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New York, New York, UNICEF, 1990 Aug. 61 p. (UNICEF Policy Review)The UNICEF approach in brief is the development of human capabilities and meeting basic needs with a country program approach. The UNICEF goals and strategies for children approved by the Executive Board in 1990 included in this document cover the following general areas: an earlier development review; unmet needs of children; unprecedented opportunities; goals for children for child survival, development, and protection in the year 2000; and sectoral goals for maternal health, child health, nutrition, safe water supply and environmental sanitation, basic education, literacy, early childhood development, and children in distress; strategic priorities such as: going to scale, reaching the unreached and (from small scale projects to a larger leading to universal coverage), hard to reach, disparity reduction, community participation, area-based program approaches, research and development, women's empowerment, advocacy and social mobilization, development addressing human concerns, environment soundness and sustainability, monitoring and evaluation, national capacity and building, building economic bases to meet human goals (alleviate critical poverty, debt relief, trade and commodity agreements, increased resource flows for development, and growth in industrialized countries); operational strategies for UNICEF, and UNICEF Board Decision. A table is provided as a review of selected goals and achievements of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd UN development decades and achievements in 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1988, as well as a figure for the annual number of under 5 years childhood mortality by 5 main causes and a figure for estimated deaths and lives saved under 5 years, 1980-2000.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1990. xvii, 423 p.This text on international health covers historical and contemporary health issues ranging from water distribution systems of the ancient Aztecs to the worldwide endemic of AIDS. The author has also included areas not in the 1979 version: the 1978 Alma Ata conference on primary health care, infant and maternal mortality, health planning, and the role of science and technology. The 1st chapter discusses how each population movement, political change, war, and technological development has changed the world's or a region's state of health. Next the book highlights health statistics and how they can be applied to determine the health status of a population. A text on international health would be incomplete without a chapter on understanding sickness within each culture, including a society's attitude towards the sick and individual behavior which causes disease, e.g. smoking and lung cancer. 1 chapter features risk factors of a disease that are found in the environment in which individuals live. For example, in areas where iodine is not present in the soil, such as the Himalayas, the population exhibits a high degree of goiter and cretinism. Others present the relationship between socioeconomic development and health, e.g., countries at the low socioeconomic development spectrum have low life expectancies compared to those at the high socioeconomic end. An important chapter compares national health care systems and identifies common factors among them. An entire chapter is dedicated to organizations that provide health services internationally, e.g., private voluntary organizations. 1 chapter covers 3 diseases exclusively which are smallpox, malaria, and AIDS. The appendix presents various ethical codes.