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  1. 1
    296608

    Women: a UN priority; world conference may be held in 1995 - includes related information on women's role in development.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1):[2] p..

    The first UN world conference on women was held in Mexico City in 1975, the second in Copenhagen in 1980, and the third in Nairobi in 1985. Adopted in Kenya at the end of the UN Decade for Women (1976-1985), the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women set goals to the year 2000 in such areas as literacy, health, population, and environment. Economic policies would be more effective and sensitive to human needs", Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar told the Assembly, if women were involved. The advancement of women is not "an impossible dream" dreamt by women, stated Margaret Anstee, Director- General of the United Nations Office at Vienna, "but a component in the enhancement of life for all". She introduced on 18 October issues related to women to the Assembly's Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural). (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    296487

    Second LDC conference adopts new Action Programme in Paris - least developed countries.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Dec; 27(4):[4] p..

    A new Programme of Action aimed at advancing the world's poorest countries offers a "menu approach" for donors to increase their official aid to the least developed countries (LDCs), stressing bilateral assistance in the form of grants or highly concessional loans and calling on donors to help reduce LDC debt. The Programme was adopted by consensus at the conclusion of the Second United Nations Conference on the LDCs (Paris, 3- 14 September). The UN recognizes more than 40 developing countries as "least developed". Although individual nation's indicators vary, in general LDCs have a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of approximately $200 a year, a low life expectancy, literacy rates under 20 per cent and a low contribution of manufacturing industries to GDP. Reflecting the emergence during the 1980s of new priorities in development strategy, the Programme of Action for the LDCs for the 1990s differs from the Action Programme adopted at the first UN Conference on LDCs held in 1981 in Paris. The new Programme emphasizes respect for human rights, the need for democratization and privatization, the potential role of women in development and the new regard for population policy as a fundamental factor in promoting development. Greater recognition of the role of non-governmental organizations in LDC development is also emphasized. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    061213

    Health research: essential link to equity in development.

    Commission on Health Research for Development

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1990. xix, 136 p.

    The Commission on Health Research for Development is an independent international consortium formed in 1987 to improve the health of people in developing countries by the power of research. This book is the result of 2 years of effort: 19 commissioned papers, 8 expert meetings, 8 regional workshops, case studies of health research activities in 10 developing countries and hundreds of individual discussions. A unique global survey examined financing, locations and promotion of health research. The focus of all this work was the influence of health on development. This book has 3 sections: a review of global health inequities and why health research is needed; findings of country surveys, health research financing, selection of topics and promotion; conclusions and recommendations. Some research priorities are contraception and reproductive health, behavioral health in developing countries, applied research on essential drugs, vitamin A deficiency, substance abuse, tuberculosis. The main recommendations are: that all countries begin essential national health research (ENHR), with international partnership; that larger and sustained international funding for research be mobilized; and that larger and sustained international funding for research be mobilized; and that international mechanisms for monitoring progress be established. The book is full of graphs and contains footnotes, a complete bibliography and an index.
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  4. 4
    082357

    Environmental sustainability in economic development -- with emphasis on Amazonia.

    Goodland R

    In: Race to save the tropics. Ecology and economics for a sustainable future, edited by Robert Goodland. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1990. 171-89.

