countries would increase foreign aid from the current average of 7% to 20%. The report will propose a new concept of human security at the World Summit for Social Development to be held in March 1995, calling widespread human insecurity a universal problem. On average, poor nations have 19 soldiers for every one doctor. Global military spending has been declining since 1987 at the rate of 3.6% a year, resulting in a cumulative peace dividend of US $935 billion from 1987 to 1994. But this money has not been expended on unmet human needs. India ordered fighter planes at a cost that could have provided basic education to the 15 million Indian girls now out of school. Nigeria bought tanks from the UK at a cost that could have immunized all 2 million unimmunized children while also providing family planning to nearly 17 million couples. UNDP proposes a phasing out of all military assistance, military bases, and subsidies to arms exporters over a 3-year period. It also recommends the major restructuring of existing aid funds, and proposes a serious study on new institutions for global governance in the next century.
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  19. 19

    Towards a global partnership. Eminent persons' meeting in Tokyo outlines action in Tokyo Declaration ahead of ICPD.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1994 Mar; (237):1-2.

    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is the last opportunity for the international community in this century to consider progress so far and to decide what needs to be done in the domain of population to achieve sustained economic growth and sustainable development, said Dr. Nafis Sadik, executive director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), a keynote speaker at the Meeting of Eminent Persons on Population and Development, held in Tokyo in January in preparation for the ICPD. Sadik, who is also the secretary general of the ICPD to be held in Cairo, Egypt, called for deeper commitment and assistance to the population field. Chaired by Dr. Taro Nakayama, former foreign minister of Japan, the Tokyo meeting was held under the auspices of UNFPA, the UN University, and the Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, was attended by approximately 200 people, and produced the declaration entitled Towards a Global Partnership in Population and Development. The declaration includes recommendations on population and sustainable development; women's role in decision making; reproductive health and family planning (FP); population distribution and migration; and south-south cooperation. It spells out goals in the population and development field and urges developing countries to increase their investments in health, education, and social development. It calls on developed countries to provide special assistance for social development in developing countries burdened by debt and structural adjustment programs, and to mobilize public support for such assistance. The declaration encourages the international community to suggest ways and means of stimulating a sustained economic growth consistent with efforts towards sustainable development.
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  20. 20

    ICPD conference in Cairo.

    FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1994 Sep-Oct; 14(5):1.

    175 countries met in Cairo, Egypt, from September 5-13, 1994, at the Fifth International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), to discuss human rights, reproductive health, and sustained use of resources. Created by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) resolution 1989/1991, the ICPD is headed by Dr Nafis Sadik, the Secretary General of the Conference and the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Dr Ram Sharan Mahat, Vice Chairman of the National Planning Commission, led a 16-member team from Nepal. The opening speakers agreed that empowerment of women, through improvements in educational status and economic conditions, was the key to solving the world's population problems. President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, in his inaugural speech, warned of the dangers of overpopulation and stated that the cornerstone of successful demographic policy was "improving women's conditions" in developing countries. UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, in his opening speech, stated that education and mobilization of women were essential to the success of population and development policies worldwide, and that men and women must have the right and means to choose their, and their families,' futures. Dr Sadik said the deaths of 500,000 pregnant women annually and of three million babies in the first week of life as a result of poor health care was "morally unacceptable." Dr Halfdan Mahler, Secretary General of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), speaking from the nongovernmental organization (NGO) forum, expressed support for the objectives of the ICPD and mentioned the 6 challenges of the Vision 2000 program. IPPF has established a fund to finance FPAs on a competitive basis. Dr Mahler closed by asking for prompt action and continuing cooperation among the governments and NGOs in order to mobilize the necessary resources.
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  21. 21

    A crisis of numbers.

    Butty J

    WEST AFRICA. 1994 Aug-Sep; 1511-2.

    The International Conference on Population and Development opens on September 5, 1994, in Cairo, Egypt, amid disagreements over how to control Africa's burgeoning population. In its population report, the United Nations noted that the world's population could rise from the current 5.6 billion to 8.5 billion by the year 2025. The best way to control such growth is to educate and empower women. Studies show that women who have basic health care and the option of controlling their births choose to have smaller families. The World Bank predicts that about 1 billion people will be added to the world population every 12 years, about 79% in the poorest developing countries. The World Watch Institute also warned about food shortages unless something was done about Africa's growing population. Robert D. Kaplan's article "The Coming Anarchy" suggests that burgeoning population in Africa will doom millions to a life that is nasty, brutish, and short. At hearings on August 4 held by the US House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa, Congressman Harry Johnston said that the average African birth rate of about 6 children per woman was too high and that the status of women should be raised by educating them. The deputy assistant administrator for Africa at the US Agency for International Development said the Clinton administration had made family planning a priority in its foreign assistance strategy focusing on sustainable development. The president of the Center for Development and Population Activities in Washington, D.C., said the best US foreign policy investment was the empowerment of Africa's women. The director for population sciences at the Rockefeller Foundation found a connection between Africa's rapid population growth and economic performance. The founder of Women's Health Organisation of Nigeria said the population problem in Africa was caused by the lack of economic and social development and the poor quality of life.
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  22. 22

    International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD), Cairo, Egypt, September 3-4, 1994.

