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New York, New York, The Global Committee of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, 1984. 32 p.The International Parliamentary Assembly on Population and Development was held in Mexico City, immediately following the United Nations International Conference on Population in 1984. The implementation of the World Population Plan of Action adopted by the UN conference was discussed by 184 parliamentarians from 60 countries. The result was an action plan, affirming that the ultimate objective of development and population policies would be improvement of the quality of life and well-being of individuals and families; noting the agreement of the UN conference, that population is integral to development; placing population policies in the prerogative of each sovereign country; recognizing the achievements of parliamentarians; and reasserting the importance of parliamentarians in the formulation of policies and enactment of population and development laws. Since the 1979 Colombo, Sri Lanka Parliamentarians conference, achievements have included the holding of regional conferences; establishment of the Global Committee; Asian Forum, and Inter-American Parliamentary Group, and national groups in 40 countries; and encouraging participation of parliamentarians in the 1984 UN conference. As elected representatives of the people, the parliamentarians' role includes insuring population and development issues receive priority attention; alerting constituents to the importance and inter-relationship of population and development; securing a political concensus for action; initiating legislative measures; working for funding allocation; reviewing progress; and collaborating with other parliamentarians as well as diverse international organizations. Parliamentarians should, in future, work also for the improved status of women; the strengthening of primary health care and legislative strenghening of family planning; extending of educational opportunities to all, and assisting in protecting the physical environment, in alleviating the problems of migration, and fostering of community participation. Steering and drafting committee members and participating countries are listed.
Earthwatch. 1984; (16):7.The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), cooperates with the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and other agencies to: actively promote policies designed to attain a balance between population and resources, within national conservation strategies and through field activities to preserve nature and natural resources; take into account the fundamental issues of population and resources in its policies, programs, resolutions, and public statements, where appropriate; keep trends in population and resources under review, reporting back to each IUCN General Assembly; encourage nongovernment organizations, including local conservation groups and family planning associations, to work together to spread awareness of the links between population, resources, and the environment; encourage governments to undertake periodic assessments of population trends, natural resources, and likely economic conditions, their interrelationships and the implications for the achievement of national goals; encourage governments to establish a population policy and to consider the special environmental problems of the urban and rural poor and to promote sustainable rural development; encourage nations to take effective action to obtain the basic right of all couples to have access to safe and effective family planning methods, as established in the World Population Plan of Action; and generally encourage national and international development policies which help create the conditions in which human population can successfully be brought into balance with carefully conserved natural resources.
Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.
Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.
A summary of the report on the evaluation of MEX/79/P04 "Integration of population policy with development plans and programmes".
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. 19,  p.The objective of this UNFPA project was to build the institutional and methodological base for integration of population policy into and its harmonization with national, sectoral and state policies or socioeconomic development in Mexico. More specifically, the project was to achieve integration of population policy with 6 sectoral plans, 24 state plans and the Master Development Plan within 3 years. Although the Mission considers it an achievement that the project signed agreements with all 31 states and the Federal District, no formal contacts had been made with the 6 sectors. Mexico's National Population Council (CONAPO) coordinated the project. The Mission recommended that support to integration activities be continued on the basis of the experience that has been acquired. Therefore it is necessary 1) to strengthen the activities at the state level; 2) to support the development of methodologies considering the impact of socioeconomic plans and programs on demographic variables and to provide a comprehensive program of international technical experience; 3) to recognize that responses to ad hoc support activities are an important integration instrument for both sectors and states; and 4) to exact greater clarity concerning the role of the project in the National Population Program. A lack of aedquately trained personnel proved to be a continual obstacle to implementation. The Mission recommends that at an early stage in the development of such projects a thorough assessment of the human resource requirements and existing capacity for integration of demographic and socioeconomic variables be made and that, based on this assessment, a specific training strategy be developed and incorporated in the project's design. In addition to training, the project also included research support activities; the outputs, however, were descriptive rather than analytical, which can be traced to both the design and execution of the work plan for research activities. The UNFPA's funding constraints and its management of reduced funds further complicated the project's execution, which suffered from high personnel turnover and lack of coordination of project activities.