    Sustainability denotes well-being, intergenerational equity, minimal use of exhaustible mineral reserves, slow depletion of nonrenewable energy resources allowing an orderly societal transition to renewable energy sources, and agricultural sustainability. Many parts of the world have already surpassed their carrying capacity. To effectively apply environmental management to economic development, decision makers must understand the fundamental relationship among growth, equality, and ethics. Liberation of women and reduction of excess consumption by the rich are needed to achieve environmental sustainability. We have been able to solve some environmental problems once they have reached a crisis stage by investing money into their solution. Prevention is the only means to address irreversible environmental effects, however. The major reason for biodiversity loss is destruction of tropical forests which support 50% of the world's 5-30 million species on 7% of the land area. A large percentage of the biodiversity in the Philippines, Haiti, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and parts of India is already gone. Some corporations have begun to respond responsibility to the environment. In 1987 the largest investor in economic development in developing countries, the World Bank, implemented environmental policies for all programs. The Bank normally refuses to finance projects designed to convert wildlands of special concern, e.g. to national parks. Projects concerning wildlands other than those of special concern should only occur on already converted land. A more open decision making process is required to justify any deviations from the above policies. If wildlands development is defended, the project should just convert less valuable wildlands. Financing preservation of another wildland is required for any conversion of wildlands not of special concern. If a project does not involve conversion of wildlands, the Bank requires the preservation of wildlands for their environmental services alone.
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  5. 5
    064830

    Development goals and strategies for children in the 1990s.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1990 Aug. 61 p. (UNICEF Policy Review)

    The UNICEF approach in brief is the development of human capabilities and meeting basic needs with a country program approach. The UNICEF goals and strategies for children approved by the Executive Board in 1990 included in this document cover the following general areas: an earlier development review; unmet needs of children; unprecedented opportunities; goals for children for child survival, development, and protection in the year 2000; and sectoral goals for maternal health, child health, nutrition, safe water supply and environmental sanitation, basic education, literacy, early childhood development, and children in distress; strategic priorities such as: going to scale, reaching the unreached and (from small scale projects to a larger leading to universal coverage), hard to reach, disparity reduction, community participation, area-based program approaches, research and development, women's empowerment, advocacy and social mobilization, development addressing human concerns, environment soundness and sustainability, monitoring and evaluation, national capacity and building, building economic bases to meet human goals (alleviate critical poverty, debt relief, trade and commodity agreements, increased resource flows for development, and growth in industrialized countries); operational strategies for UNICEF, and UNICEF Board Decision. A table is provided as a review of selected goals and achievements of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd UN development decades and achievements in 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1988, as well as a figure for the annual number of under 5 years childhood mortality by 5 main causes and a figure for estimated deaths and lives saved under 5 years, 1980-2000.
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  6. 6
    070172

    Saint Kitts and Nevis.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 54-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Saint Kitts and Nevis' 1985 population of 46,000 is projected to grow to 72,000 by the year 2025. The 1984 contraceptive prevalence rate was 40.6, and the urban population is expected to increase from 45.0% in 1985 to 71.4% overall by the year 2025. No specific data are presented on population age structure and growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and international migration. Insignificant levels of immigration and emigration, and overall spatial distribution are nonetheless considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, life expectancy at birth, and high fertility are not. Saint Kitts and Nevis has an explicit population policy. Its National Family Planning Program works to reduce fertility and population growth through the provision of family planning services, with specialized focus upon adolescent fertility. Population size historically focus upon adolescent fertility. Population size historically not varying by more than 10-15%, Saint Kitts and Nevis has maintained one of the few stable populations in the world. Health policy aims to reduce mortality and morbidity, and complements family planning and population policy with emphasis upon at risk and in need groups like mothers and children, adolescents, and the elderly. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  7. 7
    070219

    Venezuela.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 206-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Venezuela's 1985 population of 17,317,000 is projected to grow to 38,000,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 39.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.3% were over the age of 60. 27.8% and 11.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 27.4 to 13.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.0 to 73.7 years, the crude death rate will increase from 5.5 to 6.3, while infant mortality will decline from 29.0 to 20.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.1 to 2.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.0 to 20.1. The 1977 contraceptive prevalence rate was 49.3, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.2 years. Urban population will increase from 87.6% in 1985 to 96.0% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility and emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, morbidity, high immigration, and spatial distribution are not. Venezuela does not have an explicit population policy. Fertility and health are addressed under more broad social sector policy and in the general context of family welfare. While the government does not directly intervene to affect population growth or fertility, sectoral programs and national development plans have had an impact on population dynamics. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  8. 8
    070217