    Meglioli A


    At the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo, Egypt, 59 parliamentarians from the Americas participated in an open dialogue to discuss themes and strategies for action relevant to the region. Participants discussed the following issues selected from the Draft International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) Program of Action: gender equality and empowerment of women; health and mortality; mobilization of resources; and reproductive health and family planning. There was consensus that education is the most important element for achieving equality and promoting women's autonomy; and that women have the right to choose the number and spacing of their children and that reproduction and family planning should be responsibilities shared by both sexes. Participants also identified the importance and need for a more equitable distribution of resources between developed and developing countries and supported the 20/20 initiative, which specifies that at least 20% of both donors' assistance and national budgets should be earmarked for social programs in health and education. ICPPD adopted the Cairo Declaration on Population and Development by consensus, exhorting the world's parliamentarians to put into practice the ICPD's approved Program of Action.
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  23. 23

    Consensus from Cairo.

    Brown D


    The World Population Conference (1974) in Bucharest proclaimed the right of all individuals to determine the number of children they produce. The International Conference on Population (1984) in Mexico City developed a World Population Plan of Action. A new International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is planned for 1994 in Cairo. ICPDs are part of a series of conferences called to produce a consensus on methods of solving world problems and to coordinate action. The Earth Summit, which concerned environmental issues, was held in Rio in 1992. The Human Rights Conference took place in Vienna in June 1993. The UN Fourth World Conference on Women will be hosted by Beijing in September 1995. Since 1974, the emphasis in population policy has changed from socioeconomic development to improvement of family planning services, maternal and child health care, and the economic and educational status of women. More women's organizations are involved in preparation for the conferences. Some of these groups are concerned about the possible conflict between population programs and women's rights. The Vatican, which has the status of a state at UN meetings, has fought reproductive rights. There will probably be another North-South debate similar to the one that occurred at the summit in Rio. The draft Programme of Action for the upcoming ICPD links population, economic growth, and sustainable development. Goals include education, especially for girls; reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality; and provision of universal access to family planning and reproductive health services.
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  24. 24

    Programme of action of the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development. [Draft].

    United Nations

    [Unpublished] 1994 Sep 19. 115 p.

    This unedited version of the Programme of Action of the 1994 UN International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) opens with a 15-point preamble which sets the stage for presentation of the 15 principles upon which the action plan was based. Each of the next chapters addresses a major issue which is broken into subcategories. The basis of action, objectives, and recommended actions are described for each subcategory. The overall theme of the ICPD was the interrelationships between population, sustained economic growth, and sustainable development, and that is the first major theme presented. The next major theme is gender equality, equity, and the empowerment of women. The third issue is the family and its roles, rights, composition, and structure. Population growth and structure is considered next, followed by the issues of reproductive rights and reproductive health; health, morbidity, and mortality; population distribution, urbanization, and internal migration; international migration; population, development, and education; technology, research, and development; national action; international cooperation; and partnership with the nongovernmental sector. Woven into these major themes are considerations of poverty; the environment; socioeconomic issues; special population groups; family planning; sexually transmitted diseases; HIV infections and AIDS; human sexuality; primary health care; maternal-child health; population information, education, and communication; research methodology and dissemination; and program management and resource development, mobilization, and allocation. The final chapter presents a follow-up to the ICPD with the basis for actions, objectives, and recommended actions given for national, subregional and regional, and international activities.
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  25. 25

    Population on development agenda.

    POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1994 Aug; (233):3.

    There is no peace without development and without the eradication of poverty neither would be achieved. This was the thread permeating the first inter-governmental consideration of the report of the UN Secretary-General on "An Agenda for Development" at the 1994 session of the Economic and Social Council on 28 June 1994. The meeting also agreed that pressures caused by population growth, international migration and urbanization should be given thorough consideration in the Agenda for Development. The Secretary-General thought that the time was ripe for the Agenda for Development to appear. The very concept of development had changed, he said; the concept needed to be expanded. "I am firmly convinced that the fiftieth anniversary of the UN must be, for us, the opportunity to rethink and to reinvent our economic and social development policy", he said. (full text)
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