Your search found 2 Results
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1990 Oct; 80(10):1188-92.Health trends since 1950 in both developed and developing countries are classified and discussed in terms of causative factors: socioeconomic development, cross-national influences and growth of national health systems. Despite the vast differences in scale of health statistics between developed and developing countries, economic hardships and high military expenditures, all nations have demonstrated significant declines in life expectancy and infant mortality rates. Social and economic factors that influenced changes included independence from colonial rule in Africa and Asia and emergence from feudalism in China, industrialization, rising gross domestic product per capita and urbanization. An example of economic development is doubling to tripling of commercial energy consumption per capita. Social advancement is evidenced by higher literacy rates, school enrollments and education of women. Cross-national influences that improved overall health include international trade, spread of technology, and the universal acceptance of the idea that health is a human right. National health systems in developing countries are receiving increasing shares of the GNP. Total health expenditure by government is highly correlated with life expectancy. The view of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund that health care should be privatized is a step backward with anti-egalitarian consequences. The UN Economic Commission for Africa attacked the IMF and the World Bank for promoting private sector funding of health care stating that this leads to lower standards of living and poorer health among the disadvantaged. Suggested health strategies for the future should involve effective action in the public sector: adequate financial support of national health systems; political commitment to health as the basis of national security; citizen involvement in policy and planning; curtailing of smoking, alcohol, drugs and violence; elimination of environmental and toxic hazards; and maximum international collaboration.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1990. xvii, 423 p.This text on international health covers historical and contemporary health issues ranging from water distribution systems of the ancient Aztecs to the worldwide endemic of AIDS. The author has also included areas not in the 1979 version: the 1978 Alma Ata conference on primary health care, infant and maternal mortality, health planning, and the role of science and technology. The 1st chapter discusses how each population movement, political change, war, and technological development has changed the world's or a region's state of health. Next the book highlights health statistics and how they can be applied to determine the health status of a population. A text on international health would be incomplete without a chapter on understanding sickness within each culture, including a society's attitude towards the sick and individual behavior which causes disease, e.g. smoking and lung cancer. 1 chapter features risk factors of a disease that are found in the environment in which individuals live. For example, in areas where iodine is not present in the soil, such as the Himalayas, the population exhibits a high degree of goiter and cretinism. Others present the relationship between socioeconomic development and health, e.g., countries at the low socioeconomic development spectrum have low life expectancies compared to those at the high socioeconomic end. An important chapter compares national health care systems and identifies common factors among them. An entire chapter is dedicated to organizations that provide health services internationally, e.g., private voluntary organizations. 1 chapter covers 3 diseases exclusively which are smallpox, malaria, and AIDS. The appendix presents various ethical codes.