    Uruguay.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 198-201. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Uruguay's 1985 population of 3,012,000 is projected to grow to 3,875,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 26.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 15.3% were over the age of 60. 22.1% and 17.4% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 9.3 to 5.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 70.3 to 73.4 years, the crude death rate will remain constant at 10.2, and infant mortality will decline from 30.0 to 16.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 2.8 to 2.2, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 19.5 to 15.4. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate, while the 1975 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.4 years. Urban population will increase from 84.6% in 1985 to 91.6% overall by the year 2025. Mortality and morbidity are considered to be acceptable by the government, while low population growth, fertility, immigration, high emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Uruguay has an explicit population policy. It aims to increase population growth, fertility, and immigration, while reducing morbidity, mortality, and emigration. Return migration is also encouraged. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  9. 9
    070215

    United Republic of Tanzania.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 190-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Tanzania's 1985 population of 22,751,000 is projected to grow to 84,784,000 by year 2025. In 1985, 48.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 3.8% were over the age of 60. 39.0% and 4.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 35.4 to 23.5 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 51.0 to 66.5 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 15.3 to 5.8, while infant mortality will decline from 115.0 to 49.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.1 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 50.6 to 29.4. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate, while the 1978 female mean age at 1st marriage was 19.2 years. Urban population will increase from 24.4% in 1985 to 64.2% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant international migration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, mortality, morbidity and fertility are not. The United Republic of Tanzania does not have an explicit population policy. The government considers poverty to be the nation's most troubling concern, and has created the Population and Development Planning and Policy Unit to foster the integration of population and development. A draft national population policy was prepared in 1988. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  10. 10
    070214

    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 186-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland's 1985 population of 56,618,000 is projected to grow to 57,464,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 19.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 20.7% were over the age of 60. 17.2% and 27.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 1.3 to -0.1 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 74.0 to 79.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 11.7 to 11.5, while infant mortality will decline from 11.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.8 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.0 to 11.4. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 83, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.8 years. Urban population will increase from 91.7% in 1985 to 95.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, spatial distribution, and low emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality and high immigration are not. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland does not have an explicit population policy. Recent legislation has, however, been enacted to stem the flow of immigrants into the country. The government considers decisions on fertility and child-bearing best left to individuals and limits itself to providing family planning and health information and services. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  11. 11
    070213

    United Arab Emirates.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 182-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The United Arab Emirates' 1985 population of 1,350,000 is projected to grow to 2,692,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 31.0% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 2.4% were over the age of 60. 24.8% and 18.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 23.0 to 8.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 69.2 to 77.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 3.6 to 8.1, while infant mortality will decline from 32.0 to 7.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.2 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 26.6 to 16.8. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate, while the 1975 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.0 years. Urban population will increase from 77.8% in 1985 to 84.9% overall by the year 2025. Mortality, morbidity, fertility, spatial distribution, and insignificant emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth and immigration are not. The United Arab Emirates does not have an explicit population policy. The government is, however, intent upon reducing its heavy dependency upon immigrant workers, and will increasingly restrict immigration and migration to urban areas while encouraging continued high fertility among the native-born population. Economic development and social change are also fostered to raise the standard of living. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  12. 12
    070211

    Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 174-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Based upon data for the year 1985, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic's population was 51,300,000. The rate of natural increase was 4.5, and crude death and birth rates were 11.1 and 15.5, respectively. 66.4% of the population resided in urban areas. No more detailed data were presented on population age structure and growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, international migration, and spatial distribution. Likewise, no demographic statistics were projected for the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, international migration, and spatial distribution are nonetheless considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality is not. The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic has an explicit population policy. Increasing life expectancy and labor force activity, strengthening the family, improving education for the young, and changing the role and participation of women in the work force and public domain are policy objectives. The government encourages women to bear children, and generally hopes to maintain and potentially increase the rate of population growth. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  13. 13
    070210