New York, New York, United Nations 1984. 45 p. (Official Records, 1984, Supplement No. 2 E/1984/12 E./CN. 9/1984/9)The report of the 22nd session of the United Nations Population Commission includes the opening statements by the Under Secretary General for International Economic and Social Affairs, the Under Secretary General for Technical Cooperation for Development, the Director of the Population Division, and the Assistant Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. These are followed by a description of the actions taken by the United Nations to implement the recommendations of the World Population Conference, 1974. A report on the progress of ongoing work in the field of population summarized for the following categories: 1) world demographic analysis; 2) demographic projections; 3) population policies; 4) population and development; 5) monitoring of population trends and policies; 6) factors affecting patterns of reproduction; 7) dissemination of population information; 8) technical cooperation; and 9) demograpahic statistics. Programs of work in the field of population for the biennium 1984-1985 and medium-term plan for the period 1984-1989 are provided for each of the 9 preceding categories as well as a consideration of draft proposals and a report on the continuity of work. The report concludes with the organization, attendance, and agenda of the session.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects
In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 267-92. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)The 1st section of this paper devoted to population, resources, and development broadly delineates for countries the physiological limits of land to support human populations according to pressure on resources. Subsequent sections examine the impact which an abatement of population growth could have by the year 2000 on resources in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector of developing countries in particular, link poverty to malnutrition, and deal with 1 specific aspect of the relation between distribution and undernutrition. The purpose of the final section is to highlight certain issues of the "food-feed competition" which requires more attention in the future. The frailty of the balance between population and resources is a basic concern of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN. FAO's purpose is to promote agricultural and rural development and to contribute to the improvement of people's nutritional level. The significant characteristics of the FAO work on "potential population supporting capacity of lands" are the improved soil and climatic data from which it starts and the explicit specification of the assumptions made about technology, inputs, and nutritional intake requirements. Both the carrying capacity project and the results of "Agriculture: Toward 2000" have emphasized the importance of the role that technology will play in world agriculture in the future. Yet, technology is not free and its cost should be compared to alternative solutions. Moving people -- migration -- is an option that suggests itself in relation to the carrying capacity project. Changes in certain institutions, including land reform, size of the farm, market systems, pricing regimes are more suggestions that may arise with respect "Agriculture: Toward 2000" and to the food-feed competition. The ultimate question continues to be whether high agricultural technology is feasible on a world agricultural scale without dire environmental and other effects.
In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 175-86. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)In carrying out the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action, the UN has expanded its technical cooperation activities with the countries concerned in diverse population development fields, including studies of the interaction between social, economic, and demographic variables, the formulation and implementation of policies, the integration of demographic factors in the planning process, the training of national staff, and the improvement of the data base and institutional arrangements. Discussion focuses on country problems and policies, national institutional capacity in population and development planning, strengthening national institutional capacities, and integration of population and development in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region. The interaction between structural change in population and social and economic development is generally recognized at the aggregate, sectoral, and regional levels, yet it has not thus far been possible to take this factor fully into account in the development planning process in many countries. In too many cases, population policies have been formulated and implemented in isolation and not in harmony with development policies or as an integral part of overall development strategy. Deficiencies in achieving integrated population policies and integration of demographic factors in the development planning process often have been caused or aggravated by a deficient knowledge of the interactions between demographic and socioeconomic factors and by insufficient expertise, resources, and proper institutional arrangements in the field. The population policies most frequently formulated and implemented during the last decade dealt with fertility, population growth, migration (internal and international), and mortality. Many governments continue to assign relatively low priority to the formulation of population policy and the formulation of related institutional arrangements. The fact that population is still understood as family planning by a number of governments also delays the legislative procedure necessary to establish government institutions for population research and study. The need exists to create a viable national institutional capacity through the establishment of a population planning unit within the administrative structure of national planning bodies. The substantive content of the work programs of these units would vary from country to country. There also is a need for a broader approach to the adoption of population policies and development planning strategies. Some progress has been made in integrating population into development planning in the ESCAP region, but the progress has been slow.
