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  1. 1

    New institutional functions in the area of human rights and population.

    Gros-Espiell H

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population and Human Rights. New York, United Nations, 1983. 188-201.

    Conclusions of the 1974 Symposium on Population and Human Rights deal with the most important problems of the relationship between human rights and population policies. Attention is directed to those conclusions that are of particular relevance to the subject as they constitute the basis for this present review of elements in the approach to human rights and population. The 1st Symposium on Population and Human Rights had a major impact on the World Population Plan of Action adopted by the UN World Population Conference held in 1974. The subject of human rights and population policy must be approached juridicially bearing in mind the domestic law of each State that has the sovereign right, in principle, to legislate thereon, yet, at the same time, consideration must be given to the relevant international norms. In considering population and human rights problems, the subject of development, part of the general agenda of the new international economic order, must be included as a collective and as an individual right. The right to life and the right to couples and all individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children are explained and take on their full meaning in the context of the right of every human being to full development of his or her personality. There currently exists, at the international level, a contractual system for the protection of human rights with a system of procedures for assigning responsibility for this protection to the Human Rights Committee, which, with respect to the States Parties, has the respective powers conferred on it by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its Option Protocol. These human rights instruments are not the only ones in the purview of the UN which are connected with population problems. Other instruments, with particular relevance to this subject, include: the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage, and Registration of Marriages; International Convention on the Elimination of 11 Forms of Racial Discrimination; and Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others. Since 1974 there has been a substantial increase in the number of State Parties to the identified Conventions and a start has been made in formulating a convention on the rights of the child. Also much progress has been made at the regional international level and this is reviewed.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Manpower issues in Saudi health development.

    Searle CM; Gallagher EB

    New England Journal of Medicine. 1983 Fall; 61(4):659-86.

    In this examination of Saudi Arabia's health care accomplishments, it is argued that the World Health Organization's primary health care model is not the most appropriate for Saudi Arabia and countries like it. Saudi Arabia's health care policy is closely linked to its very rapid emergence as a new and distinctive society. Whereas most developing countries export physicians, Saudi Arabia imports them because the demand for physicians services cannot be met by the supply of indigenous physicians. Saudi health care development is very different from that of most of the third world. Although the country does have a great deal of western technology, Saudi Arabia seems to be following a different course of development from both the third world and the West. Unlike the West, the cost of medial technolgoy is not a problem for Saudi Arabia. Rather, it solves the problem of how to allocate its oil wealth to maintain political stability. The Saudis intend to make the best health care available to all its citizens; they are very concerned about the effect of modern technology on tradition. Therefore, the selection of technology is based on its cultural compatability, rather than on its costs. Primary care may be more technological and specialized than in the West. In Saudi Arabia primary health care may eventually be delivered entirely by specialists, rather than by general or family practitioners. The Saudis are expected to develop a health care system that will meet their particular needs. As with Saudi Arabia itself, health care is experiencing unprecedented change. Thus, the emerging Saudi system will be unique and innovative. Some of its accomplishments will be adopted by other developing countries; Western countries may look to Saudi Arabia as a natural laboratory of health care experimentation.
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  3. 3

    Final country report: Jordan.

    Carrino CA

    Washington, D.C., Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 1983 May. 62 p. (Contract: AID/DSPE-C-0076)

    1 of a series of Population and Development Policy Final Country Reports, this report on Jordan provides an account of the rationale, procedures, and outcomes for PDP activities. After reviewing country background (population characteristics and trends, development trends and characteristics, population policies, family planning service and information, research capabilities, and opportunities and needs for population policies, family planning service and information, research capabilities, and opportunities and needs for population assistance) and the PDP Program of Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, research findings and dissemination activities are reported and follow-up activities are recommended. Jordan's population size is small--an estimated 3 million in 1980, but various other characteristics made it a priority for PDP assistance. In 1979 the annual rate of growth was estimated to be anywhere between 3.5-4.8%. Fertility surveys indicate that over half of married women in Jordan surviving through their childbearing years have at least 7 children. Battelle PDP's Core Project in Jordan was designed to encourage the formulation of population policy. The project, titled Major Issues in Jordanian Development, was coordinated by the Queen Alia Welfare Fund. The project ran from July 1981 to April 1983 and encompassed 2 major types of activities: 6 2-person teams of researchers and government program managers collected and analyzed existing information on population and development issues, and 4 of the 6 research review papers prepared under the project directly addressed development issues of interest to the government i.e., education and training of women, social defense, income distribution, and demand for health services; and dissemination of the findings of the research review and analysis projects to national decision makers and opinion leaders in Jordan. The 6 research reviews were undertaken by pairs of authors, most of which included 1 government representative and 1 private or university researcher. Close monitoring and extensive technical assistance was provided to this project through several field visits and frequent correspondence. Brief descriptions are included of the 6 major issue papers. The paper on demographic trends in national planning reviews the literature on determinants of fertility and the effects of population growth and provides a historical analysis of the role of population variables in Jordan's past development plans. In the paper devoted to the education and training of women, women's schooling was found to be the most robust determinant of married women's fertility in the 1972 and 1976 Jordanian Fertility Surveys. The paper dealing with poverty and its implications for development reviews the extant data on per capita and poverty line data. The team that analyzed the demand for medical services proposed a regional plan for community-based health services. The topics of the final 2 papers were consequences of rapid population growth on development and social defense.
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  4. 4