    Uganda.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 170-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Uganda's 1985 population of 15,491,000 is projected to grow to 55,198,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 48,1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.1% were over the age of 60. 39.0% and 4.7% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 33.4 to 23.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 49.0 to 65.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 16.8 to 6.6, while infant mortality will decline from 112.0 to 47.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.9 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 50.3 to 29.5. The 1989 contraceptive prevalence rate was 5.5, while no information was presented on the female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 9.4% in 1985 to 29.6% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while population growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and high emigration are not. Uganda does not have an explicit population policy. The government feels that peace, integrated socioeconomic development, long-term modification of reproductive behavior, and lower mortality and morbidity will bring about desired reductions in fertility. Improved health will result from primary health care and health education targeted to mothers and children. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  14. 14
    070208

    Turkey.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 162-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Turkey's 1985 population of 50,345,000 is projected to grow to 89,646,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 36.4% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.4% were over the age of 60. 22.9% and 13.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 20.8 to 9.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 61.6 to 74.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 9.4 to 6.7, while infant mortality will decline from 92.0 to 19.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 30.2 to 16.3. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 51.0, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 20.7 years. Urban population will increase from 45.9% in 1985 to 69.8% overall by the year 2025. Significant immigration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, fertility, mortality, and low emigration are not. Turkey has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth and fertility through family planning programs and family welfare provisions, reduce mortality through expanded, local-level public health services, and reduce migration to urban areas. Policy supports increased emigration. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  15. 15
    070207

    Tunisia.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 158-61. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Tunisia's 1985 population of 7,261,000 is projected to grow to 13,284,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 39.6% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.0% were over the age of 60. 22.5% and 13.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 25.3 to 10.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 63.1 to 75.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.4 to 5.9, while infant mortality will decline from 71.0 to 16.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.9 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.7 to 16.0. The 1983 contraceptive prevalence rate was 41.1, while the 1984 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.3 years. Urban population will increase from 53.0% in 1985 to 72.6% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant immigration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while the high population growth, mortality, fertility, low emigration, and spatial distribution are not. Tunisia has an explicit population policy. It aims to lower the birth rate and population growth, extend family health services in rural areas, improve living conditions and health care facilities for infants and small children, decrease migration to metropolitan areas, and adjust the spatial distribution pattern. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  16. 16
    070204

    Togo.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 146-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Togo's 1985 population of 2,960,000 is projected to grow to 9,500,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 44.8% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.1% were over the age of 60. 38.4% and 5.6% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 29.5 to 22.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 50.5 to 67.0 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 15.7 to 6.3, while infant mortality will decline from 102.0 to 40.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.1 to 3.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.2 to 28.9. The 1988 contraceptive prevalence rate was 33.1, while the 1971 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.5 years. Urban population will increase from 2.1% in 1985 to 53.0% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, and low international migration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, morbidity, and spatial distribution are not. Togo does not have an explicit population policy. The government does, however, support family planning and maternal-child health services, and is interested in population redistribution. It hopes to reduce mortality levels while also developing employment opportunities for the growing population. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  17. 17
    070203

    Thailand.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 142-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Thailand;s 1985 population of 51,604,000 is projected to grow to 80,911,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 36.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 5.6% were over the age of 60. 21.0% and 15.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 19.9 to 7.0 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 62.7 to 74.6 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.0 to 7.4, while infant mortality will decline from 48.0 to 13.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.5 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 27.8 to 14.4. The 1987 contraceptive prevalence rate was 65.5, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 22.7 years. Urban population will increase from 19.8% in 1985 to 49.2% overall by the year 2025. Insignificant international migration is considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, mortality, morbidity, fertility, and spatial distribution are not. Thailand has an explicit population policy. Encouraging the voluntary acceptance of family planning and the notion of a small family ideal, policy supports a reduction in the rate of population growth. Health and socioeconomic objectives as well as a balanced population distribution are also included as well as balanced population distribution are also included under the rubric of population policy. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  18. 18
    070202