The Tunis Declaration emanating from the Arab Parliamentary Conference on Development and Population, [May 8-11, 1984, Tunis, Tunisia].
[Unpublished] 1984. 12 p.Parliamentarians from 16 Arab countries met in Tunis, Tunisia, on May 8-11, 1984, to discuss the current demographic and development situation in the Arab nations. The participants agreed that currently income is poorly distributed both within and between Arab countries (per capita income varies from US$500-US$30,000), life expectancy varies markedly between countries, international migration is extensive, the annual population growth rate is 2.9%, and population policies in most Arab countries are poorly formulated. The participants recognized the reciprocal relationship between development and population. They noted that the development process includes meeting the moral, material, health, and fertility needs of all segments of society; development requires broad participation; cooperation with other 3rd World countries is essential; industrialized nations should limit their use of resources; and Arab nations should act on the recommendations of international conferences on population and development and adhere to the agreements between Arab countries on migration issues. The participants recommended that participants continue to actively promote social equality in the Arab world and that Arab nations 1) formulate policies to keep resources and population within balance and to reduce mortality differentials in their own countries; 2) establish fertility goals that take into account population growth, the health and welfare of mothers and children, human rights, and social equality; 3) promote policies which preserve the traditions of the Arab world; 4) improve women's rights by increasing economic and educational opportunities for women, expanding the decision-making role of women, and ensuring that women are presented in a favorable light in the mass media; 5) address the needs of the most vulnerable members of society; 7) improve services for the urban poor and reduce urban growth through rural development and the establishment of small cities; 8) establish policies to reduce the brain drain, to ensure the welfare and rights of migrants, to encourage Arab investment in the development of Arab countries, and to encourage trained Arabs to return to their country of origin; and 9) to mobilize world opinion against Zionist expansionist and forced migration policies. Furthermore, the participants call for action on the part of the delegates, Arab nations, and interational organizations to facilitate the operationalizing of these recommendations by focusing attention on population and development issues, by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information on population and development, and by providing financial support.
Population and Development Review. 1984 Mar; 10(1):103-26.This paper presents some of the results of projections prepared by the World Bank in 1983 for all the world's countries. The projections (presented against a background of recent demographic trends as estimated by the United Nations) trace the approach of each individual country to a stationary state. Implications of the underlying fertility and mortality assumptions are shown mainly in terms of time trends of total population to the year 2100, annual rates of growth, and absolute annual increments. These indices are shown for the largest individual countries, for world regions, and for country groupings according to economic criteria. The detailed predictive performance of such projections is likely to be poor but the projections indicate orders of magnitude characterizing certain aggregate demographic phenomena whose occurrence is highly probable and set clearly interpretable reference points useful in discussing contemporary issues of policy. (author's)
Laws and policies affecting fertility: a decade of change. Leis e politicas que afetam a fecundidade: uma decada de mudancas.
Population Reports. Series E: Law and Policy. 1984; (7):E105-E151.In the last decade over 50 countries have strengthened laws or policies relating to fertility. Approximately 40 developing countries have issued explicit statements on population policy emphasizing the relationship to national development. In several countries constitutional amendments have been passed reflecting a more positive attitude toward family planning. High-level units, e.g. small technical units, interministerial councils and coordinating councils have been established to formulate policies or coordinate programs. Other actions relating to fertility include: increased resources for family planning programs, both in the public and in the private sector; elimination of restrictions on family planning information, services and supplies; special benefits for family planning acceptors or couples with small families, and measures to improve the status of women, which indirectly affects childbearing patterns. The recognition that policies, laws and programs to influence fertility are an integral part of efforts to promote social and economic development was reaffirmed at the International Conference on Population in Mexico City in 1984. 147 governments expressed their support for voluntary programs to help people control their fertility. Governments cite at least 4 reasons for increased attention to policies affecting fertility and family planning. Some of these are the desire to slow population growth to achieve national development objectives, concern for maternal and child health, support for the basic human right to determine family size, and equity in the provision of health services. In addition to the strongest laws and policies to lower fertility in Asia, legal changes are occurring in Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. Family planning programs, laws on contraceptives and voluntary sterilization, compensation, incentives and disincentives, the legal status of women and fertility and policy-making and implementation are reviewed, as well as equal employment, education, political and civil rights and equality of women within marriage and the family.