    Some health-related aspects of fertility.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 22 p. (IESA/P/ICP. 1984/EG.I/8)

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has been studying several national surveys with regard to certain health related aspects of fertility. The primary purpose of these studies was to stimulate the use of data by the national health authorities for an improved care system for maternal and child health, including family planning. Some preliminary results are reported in this discussion, in particular those relating to contraception, the reproductive health of adolescents, infertility and subfecundity, and breastfeeding. The national surveys concerned are those of Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. The methods of analysis were simple and traditional, except for 2 points: some of the data had to be obtained by additional tabulation of the raw data tapes and/or the recode tapes since the standard tabulations of the First Country Reports did not include the needed information; and Correspondence Analysis was used in an effort to stimulate and facilitate the use of the findings for improvements of national health programs. Methods of contraception vary widely, from 1 country to another and by age, parity, and socioeconomic grouping. The younger women tend to choose more effective modern methods, such as oral contraception (OC); the older women, i.e., those over age 35, tend to seek sterilization, if available. It is evident that the historical development of family planning methods has greatly influenced the current "mix" of methods and so has the current supply situation and the capacity of the health care system (particularly in regard to IUD insertions and sterilizations. Use of contraception among adolescents to postpone the 1st birth was practically unknown. The risk of complications at pregnancy and childbirth, including maternal and infant death, is known to be particularly high for young mothers, and the results clearly showed that the infant mortality rate is highest for the youngest mothers. All the women who suffer from infertility do not recognize their condition, but the limited data still point to the need to consider the health needs of women who suffer from unwanted fecundity impairments. This may require medical intervention to cure infections or the offer of relevant sexual counseling. Some infecundity may require the improvement of nutritional and personal hygienic levels before meaningful achievements are made. The prevalence of breastfeeding has declined in some population groups, and the consequences can be expected to be deleterious and to involve serious increases in specific morbidity and mortality.
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  5. 5

    Operational responses to the World Population Plan of Action in programmes of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in the areas of fertility, family and family planning.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 15 p. (IESA/P/ICP. 1984/EG.I/30)

    The experience of UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) supported programs related to family, fertility and family planning in developing countries are reviewed on the basis of an analysis of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) recommendations and corresponding UNFPA programs. Among the many recommendations and guidelines of the WPPA, those dealing with protection of the family, with the improvement of the status of women, with modernization and fertility, and with the right of individuals and couples to plan their families are of particular importance to family and fertility. The WPPA recognizes the family as the basic unit of society and recommends that governments enact legislation and policy to protect the family and conduct periodic reviews of national legislation with direct bearing on the family and its members. The Plan urges governments to ensure the full participation of women in the educational, social, economic and political life of their countries on an equal basis with men. The role of family planning in realizing desired fertility goals is clearly noted in the WPPA, which recommends that countries encourage appropriate education concerning responsible parenthood and make available advice and the means of family planning. The Plan also calls for a broad approach to family planning, including the elimination of involuntary sterility, and invites governments which have family planning programs to consider integrating and coordinating those services with health and other services. During the 1969-81 period, the Fund has supported a total of 1240 projects on family, fertility and family planning in 92 countries, of which 31 are in sub-Saharan Africa, 24 in Asia and the Pacific, 25 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 12 in the Middle East and Mediterranean. This totals about $394 million, 50.2% of total program resources, or 64% of total assistance to country activities. UNFPA has supported both research and action programs related to the family, several activities designed to improve women's position in the family and to bring about a better understanding of fertility. Many UNFPA activities touch on the reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality and the improvement of role and status of women. Recognizing the different needs of countries for the provision of family planning services, the Fund supports all effective means of delivery of family planning services and the provision of all ethods of fertility regulation technically approved by the World Health Organization. Changes in ways of thinking about population and experiences that have implications for the future are reviewed and areas in need of further action are identified.
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  6. 6

    Technical co-operation in the field of fertility and the family.