    Syrian Arab Republic.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 138-41. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    The Syrian Arab Republic's 1985 population of 10,458,000 is projected to grow to 32,271,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 48.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.3% were over the age of 60. 30.8% and 6.5% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. THe rate of natural increase will have declined from 36.9 to 17.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 62.6 to 74.3 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 8.6 to 3.7, while infant mortality will decline from 59.0 to 15.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 7.2 to 2.6, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.5 to 21.5. The 1978 contraceptive prevalence rate was 19.8, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 21.5 years. Urban population will increase from 49.5% in 1985 to 72.0% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, morbidity, mortality, fertility, spatial distribution, and insignificant immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high emigration is not. The Syrian Arab Republic does not have an explicit population policy. Policies address the improvement of health, education, and cultural and housing conditions, especially in rural areas, with no governmental intervention in fertility. They aim to more effectively and efficiently channel resources to various sectors of the economy. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  19. 19
    070201

    Switzerland.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 134-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Switzerland's 1985 population of 6,470,000 is projected to shrink to 6,118,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 16.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 19.6% were over the age of 60. 14.3% and 33.7% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 2.3 to --4.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.3 to 80.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 9.3 to 13.5, while infant mortality will decline from 8.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.5 to 1.7, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 11.6 to 9.3. The 1980 contraceptive prevalence rate was 71.2, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 25.0 years. Urban population will increase from 58.2% in 1985 to 69.5% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, mortality, morbidity, spatial distribution, and international migration levels are considered to be acceptable by the government, while the low fertility level is not. Switzerland has an explicit population policy. Indirect measures will be applied in attempts to raise fertility. These would include improving the situation of families and children, and imposing more stringent regulations on immigration. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  20. 20
    070200

    Sweden.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 130-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sweden's 1985 population of 8,350,000 is projected to shrink to 8,136,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 17.5% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 23.6% were over the age of 60. 15.6% and 30.0% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 0.3 to -2.3 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 76.3 to 80.6 years, the crude death rate will increase from 11.0 to 12.7, while infant mortality will decline from 7.0 to 5.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.7 to 1.8, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 11.3 to 10.4. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 78.1, while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 27.6 years. Urban population will increase from 83.4% in 1985 to 90.5% overall by the year 2025. All of these indicators and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government while only spatial distribution is marginally not. Sweden does not have an explicit population policy. Population policies are part and parcel of broader socioeconomic policy, with, nonetheless, an interest in limiting future levels of immigration and adjusting urban-rural spatial imbalance. Population policy as it relates to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  21. 21
    070187

    Suriname.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 122-5. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Suriname's 1985 population of 375,000 is projected to grow to 628,000 by the year 2025. In 1983, 37.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.6% were over the age of 60. 22.4% and 13.9% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 22.0 to 9.6 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 68.0 to 76.7 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 6.8 to 5.8, while infant mortality will decline from 36.0 to 9.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.6 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 28.8 to 15.4. No information is reported on the contraceptive prevalence rate and female mean age at 1st marriage. Urban population will increase from 45.7% in 1985 to 69.8% overall by the year 2025. Population growth, fertility, and insignificant immigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, morbidity, spatial distribution, and high emigration are not. Suriname does not have an explicit population policy. While supporting the provision of contraceptives, health services, and primary health care for the population, the government does not intervene in population growth and fertility. It is, however, illegal to provide family planning services and information to adolescents. Efforts have also been taken to stem international emigration and shift spatial distribution toward the interior of the country. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  22. 22
    070186