[Statement by Rene Fernandez-Araoz, Vice-Minister of coordination of the Ministry of Planning, Bolivia] Discurso pronunciado por S.E. el Lic. Rene Fernandez-Araoz, Vice-Ministro de Planeamiento de la Republica de Bolivia, en la Conferencia Internacional de Poblacion..
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 7 p.Latin America faces a series of problems and hurdles which condition the way in which the issue of population/development is approached. The most obvious problems are the required changes in the socioeconomic and political structures; the state of the social sciences in the population field; the fragmentation of efforts among scientists, academicians, technicians and politicians dealing with this area; and the lack of legitimacy accorded to this topic. The chief hurdle facing most countries in the region and Bolivia in particular, is that of wide social differences. This disparity will worsen unless profound social changes are carried out. Bolivia has spent 3 yeras developing a consistent population policy within a development framework. This country offers a peculiar demographic situation: while the average fertility rate is 6.5 children/woman, this is offset by a high infant mortality rate (213/1000 children between the ages of 0 and 2), and a net population loss from out-migration. Bolivia is therefore underpopulated at the same time that the poorest women have a high fertility rate. The country's population policy thus seeks to act not only on the key demographic variables, but also on those social and economic variables which determine its poverty and underdevelopment. To this end, a National Population Council is being established with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities and other entities. The speaker regrets the imposition of conditions on the funds granted by the UNFPA. These restrictions fall primarily on the poor and less-developed countries.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 36 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)In his address to national leaders in Nairobi, Kenya, Clausen expresses his views on population growth and development. Rapid population growth slows development in the developing countries. There is a strong link between population growth rates and the rate of economic and social development. The World Bank is determined to support the struggle against poverty in developing countries. Population growth will mean lower living standards for hundreds of millions of people. Proposals for reducing population growth raise difficult questions about the proper domain of public policy. Clausen presents a historical overview of population growth in the past 2 decades, and discusses the problem of imbalance between natural resources and people, and the effect on the labor force. Rapid population growth creates urban economic and social problems that may be unmanageable. National policy is a means to combat overwhelmingly high fertility, since governments have a duty to society as a whole, both today's generation and future ones. Peoples may be having more children than they actually want because of lack of information or access to fertility control methods. Family planning is a health measure that can significantly reduce infant mortality. A combination of social development and family planning is needed to teduce fertility. Clausen briefly reviews the effect of economic and technological changes on population growth, focusing on how the Bank can support an effective combination of economic and social development with extending and improving family planning and health services. The World Bank offers its support to combat rapid population growth by helping improve understanding through its economic and sector work and through policy dialogue with member countries; by supporting developing strategies that naturally buiild demand for smaller families, especially by improving opportunities in education and income generation; and by helping supply safe, effective and affordable family planning and other basic health services focused on the poor in both urban and rural areas. In the next few years, the Bank intends at least to double its population and related health lending as part of a major effort involving donors and developing countries with a primay focus on Africa and Asia. An effective policy requires the participation of many ministeries and clear direction and support from the highest government levels.