    United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development

    [Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 14 p. (IESA/P/ICP. 1984/EG./I/5)

    Referring to the substantive collaboration that the UN Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD) has provided in the field of fertility and family, this paper has attempted to do the following: to present, within the framework of the structure of the DTCD program, a review of the Department's experience in the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action; to distill from this experience the major problems encountered and the lessons learned; and to synthesize a series of recommendations to improve technical cooperation activities. In discussing the implementation of the World Population Plan of Action (WPPA), focus in on data collection, analysis, and evaluation; demographic training; population and development; and constraints in project implementation. The WPPA called upon international technical cooperation to provide developing countries with support to develop or improve national capacities for data collection, evaluation, analyses, and presenting the data in a form responsive to users. During the 1975-84 decade, data collection and analysis constituted 1 of the major areas of the Department's technical cooperation programs for population activities in the developing nations. DTCD has had little training project involvement directly relevant to fertility and the family, but the fellowship program, the UN Training Centers, and the vast majority of curricula offered in demographic training programs at universities established with the technical cooperation of the UN feature a thorough and rigorous treatment of all aspects of fertility and family planning. The goal of the majority of the projects on population policy and development planning is to assist governments in the process of incorporating population variables into the national development planning process. As such, many projects have provided direct support to fertility studies whose results were used by governments to formulate national policies. The studies aim at providing the government with basic elements for formulating policies on fertility and for implementing related population programs with the technical cooperation of DTCD. In regard to the Department's project implementation, particular problems became salient during the decade of experience. A serious problem posed in the delivery of support to national demographic research concerned the lack of importance placed on the analysis of census survey and vital registration results and preparation of fertility studies.
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  7. 7

    Primary health: a first assessment.

    People. 1983; 10(2):6-9.

    The main findings of the World Health Organization (WHO) recent global review of the progress that has been made in the Health for All campaign are presented. The attempt was made to assess progress on the basis of the following 12 global indicators: endorsement of Health for All as a policy at the highest official level; establishing mechanisms for involving people in Health for All strategies; spending at least 5% of the gross national product (GNP) on health; a reasonable percentage of national health expenditures devoted to local health care; primary health resources equitably distributed; the number of developing countries with well-defined strategies for Health for All, accompanied by explicit resource allocations and sustained outside support; primary health care available to the whole population; adequate nutritional status for children; infant mortality rate to be below 50/1000 live births; life expectancy at birth of over 60 years; adult literacy for men and women over 70%; and gross national product per head over $500. 39 of the 70 countries have signed regional charters pledging themselves to strive to achieve Health for All by the Year 2000. Another 9 countries have committed themselves through other policy statements. 31 countries have reported on efforts to involve communities, half of them by adopting policies and half through actual mechanisms, although not necessarily on a national scale. 26 of the 70 countries are spending more than $5 a head each year on health care. Many countries are placing more emphasis on providing resources for local care, but the shift is nowhere near what is required. WHO has been unable to establish the per capita spending on primary health since it permeates so many levels and sectors of the health services. Activities to increase food supply and improve nutrition are being integrated into primary health care in the form of nutritional surveillance, preventing and controlling deficiency disorders, promoting breastfeeding, direct treatment of malnutrition, oral rehydration therapy, food supplements, immunization, and the addition of iodine to salt. Only 7 of the 54 countries reporting infant mortality rates were below 50/1000, and these included 3 developed countries. Rates in the remaining 47 ranged from 56/1000, to 250/1000. Of the 70 countries, 51 had life expectancy rates varying between 40 and 59; in 1979, 13 had rates over 60 and 6 did not report. Only 4 countries reported male and female literacy rates over 70%. Over 60% of the countries reviewed had a per capita GNP of less than $500.
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  8. 8

    Samoa: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1983. 39 p. (Report No. 52)