    Sudan.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 118-21. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sudan's 1985 population of 21,818,000 is projected to grow to 59,594,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 45.2% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 4.5% were over the age of 60. 33.9% and 6.3% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined by 28.6 to 17.4 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 47.8 to 63.8 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 17.3 to 7.7, while infant mortality will decline from 118.0 to 51.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 6.6 to 3.0, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 45.9 to 25.1. The 1978/79 contraceptive prevalence rate was 4.6, while the 1973 female mean age at 1st marriage was 18.7 years. Urban population will increase from 20.6% in 1985 to 45.5% overall by the year 2025. Population growth and fertility are considered to be acceptable by the government, while mortality, spatial distribution, and significantly high immigration and emigration are not. Sudan does not have an explicit population policy. Official focus centers largely upon improving the standard of living through attention to infant and maternal mortality, maternal-child care, and providing primary health care and basic social services. The status of women and a modified spatial distribution are other priority concerns of the government. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  23. 23
    070185

    Sri Lanka.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 114-7. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Sri Lanka's 1985 population of 16,108,000 is projected to grown to 24,449,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 34.1% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 71.1% were over the age of 60. 21.6% and 17.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 20.5 to 7.5 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 68.9 to 77.2 years, the crude death rate will increase from 6.3 to 7.2, while infant mortality will decline from 39.0 to 13.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 3.3 to 2.1, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 26.9 to 14.7. The 1987 contraceptive prevalence rate was 62.0, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 24.4 years. Urban population will increase from 21.1% n 1985 to 42.6% overall by he year 2025. Insignificant levels of international migration and spatial distribution are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, mortality, morbidity, and fertility are not. Sri Lanka has an explicit population policy. It aims to reduce population growth and adjust the age structure by lowering fertility and infant and child mortality. Strengthened and expanded family planning services, financial incentives for women using IUDs, and population education are components of this approach. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  24. 24
    070184

    Spain.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 110-3. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    Spain's 1985 population of 38,602,000 is projected to grown to 42,530,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 22.9% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 17.1% were over the age of 60. 16.6% and 26.1% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 5.6 to 0.8 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 75.8 to 80.3 years, the crude birth death rate will increase from 7.7 to 10.3, while infant mortality will decline from 11.0 to 6.0. The fertility rate will rise over the period from 1.8 to 1.9, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 13.3 to 11.0. The 1985 contraceptive prevalence rate was 59.4, while the 1981 female mean age at 1st marriage was 23.1 years. Urban population will increase from 75.8% in 1985 to 88.8% overall by the year 2025. All of these indicators and trends are considered to be acceptable by the government. Spain, therefore, does not have an explicit population policy. The government considers the country's demographic situation to be stable, and deems fertility to be an individual matter. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken regarding the above-mentioned demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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  25. 25
    070183

    South Africa.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: World population policies. Volume III. Oman to Zimbabwe, compiled by United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. 106-9. (Population Studies No. 102/Add.2; ST/ESA/SER.A/102/Add.2)

    South Africa's 1985 population of 31,593,000 is projected to grow to 63,232,000 by the year 2025. In 1985, 37.8% of the population was aged 0-14 years, while 6.2% were over the age of 60. 26.1% and 11.2% are projected to be in these respective age groups by the year 2025. The rate of natural increase will have declined from 22.1 to 11.2 over the period. Life expectancy should increase from 57.9 to 72.66 years, the crude death rate will decrease from 11.0 to 6.6, while infant mortality will decline from 83.0 to 22.0. The fertility rate will decline over the period from 4.8 to 2.3, with a corresponding drop in the crude birth rate from 33.1 to 17.7. The 1981 contraceptive prevalence rate was 48.0., while the 1980 female mean age at 1st marriage was 25.7 years. Urban population will increase from 56.0% in 1985 to 77.3% overall by the year 2025. Significant immigration and insignificant emigration are considered to be acceptable by the government, while high population growth, mortality, high fertility, and spatial distribution are not. South Africa has an explicit population policy. By improving living standards of the population, the government hopes to lower fertility and population growth. Policy focuses upon improving education, manpower training, primary health care, family planning, economic development, housing, controlled urbanization, and rural development. Population policy as it related to development objectives is discussed, followed by consideration of specific policies adopted and measures taken to address above-mentioned problematic demographic indicators. The status of women and population data systems are also explored.
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