In: Ghosh PK, ed. Third world development: a basic needs approach. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1984. 115-45. (International Development Resource Books No. 13)The basic needs approach is critically examined, and the appropriateness of donor agency support for the basic needs approach is questioned. The basic needs approach is plagued by operational problems. It is difficult 1) to define minimum basic need levels, especially if absolute standards are advocated; 2) to measure basic needs; and 3) to implement basic needs programs in such a way as to ensure that only the poorest segments of the population derive benefits and that the benefits remain in the hands of the poor. Basic needs advocates fail to deal with the question of economic growth. They assume that economic growth will continue and ignore the fact that there is a trade-off between satisfying basic needs and investing in growth. They also ignore the issue of trade-offs between fulfilling present and future basic needs. The basic needs approach implies a specific development pattern, and the longterm consequences of this implied development pattern are not sufficiently examined by advocates of the approach. The basic needs approach requires a development pattern that stresses rural development and labor intensive production instead of industrialization, capital intensive production, and growth of the modern sector. Ultimately, the development pattern advocated by this approach will result in an international division of labor between the developing and developed countries which will not improve international marketing conditions for the developing countries since developed countries will not be willing to substantially increase their importation of labor intensive products from the developing countries. Donor agencies need to adopt a cautious attitude toward funding and promoting the basic needs approach. Many developing countries strongly resent the basic needs approach. They feel that donors and the developed countries do not have the right to force them to focus their energies on eradicating poverty. They also fear that the approach is an attempt to reduce financial assistance. Donor agencies lack sufficient expertise to evaluate poverty-oriented programs and to assess the long range impact of many of these programs. In one country, a donor-supported basic needs program to increase agricultural productivity had the unexpected result of reducing the price of agricultural products. Another project aimed at improving living standards in a particular rural community unexpectedly increased property values and, ultimately, led to the migration of the former residents to an urban slum. Furthermore, donor agencies do not have the right to impose development strategies on aid recipients. Development strategies must be formulated by the recipients, and donors should support only those strategies which accord with the development goals of the recipient countries.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug 13. 40 p. (E/CONF.76/L.3; M-84-718)This report of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City during August 1984, includes: recommendations for action (socioeconomic development and population, the role and status of women, development of population policies, population goals and policies, and promotion of knowledge and policy) and for implementation (role of national governments; role of international cooperation; and monitoring, review, and appraisal). While many of the recommendations are addressed to governments, other efforts or initiatives are encouraged, i.e., those of international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, private institutions or organizations, or families and individuals where their efforts can make an effective contribution to overall population or development goals on the basis of strict respect for sovereignty and national legislation in force. The recommendations reflect the importance attached to an integrated approach toward population and development, both in national policies and at the international level. In view of the slow progress made since 1974 in the achievement of equality for women, the broadening of the role and the improvement of the status of women remain important goals that should be pursued as ends in themselves. The ability of women to control their own fertility forms an important basis for the enjoyment of other rights; likewise, the assurance of socioeconomic opportunities on a equal basis with men and the provision of the necessary services and facilities enable women to take greater responsibility for their reproductive lives. Governments are urged to adopt population policies and social and economic development policies that are mutually reinforcing. Countries which consider that their population growth rates hinder the attainment of national goals are invited to consider pursuing relevant demographic policies, within the framework of socioeconomic development. In planning for economic and social development, governments should give appropriate consideration to shifts in family and household structures and their implications for requirements in different policy fields. The international community should play an important role in the further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. Organs, organizations, and bodies of the UN system and donor countries which play an important role in supporting population programs, as well as other international, regional, and subregional organizations, are urged to assist governments at their request in implementing the reccomendations.
[New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities], 1984. 8 p. (UN/ICP/83/E/100,000; E/CONF.76/L.4)This pamphlet reproduces the Declaration on Population and Development prepared by representatives of 29 countries and adopted by the International Conference onn Population held in Mexico City August 6-14, 1984. The Conference noted the widening disparities between developed and developed countries, and reaffirmedd its commitment to improving the standard of living and equality of life of all peoples of this planet. Population issues are increasingly recognized as a fundamental element in development planning, and such plans must reflect the links among population, resources, environment, and development. Experience over the past decade suggests the need for full participation by the entire community and grassroots organizations in the design and implementation of policies and programs. Such an approach not only ensures that programs are relevant to local needs and consistent with personal and social values, but also promotes awareness of demographic problems. In addition, community support is essential to facilitate the integration of women into the process of social and economic development. Major efforts must be made to ensure that couples and individuals can decide freely, responsibly, and without coercion the number and spacing of their children and have the information, education, and means to make this decision. Increased funding is needed to develop new methods of contraception as well as to improve the safety, efficacy, and acceptability of existing methods. As part of the goal of health for all by the year 2000, special attention should be given to maternal and child health services within a primary health care system. Breastfeeding, adequate nutrition, clean water, immunization programs, oral rehydration therapy, and birth spacing offer the potential to improve child survival dramatically. Attention must also be given to the social and economic implications of recent changes in the age structure of the population, rapid urbanization, and international migratory movements. Governments as well as nongovernmental organizations continue to have a critical role in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action, and should be supported by adequate international assistance.