    Samoa's major population problem is a high rate of natural population increase. The crude birth rate from 1971-1976 is estimated at 37.4/1000. The total fertility rate was estimated at 6.7 for the same period. Emigration has compensated for much of the natural population increase. The infant mortality rate is low; life expectancy is 64.3 years for females and 61 for males. A maternal and child health program with integrated child-spacing services is government supported. In 1979, 13% of all women of reproductive age used contraception. Samoa's 4th Five-Year National Devlopment Plan (1980-1984) includes a review of population trends. There is a need to develop a broad-based population policy. The Mission recommends that, to assist in the formulation and implementation of this policy, a high-level government office be appointed to coordinate population efforts, and a post of Population Coordinator created. Considerable data exist, although more information on specific development-related topics would be helpful. The Mission recommends that a survey unit should be set up. Service delivery of the maternal and child health and family planning activities should be improved. Traditional village social institutions should be included. The government plans to integrate population and family life education into the educational system through teacher training and curriculum development. Assistance in the produciton of materials would be helpful. The Mission recommends that women's activities be better coordinated.
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  9. 9

    Thailand: report of Second Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)

    Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
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  10. 10

    International sources of financial cooperation for health in developing countries.

    Howard LM

    Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. 1983; 17(2):142-57.

    By direct consulation and review of published sources, a study of 16 selected official sources of international financial cooperation was conducted over the August 1979 to August 1980 period in order to assess the policies, programs, and prospects for support of established international health goals. This study demonstrated that approximately 90% of the external health sector funds are provided via development oriented agencies. The major agencies providing such assistance concur that no sector, including health, should be excluded "a priori," providing that the requesting nation conveys its proposals through the appropriate national development planning authority. The agencies in the study also were found to be supporting health related programs in all the geographic regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). An associated review of 30 external funding agencies revealed that only 5 reported providing health assistance in more than half of the countries where they provided assistance for general development purposes. Interviewed sources attributed this to the limited manner in which health proposals have been identified, prepared, and forwarded (with national development authority approval) to international agencies. In 1979 concessional development financing totaled approximately US$29.9 billion, US$24.2 billion being provided by 17 major industrial nations, US$4.7 billion by Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries, and less than US$1 billion by the countries of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2/3 of such concessional financing is administered bilaterally, only 1/3 passing through multilateral institutions. UN agencies receive only 12% of these total concessional development financing resources. In 1979, concessional funding for health totaled approximately US$3 billion, approximately 1/10 of which was administered by WHO and its regional offices. It is anticipated that future international funding for health in developing countries will continue to come mostly from public and private development institutions directly, rather than through WHO or UN channels. Thus, it is important to recognize that each donor has a specific programming cycle, and the donors' organizational structures and professional health staffs vary greatly. Additionally, agencies providing external assistance perceive the possibility of expediting the funding process by reducing constraints on program processing that exist in the recipient countries, and they believe that reduction of such constraints is necessary.
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  11. 11

    Integrating population programmes, statement made at 10th Asian Parasite Control Organization Family Planning Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 5 September 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 6 p. (Speech Series No. 95)

    The relationship between the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning (JOICFP) and UNFPA has been a vital force in the integration of family planning programs with nutrition and health services. The success of the integrated programs is evidenced by its rapid expansion from a pilot project in 1975 to projects in many countries in Asia, the Pacific and Latin America. The programs are efficient and effective in delivery of family planning services, as well as in linking and integrating these family planning services with other social and development programs. The programs have been designed to meet the needs of the people at the village level, taking into account their cultural sensitivities. This approach has encouraged acceptance and cooperation by the local communities and has made the program credible to the villagers. In fact, this seems to be the key to effective implementation of any type of development project. The coming 1984 International Conference on Popultion is also discussed. It is hoped that the present meeting will produce policy and operational suggestions which can be discussed at the International Conference.
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  12. 12

    The problems and challenges that face the country today.

    Salas RM

    the Manila (Philippines) Paper. 1983 Aug 29-Sep 4; 1 p.

    In this speech delivered during the conferment of an honorary degree by the University of the Philippines, Mr. Salas addresses the present problems and challenges facing the country and posing a threat to his young audience. He urges that the nation would be served best by trained, capable, inquiring and free individuals. The longer the problems remain unsolved, the longer and more difficult it will be to find constructive and workable solutions. An even more pronounced concern results from viewing the population in all its facets as so intimately related to all aspirations for development. Whether or not ready, the Philippines must respond to the issue since the future is in their hands. Although they can learn from other nations, their own solution is required. In the 14 years of Salas' association with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, needs for developing countries have been responded to and projects presently operate in all of them. A better understanding of the problem has been reached and the conceptualization of it as a field that includes data collection, family planning, population dynamics, education, communication, policies and projects has resulted. It is a combination of demography, health, biological, environmental and social sciences and management. Despite popular opinion, population study is not limited to fertility control or family planning. Since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, population has been viewed in the context of development, considering cultural heritage. Salas briefly goes on to examine population growth since the early 20th century, citing a projection of 70 million in the year 2000. Can the Philippines sustain a population of this size and ensure an adequte standard of living? This is a question for future discussion in another article.
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  13. 13