New York, United Nations, 1984. 108 p. (Population Studies, No. 85; ST/ESA/SER.A/85)The 3 parts of this report on world, regional, and international developments in the field of population, present a summary of levels, trends, and prospects in mortality, fertility, nuptiality, international migration, population growth, age structure, and urbanization; consider some important issues in the interrelationships between economic, social, and demographic variables, with special emphasis on the problems of food supply and employment; and deal with the policies and perceptions of governments on population matters. The 1st part of the report is based primarily on data compiled by the UN Population Division. The 2nd part is based on information provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), as well as that compiled by the Population Division. The final part is based on information in the policy data bank maintained by the Population Division, including responses to the UN Fourth Population Inquiry among Governments. In 1975-80 the expectation of life at birth for the world was estimated at 57.2 years for both sexes combined. The corresponding figure for the developed and developing regions was 71.9 and 54.7 years, respectively. In 1975-80 the birthrate of the world was estimated at 28.9/1000 population and the gross reproduction rate was 1.91. These figures reflect considerable decline from the levels attained 25 years earlier: a crude birthrate of 38/1000 population and a gross reproduction rate of 2.44. World population grew from 2504 million in 1950 to 4453 million in 1983. Of the additional 1949 million people, 1645 million, or 84%, accrued to the less developed countries. The impact of population growth on economic development and social progress is not well understood. The governments of some developing countries still officially welcome a rapid rate of population growth. Many other governments see cause for concern in the need for the large increases in social expenditure, particularly for health and education, that accompany a young and growing population. Planners are concerned that the rapidly growing supply of labor, compounded by a trend toward rapid urbanization, may exceed that which the job market is likely to absorb. In the developed regions the prospect of a declining, or an aging, population is also cause for apprehension. There is a dearth of knowledge as to the impact of policies for altering the consequences of these trends. Many policies have been tried, in both developed and developing countries, to influence population growth and distribution, but the consequences of such policies have been difficult to assess. Frequently this problem arises because their primary objectives are not demographic in character.
In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 107-23. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Family was assinged the identification of those areas in current scientific knowledge and concerns regarding fertility and family that were of greatest salience for policy formulation and implementation. Particular attention was to be paid to shifts that had occurred since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest. This article is mainly an overview of the work of the Group and is organized around 3 main themes: 1) advances in knowledge of fertility levels and trends; 2) advances in understanding the relations between development, fertility and the family; 3)theoretical advances and practical experience with regard to policy formulation and implementation. 1) Knowledge of existing patterns of fertility and their composition has increased markedly over the last decade as a result of more data, better estimation techniques for measuring fertility levels and of new approaches to studying the reporductive process and family formation (e.g., the development of analytical models that allow quantification of the role of the various proximate determinants of fertility). A far-reaching realization is that proximate determinants of fertility may respond to the same set of factors but their responses may exhibit different elasticities. 2) In the understanding the relations between development, fertility and family, 2 main areas of concern can be identified. He level and type of analyses to date, especially the empirical ones, have been carried out at the micro-level, focusing on the individual decision maker. Although such models are advances over earlier ones developed largely from classical demographic transition theory, yet, their use has not been entirely satisfying because of the common failure to adequately specify the concepts involved and/or to substitute for them broad socioeconomic indicators in empirical work. In addition, institutional supports for and interrelations with particular patterns of fertility and family have been neglected, resulting, theoretical and practical impoverishment. The 2nd area of concern is the identification of those dimensions of family structure and function that are most intimately interlocked with modernization and fertility change. The discussion focuses on the interplay between modernization, the relationship between the generations, and between the sexes. Finally, there is an increasing awareness that a number of aspirations regarding fertility and family may be contradictory with respect to general advances in policcy formulation and implementation. 4 important trends can be discerned: 1) assessment of the potential utility and effectiveness of policy and programmatic efforts; 2) trends in the definition of desirable goals; 3) new directions in terms of the institutiona means for achieving these goals; and 4) shifts in the perception of the individual's freedom of choice.