    UNFPA and the Arab world, statement at a meeting on "Co-operation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States", Tunis, Tunisia, 29 June 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 4 p. (Speech Series No. 93)

    The idea that awareness of population factors and demographic change is central to development planning has its roots in the Arab world. Action programs in Tunisia and Egypt were among the 1st approved for support by UNFPA and since then, UNFPA has provided some US$85 million in support of population programs in Arab countries at their governments' request. UNFPA plans to continue this support as long as it is permitted, resources are available, and governments remain interested. Surveys have been conducted by the UNFPA on the population assistance needs of 11 members of the Arab League, and programs have been developed calling for UNFPA assistance of US$110 million up to 1986. The role of UNFPA in national population programs is limited because it is the country governments who assess their population situations, determine the need for action and assign priorities. UNFPA can only assist governments in their goals. This assistance, however, can be very important. Vital expertise can be transferred at the start of a program, and then UNFPA can help to structure activities to make the best use of available resources, provide expert assistance, supply equipment, and offer needed training facilities for local personnel at all levels. The unique problems of the Arab region require unique solutions, and UNFPA is ready to help in any way they can.
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  14. 14

    El papel de la universidad en la esfera de la poblacion. The role of the university in population, statement made at Special Convocation of the University of Panama, Panama City, Panama, 29 November, 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 8 p. (Speech Series No. 104)

    The University of Panama, as an academic and research institution, is the key to the joint implementation of government population and development programs. Many Latin American universities now have a better understanding of the complexity of the relationship between popultion and development and therefore devote more attention to this field by including demographic components in the curricula for existing specialties or creating new specialties. It is recommended that the University of Panama work constructively with the relevant technical experts to determine the position that Panama will adopt at the World Population Conference, in Mexico. If possible, such participation could help to strengthen the link between the academic community and the government in the area of population. In the final analysis, this will promote a better understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between population and development.
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  15. 15

    [Benin: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Benin: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1983 Apr. 42 p. (Report No. 58)

    This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Benin in November 1980 includes chapters on assistance needs and recommendations in the area of population; geographic, political, administrative, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of the country as well as socioeconomic and demographic planning and policy; demographic trends; formulation of population policy; collection and analysis of demographic data; demographic research, health; population information, education, and communication; women and development; and external assistance. Benin is characterized by low per capita income, high rates of infant, child, and maternal mortality, high fertility, and unequal population distribution combined with pressure on cultivated land. Rural exodus is fueling rapid urban growth. The population of 3.5 million in 1980 was growing at 2.97% annually. The economy is essentially agricultural. Because Benin is poor in minerals, development efforts are concentrated on agricultural and rural development, with efforts made to reduce unemployment and underemployment especially in urban areas. National objectives also are to improve the educational system and health infrastructure. The government is concerned about the high rate of mortality and morbidity and unequal spatial distribution. Although no overall population policy has been adopted, the government pursues some goals with demographic effects such as attempting to extend preventive medicine, maternal and child health services and birth spacing services to rural areas. The 1979 census is expected to furnish the government with the information necessary to formulate a population policy. The Mission recommended immediate assistance for analyzing and publishing census results, and also that a national demographic survey and migration study be undertaken. Reform of the civil registration system would enable better data to be collected. A demographic teaching and research center should be created at the University of Benin. An interministerial committee should be created to assist in formulation and implementation of a population policy. The extension of health services funded by the UNFPA should be implemented immediately and a communication component should be added.
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  16. 16

    [Togo: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Togo: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1983 Feb. 66 p. (Report No. 57)