Popleone. 1984 Jul; 1(1):2-4.Sierra Leone has no national population policy; however, the government is promoting numerous programs which impact on population problems, and in 1983 the government established a National Population Commission. A number of government health programs seek to reduce mortality and morbidity, particularly for mothers and children. Government programs provide 1) maternal and child health (MCH) care, primary health care, and immunization services; 2) training for traditional birth attendants, community health nurses, and paramedical personnel; 3) child spacing and fertility advisory services at some government MCH centers; and 4) construction of health centers. In addition, the government supports the inclusion of UN Fund for Population Activities' Fertility Advisory Services in the programs of several MCH centers, and, with assistance from the US Agency for International Development, is planning to make family planning services available at 120 MCH centers. The government is also supportive of the activities of the Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone. Abortion is legal only in cases where the life of the mother is in jeopardy. Sierra Leone has no specific policies aimed at population redistribution; however, government agricultural development programs to equalize economic conditions in rural and urban areas should help reduce migration to urban centers. The National Population Commission is charged with the tasks of 1) formulating a national population policy, 2) promoting family planning, and 3) coordinating and promoting population activities in reference to development policies and program. The commission members represent a broad spectrum of the community, and the commission is composed of a working committee and a secretariat. A number of task forces are currently developing recommendations in the areas of fertility, mortality, morbidity, migration, labor, population law, women in development, policy and the environment, and population information dissemination.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office [ILO], 1984. 56 p.This booklet describes the origins, scope, purpose, achievements and perspectives of the ILO's Population and Labour Policies Programme since its inception in the early 1970s as an integral part of the World Employment Programme. Its focus is in the area where population issues and labour and employment concerns intersect. The booklet was produced on the occasion of the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, but is also intended as a source of information on ILO's population activities for the general reader. Topics covered include the integration of population and development planning, institution building, women's roles and demographic issues, fertility, labor force, migration and population distribution, and motivation through education. (EXCERPT)
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984; 13(2):25-30.Differences between the Report of the UN World Population Conference and the Report of the Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference were discussed in reference to 1) the relative importance placed on family planning and development in lowering fertility levels, 2) the degree to which family planning and development programs should be integrated, and 3) setting family planning targets. The UN conference was held in Bucharest, Hungary, in 1974 and the Asian and Pacific Conference was held in Colomb, Sri Lanka in 1982. The relative importance of family planning and development on fertility was a major issue at the Bucharest conference. The World Population Plan for Action (WPPA) formulated at the Bucharest conference did not recommend family planning as a strategy for reducing fertility; instead, the WPPA recommended that countries interested in reducing fertility should give priority to development programs and urged developed countries to promote international equity in the use of world resources. In contrast, the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development as formulated at the Colomb conference, strongly recommended both development and family planning programs as a means to reduce fertility. It urged governments to adopt strong family planning policies, to make family planning services available on a regular basis, and to educate and motivate their populations toward family planning. In regard to integration strategies, the WPPA called for integrating family planning programs and development programs wherever possible, and particularly recommended integrated delivery of family planning and health services. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action supported an integrated approach, but only in those situations where it was proven to be a workable approach, i.e., where it improved the efficiency of family planning services. Combining family planning and maternal and child health programs is known to be an advantageous approach, but the consequences of integrating family planning with other health programs and with development programs needs further study. The WPPA recommended that governments set targets for life expectancy and infant mortality, but it did not mention setting fertility targets or establishing an ideal family size. It did urge governments to create the type of socioeconomic conditions which would permit couples to have the number of children they desired and to space them in the manner they wished. The WPPA noted that substantial national effort would be required to reduce the birthrate to the UN projected rate of 30/1000 population in developing regions by 1985. The Asia-Pacific Call for Action urged countries to set specific targets which would make it possible for them to attain replacement level fertility in the year 2000. It will be interesting to observe the degree to which the Asian and Pacific countries will be able to influence the participants at the upcoming International Conference on Population to their way of thinking on these critical issues. A copy of the Asia-Pacific Call for Action on Population and Development is included in an annex to the article.