    This report of a needs assessment carried out by a UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission in Togo in late 1980 includes chapters on the country's geographic, administrative, and cultural background, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and national development policy and population goals; data collection; demographic research and population policy formulation; implementation of policy; external population assistance; and recommendations of the Mission. The population of Togo was estimated at 2.7 million in 1981 and is expected to nearly double by the year 2000. Infant, child, and maternal mortality rates are high, and population distribution is very uneven in different regions, with severe pressure on cultivable lands. The country has enjoyed considerable economic growth in the past 2 decades, with the gross national products (GNP) quadrupling in constant dollars from 1960-75. The rate of increase of the GNP was 7% from 1966-70, 5.6% from 1971-75, and about 3% from 1976-80. 3/4 of Togo's inhabitants derive their livelihood from agriculture, but in 1979 they produced only 28% of the GNP. Self-sufficiency in food is not total. Since 1966 Togo has elaborated 4 5-year plans whose orientations were to promote economic independence, the growth of production, reduction in regional disparities, and human development. The demographic variable has not been integrated into general economic and social development policy. The government has adopted a noninterventionist attitude toward population and considers the demographic situation to be fairly satisfactory. The only actions concern control of infant mortality. Some social and economic interventions, such as the priority given to provision of potable water, will inevitably have an impact on population. Togo has a solid infrastructure and qualified and experienced personnel for demographic data collection. The country is planning an ambitious program of demographic data collection and permanent surveillance. Maternal and child health care are provided in nearly 300 centers. About 1/2 of births occur under medical supervision. The national family welfare program provides family health services and information on birth spacing. A secondary school sex education program is under development. Population education is included in out-of-school educational programs. Population communication programs are not very advanced. Among the recommendations of the Mission were that financial aid be given to institutions responsible for demographic data collection and dissemination and to the demographic research unit of the University of Benin.
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  17. 17


    Katongole R

    New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] [1983] 54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)

    This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Refugees in developing countries and transnational organization.

    Gordenker L

    Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 1983 May; 467:62-77.

    Large Scale refugee flows, typically koccurring in developing countries, inspire the formation of transnational networks that pose new issues of policy Making, direction, execution, and legitimacy. Institutional responses to the presence of refugees, often in the poorest and least well-administered areas on earth, comprise reactions at the local, national, and transnational levels, including both intergovernmental and voluntary organizations. These responses produce ad hoc organizational entities to deal with unanticipated difficulties. Even after news of a refugee flow is spread, governments can still adopt an isolating policy but more likely will be forced to turn to such transnational networks for help. In a widely felt political disturbance, the positions of the great powers will have a substantial conditioning effect on the handling of refugees. Whatever the pattern of response, refugees tend to involve the asylum state in transnational networks in order to cope with local repercussions as well as care of those in flight. Later, the emphasis may well shift from emergency to diplomatic networks is shifting and unpredictable, conditioned by specific circumstances. Nevertheless, the High Commissioner for Refugees and other intergovenmental bodies serve as natural nuclei for expansion. More integrated modes of organization currently are of doubtful utility. (author's)
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  19. 19

    Technical co-operation in population programmes in Africa since the 1974 World Population Conference.

    United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development

    [Unpublished] 1983 Sep. 16. 5 p. (E/ECA/POP/7 International Conference on Population, 1984; Papers)

    This paper reviews the technical assistance provided to African countries since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania by the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD) in the fields of demographic training, data evaluation and analysis, and incorporation of population factors in development planning. The paper focuses on the substantive aspects of the technical cooperation provided to African countries in these areas from 1974 to 1983. The cooperation was provided essentially in response to the expressed needs and requests of member states for developing their national capabilities to undertake data analysis and evaluation and to use the results to formulate appropriate population policies and implement them as part of national development programs. The ultimate goal is to improve national capacities in these fields so that countries may achieve self reliance in handling their population programs. Almost without exception, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been the source of funding for DTCD executed population projects. In the area of demographic training, the training needs, especially from the priority countries in Africa, have yet to be fully met and in all countries there still remains the need for short term training in special demographic expertise and an exchange of interregional experiences. In the area of demographic evaluation and analysis, greater support is required for evaluation and analysis of relevant demographic phenomena, e.g. internal and international migration and the utilization of demographic software packages. Technical cooperation is needed in the areas of population and development so that emerging phenomena (e.g. population growth, especially in urban areas) can be dealt with by evolving suitable population policies and implanting these within overall national development plans. The world financial crisis has hindered the increasing trend in technical cooperation in demographic training, analysis and overall population policies and it is hoped that this situation will improve.
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  20. 20

    Report of the four day seminar--population, family welfare and community development.

    Kiribati. Ministry of Home Affairs; United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]; International Labour Office [ILO]

    Tarawa, Kiribati, Ministry of Home Affairs. 130 p.