New York, N.Y., United Nations, 1984. 85 p. (Population Studies, No. 83; ST/ESA/SER.A/83)Upon a recommendation of the Population Commission, at its 20th session in January 1979, the Secretary General of the United Nations convened an Ad Hoc Group of Experts on Demographic Projections from 16 to 19 November 1981 at the UN Headquarters to discuss the methodology used for demographic projections and to consider the relationship of demographic projections to development change and population policies. The expert Group was also requested to provide guidelines and make recommendations to the Secretary-General on how to incorporate demographic changes into the methodology to be used for the next round of world population projections to be prepared by the UN Population Division in collaboration with the regional commissions. The papers prepared by members of the Expert Group as well as those prepared by the Population Division are reproduced in this publication. The recommendations of the Expert Group and a summary of the papers and discussion are also included. The topics addressed in this publication are: 1) problems in making population projections; 2) integration of socioeconomic factors in population projections; 3) population projections as an aid to the formulation and implementation of population policies; 4) current projection assumptions for the United Nations demographic projections; 5) expectations and progressive analysis in fertility prediction; 6) use of the intermediate factors in fertility projections; 7) family planning and population projections; 8) progress of work on a fertility simulation model for population projections at the UN Secretariat; 9) mortality trends and prospects in developing countries: some "best data" indications; 10) the urban and city population projections of the UN: data, definitions and methods; 11) a critical assessment of urban-rural projections with special reference to UN methods; and 12) projections in Europe: some problems.
National growth, national strength, statement made at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, 8 January, 1984.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p. (Speech Series No. 105)The upsurge of population growth in Africa comes at a time when world growth rates, and the rates for all other regions of the world, have begun to decline. But growth itself is only one aspect of concern with population. Another and most important issue is the severe imbalance between resources and population which now exists in many African countries as the result of low levels of development and lagging utilization of natural resources, particularly for food production. Population growth is accompanied by explosive urban growth in amny centers, while international migration is also increasing, partly voluntary, partly under political or economic pressure. A new emphasis on population questions in Africa invites consideration of new policy directions and reassessment of some old ones. It will be convenient to deal with these under the 4 subjects which will form the basis for the agenda at this year's International Conference on Population to be held in Mexico City in August, 1984. These are mortality and health; fertility and the family; population distribution and migration and population; and resources, environment and development. Each of these topics are considered with particular reference to the African experience.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, . 16 p.This report discusses the important place of women in health and development as perceived by WHO and as formulated in various World Health Assembly resolutions, particularly those concerned with the UN Decade for Women. Underlying all objectives is that of increasing knowledge and understanding about how the various socioeconomic factors that make up women's status affect and are affected by their health. The aim of WHO's Women, Health and Development (WHD) activities, is the integration or incorporation of a women's dimension within on-oing programs, specifically as part of "Health for All" strategies. Chief among WHD objectives and groups of activities are the improvement of women's health status, increasing resources for women's health, facilitating their health care roles and promoting equality in health development. Overall WHD activities stress the importance of data on women's health status, the dissemination of this and related information, and the promotion of social support for women. The WHD component of ongoing WHO programs focuses mainly on managerial and technical support to national programs of maternal-child health/family planning care. The present report also includes an update on the incorporation of women's issues within WHO's on-going programs in human reproductive research, nutrition, community water supply and sanitation, workers' health, mental health, immunization, diarrheal diseases, research and training in tropical diseases and cancer. Women's participation in health services is discussed mainly within the context of primary health care and is based on their role as health care providers. The results of a multi-national study initiated in 1980 on the topic of women as health care providers should be ready in early 1984 and are expected to contribute a basis for further action.