    This document is a report on a seminar held at the University of the South Pacific Center, Tarawa, from August 23-26, 1983, sponsored by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The report begins with an overview of the geography of the islands, and 11 consolidates seminar recommendations concerning population planning to address the 2.24% population growth rate, improvement of family life, program level, decentralization of population and services, economic activities, local level groups, training programs, and local community centers. Individual group reports follow: community development/national development, and youth and family welfare. A Ministry of Finance report gives population statistics by island. Other reports are given by the Ministries of Health, Trade Industry and Labor, Education, Natural Resources, and Home Affairs and Decentralization. The ILO delegate papers cover the labor and population program of the ILO, family welfare as an important segment of working women's activity, objectives of family life education, and contract labor equity and migration in Kiribati. There is a brief survey of UNFPA programs in the area. Non-governmental organization delegates presenting included National Women's Federation of Kiribati, the Kiribati Trades Union Congress, the Save the Children Foundation, the Roman Catholic Mission, the Kiribati Protestant Church, and the Seventh Day Adventist Church. Concluding the report are seminar notes on questions and answers to the questions that did not otherwise appear in the report, and a list of speeches, seminar programs, and seminar participants.
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  21. 21

    The population project: organization and inputs.

    Prasartkul P; Sethaput C; Havanon N

    In: Impact, effectiveness and efficiency of the AFPH programs on family planning status in 20 provinces, [compiled by] Mahidol University. Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]. Bangkok, Thailand, Mahidol University, IPSR, 1983. 3-9. (IPSR Publication No. 76)

    The Population Project, implemented by the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand, has as its goal the integration of family planning with existing public health services. 20 provinces were selected for the project from 1979-1982. Thailand's population policy, instituted in 1970, was aimed at reducing the growth rate, which had inhibited national development. The plan featured 2 5-year plans, and the Population Project was designed to meet the goals of these plans. The strategies to achieve these goals include: expansion and improvement of family planning services; training of public health personnel; expansion of information services; and increased evaluation and research on family planning. Financial aid for the project came from the World Bank, as well as various international governmental aid agencies. It was estimated that to achieve the reduced growth rate goal, 3 million new contraceptive acceptors and 1.6 million continuing users were required. The project operated on 2 levels, national and provincial. On the national level, training of non-medical personnel and expansion of family planning services were the aims. On the provincial level, the project's objective was to accelerate the expansion of family planning services in rural areas of 20 provinces that were characterized by low rates of family planning practice. The project was administered by the ministry of Public Health, with operation of the project under the Central Operation Unit, Provincial Operation Unit, and the Central Coordination Unit. The 5 levels of operation were: village; tambon; district; provincial; and national. Activities included service, training, communication, evaluation and research, and administrative management. By September 1981, the project realized an increase in health centers in rural areas, an increase in non-medical personnel, and the provision of additional vehicles. These inputs were realized across all 20 provinces participating in the project.
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  22. 22

    A neglected area in the field of population and human rights: aging and the aged.

    World Assembly on Aging

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population and human rights: proceedings of the Symposium on Population and Human Rights, Vienna, 29 June-3 July 1981. New York, New York, United Nations, 1983. 102-9.

    Until 1948, only a few developed countries had been concerned with aging as an issue. However, this situation is currently changing, and it is expected to change considerably in the near future, since both the number and proportion of the aged in the population are projected to increase a great deal. This is an unprecedented situation for many developing countries, and appropriate responses have yet to be developed. It is in this context that the Secretary-General of the UN prepared for the World Assembly on Aging held in July 1982 a draft program and suggested that there should be a declaration on the rights of the aged. 2 kinds of issues have been identified; 1) humanitarian issues such as health, housing environment, social welfare, income security, education, and the family, and 2) developmental issues. From the humanitarian point of view, it is the individual rights of the aged that are most identifiable; e.g., the rights to assistance, accommodation, food, clothing, care of physical and moral health, recreation, work, stability, and respect. 2 demographic aspects need to be considered: 1) because of differentials in mortality, in many countries the aged group is composed of a majority of women; and 2) the aged can be disabled to some extent or for certain periods during their later years. This gives rise to the question of special rights for the aged. With the increase in the numbers and proportions of the aged, their rights have direct implication for development--cost can be a limiting factor in the exercise of a right. 1 of the objectives derived from the principles of the Declaratin on Social Progress and Development is "the establishment and improvement of social security and insurance schemes for all persons who, because of illness, disability, or old age, are temporarily or permanently unable to earn a living..." Thus human rights have an important role to play in ensuring that the aged remain active participants and enjoy their contribution to development.
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  23. 23

    Standard-setting activities of the United Nations system concerning the relationship between population matters and human rights, 1973-1980.

    United Nations. Division of Human Rights

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population and human rights: proceedings of the Symposium on Population and Human Rights, Vienna, 29 June-3 July 1981. New York, New York, United Nations, 1983. 48-62. (ST/ESA/SER.R/51)

    During the past decade, within the context of a broad reappraisal of international development programs, the UN has tended to espouse a broad approach to population and human rights issues, relating them to developmental concerns and policies. The UN has adopted new instruments having a bearing of these issues, 2 of which are summarized in the text, the Declaration and the Programme of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order. The background paper submitted by the Division of Human Rights to the 1st Symposium on Population and Human Rights contained a thorough analysis of UN human right norms concerning marriage and the family and the right to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of children, including the provision of information and education in family planning as well as the means. During the International Year of the Child attention was drawn to the rights of children and the family. In 1975, the World Conference of the International Women's Year recognized the necessity, in the process of integrating women in development, of providing them with educational opportunities, adequate maternal-child health services, and family planning services. In the areas of mortality, morbidity, and health, WHO's long-term objective of "Health for all by the Year 2000" is relevant to the rights of an adequate standard of living, adequate food, and adequate health services. The UN has also addressed itself to human rights and international migration adopting a number of resolutions regarding the refugee problem, mass exodus, and migrant workers.
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  24. 24

    A seminar for Women Leaders: Population and Development in the English-Speaking Caribbean. Basseterre, St. Kitts, 22-24 November 1983. Report.

    Seminar for Women Leaders: Population and Development in the English-Speaking Caribbean (1983: St. Kitts-Nevis)

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1983. [4], 34 p.

    This publication contains a record of the proceedings of the Seminar for Women Leaders on Population and Development in the English-speaking Caribbean, which took place in Basseterre, St. Kitts from November 22-24, 1983. The 1st part of the document consists of the St. Kitts Declaration on the Role of Women in Population and Development, whose objective is to enhance the participation of women in all aspects of population and development programs. The declaration provides over 30 recommendations to achieve that goal. These recommendations are grouped according to the following areas: data collection and analysis, the family, family planning, family life and sex education, adolescent fertility, legislation, national institution building, nongovernmental organizations, financial and technical support, economic participation of women, women's organizations, and the 1984 International Conference on Population held in Mexico. The 2nd section of the publication reports on the organization of the seminar. In line with the objective of the declaration, the seminar focused on the following themes: 1) the socioeconomic conditions of the region, with a special emphasis of their impact on women; 2) the need for international assistance to deal with these social concerns; 3) the courses of action needed to mobilize resources; and 4) linkages between the concern of women and the upcoming International Conference. The report also contains a schedule of the inaugural session and a list of the technical documents presented during the seminar. Finally, the annexes provide transcripts of the speeches given during the conference.
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  25. 25

    Profiles in population assistance. A comparative review of the principal donor agencies.

    Wolfson M

    Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre, 1983. (Development Centre Studies)

    This study examines in detail the effects of different donors' aid-giving systems in the area of population assistance. An analysis of the problems encountered in implementing population assistance is relevant as a guide to improving aid implementation in other social development sectors. Included are 1) bilateral donor agencies: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD); Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), and Overseas Development Administration of the United Kingdom (ODA). 2) multilateral donors: United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and The World Bank; and 3) non-governmental donors: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and The Pathfinder Fund. Since the aid procedures and practices of these agencies cannot be properly appreciated except in the context of the agency as a whole, each chapter begins with a brief description of the agency, its approach to problems of population, and the criteria that it applies to its population programs. Information was gathered by means of interviews with each of the agencies, supplemented by interviews in a number of recipient countries to ascertain the views of the officials directly concerned with the implementation of population programs. The countries selected for this purpose are Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia and Kenya: all receive substantial population assistance from a variety of donors. The changing scope of population assistance and the diverse range of activities and services that may be included under such a heading, the criteria for priority aid recipients, the size of projects and donors' views regarding problems encountered and the responses adopted in terms of aid, local and recurrent costs, salaries, administrative and managerial capability, maintenance and training are addressed. Also examined are donors' aid procedures and practices in respect to programming, project preparation, field missions, consultants, procurement, disbursement, reporting, accounting and auditing and also their arrangements for coordination of population activities with those of other donors.
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