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  1. 1
    042793

    Washington declaration on population and development.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]. Regional Council Meeting (1981: Washington, D.C.)

    New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, April 1981. 10 p.

    This declaration on population and development was endorsed by the participants of the 1981 Meeting of the Regional Council of the Western Hemisphere Region of IPPF. It is affirmed that the population problem is part of a larger social problem, that individuals have the right to decide on the number and spacing of their children, and that it is the responsibility of governments particularly to promote social justice and education, and the means to exercise responsible parenthood. Some fundamental principles of population and development are noted, and priorities for population or development policy formulation are suggested, including developing the capacity at the government level to administer social welfare, providing information and education in family life and family planning, improving the roles of women and men, and making health care available to all. A list of participants is appended.
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  2. 2
    034285

    International Youth Year: participation, development, peace, report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 1981 Jun 19. 46 p. (A/36/215)

    The Advisory Committee for the International Youth Year, established by the General Assembly of the UN in 1979, met in Vienna, Austria, from March 30-April 7, 1981 to develop a program of activities to be undertaken prior to and during the UN designated 1985 International Youth Year; this report contains the draft program of activities adopted by the committee at the 1981 meeting. The activities of the International Youth Year will be undertaken at the national, regional, and international level; however, the major focus of the program will be at the national level. Program themes are development, peace, and participation. The objectives of the program are to 1) increase awareness of the many problems relevant to today's youth, (e.g., the rapid increase in the proportion of young people in the population; high youth unemployment; inadequate education and training opportunities; limited educational and job opportunities for rural youth, poor youth, and female youth; and infringements on the rights of young people); 2) ensure that social and economic development programs address the needs of young people; 3) promote the ideals of peace and understanding among young people; and 4) encourage the participation of young people in the development and peace process. Program guidelines at the national level suggest that each country should identify the needs of their young people and then develop and implement programs to address these needs. A national coordinating committee to integrate all local programs should be established. Specifically each nation should 1) review and update legislation to conform with international standards on youth matters, 2) develop appropriate educational and training programs, 3) initiate action programs to expand nonexploitive employment opportunities for young people, 4) assess the health needs of youth and develop programs to address the special health needs of young people, 6) transfer money from defense programs to programs which address the needs of young people, 7) expanding social services for youths, and 8) help young people assume an active role in developing environmental and housing programs. Activities at the regional and international level should be supportive of those at the national level. At the regional level, efforts to deal with youth problems common to the whole region will be stressed. International efforts will focus on 1) conducting research to identify the needs of young people, 2) providing technical assistance to help governments develop and institute appropriate policies and programs, 3) monitoring the program at the international level, 4) promoting international youth cultural events, and 5) improving the dissemination of information on youth. Young people and youth organizations will be encouraged to participate in the development and implementation of the program at all levels. Nongovernment agencies should help educate young people about development and peace issues and promote the active participation of youth in development programs. The success of the program will depend in large measure on the effective world wide dissemination of information on program objectives and activities. A 2nd meeting of the advisory committee will convene in Vienna in 1982 to assess progress toward implementing the adopted program. A 3rd and final meeting in 1985 will evaluate the entire program. This report contains a list of all the countries and organizations which participated in the meeting as well as information on program funding.
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  3. 3
    267130

    Population and development in Africa, statement made at the Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 6 July 1981.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1981]. 5 p.

    The United Nations estimated the population of Africa at 470 million in 1980, representing an addition of 250 million persons between 1950 and 1980. The average annual population growth rate has been continuously rising from about 2.1% during 1950-1955 to 3.0% now and is expected to decline only in the last decade of this century. As a result of this high growth rate, the population of this continent will have exceeded 850 million by the year 2000. The United Nations recently undertook an exercise to determine when and at what level the world population would stabilize; the population of Africa is likely to stabilize in the year 2110 at 2.2 billion. It is important to keep this long-term perspective in mind while discussing the issues of population and development. An improvement in the quality of life is considered crucial in bringing about a decline in fertility and mortality rates. It appears that the most important policy measures which can improve the quality of life are education, especially education of women, provision of health care resulting in reduced infant and child mortality rates and the elimination of malnutrition.
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  4. 4
    017010

    First things first: meeting basic human needs in the developing countries.

    Streeten P; Burki SJ; Ul Haq M; Hicks N; Stewart F

    New York, Oxford Univ. Press, 1981. 206 p.

    This volume presents an approach that enables the poor to earn or obtain their "basic needs." Early in 1978 a World Bank work program was launched to study the operational implications of meeting basic needs within a short period, for example 1 generation, as a principal objective of national development efforts. An attempt is made in this book to distill some of the results of that work. The objective of meeting basic needs brings to a development strategy a heightened concern with the satisfaction of some elementary needs of the whole population, particularly in education and health. The explicit adoption of this objective helps gear production, investment, income, and employment policies to meet the needs of the poor in a cost effective manner and within a specific time frame. The emphasis on making the poor more productive has remained an important component of the basic needs approach. Its distinct contribution consists in deepening the income measure of poverty by adding physical estimates of the particular goods and services required to realize certain results, such as adequate standards of nutrition, health, shelter, water and sanitation, education, and other essentials. Thus, the basic needs approach represents a stage in the evolution of analysis and policy. The country and sector studies conducted by the World Bank made important contributions to the formulation of such a program. The country studies in particular provided special insights into the problems of poverty and the dimensions of deprivation in each country emerged from them. The complex question of whether a conflict exists between basic needs and growth has not been conclusively answered. What appeared clear is that better education, nutrition, and health are beneficial in reducing fertility, raising labor and productivity, enhancing people's adaptability and capacity for change, and creating a political environment for stable development. The more pressing basic needs can be met successfully even at quite low levels of income per head, without sacrificing economic growth. The country studies showed that even in the short-term there is considerable scope for improving basic needs performance by the better management of resources. It is evident that the redirection of policies toward meeting basic needs often requires major changes in the power balance in a society. The most important aspect of the World Bank's basic needs work program was the sector studies, which helped identify several operational policy issues.
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  5. 5
    012315

    Investing in people: the economics of population quality.

    Schultz TW

    Berkeley, Calif./London, England, University of California Press, 1981. xii, 173 p. (In series: Royer Lectures)

    This work, intended for a general as well as professional audience, argues that the acquired abilities of people including education, experience, skills, and health, are basic in achieving economic progress in the developing world. The 1st section examines the phenomenon of poverty in the developing world and stresses the contributions of human capital to productivity and human welfare in the lower income countries. Possible investments in human quality are surveyed, and theoretical and empirical observations concerning education and health are presented. A separate chapter assesses the role of higher education in developing countries, arguing that although governments in many countries impair the role of higher education, achievements have been substantial in a number of them. The next section examined economic consequences of the increases in the value of time that occur with development. A discussion of methodological and conceptual difficulties in measuring the value of time is included. The final section analyzes some serious economic distortions that result from government policies in developed as well as developing countries and that prevent the potential economic productivity of the poor from being realized. Distortions in the school systems of large cities, in allocation of funds for research, and in various aspects of life in developing countries that are affected by the international donor community are examined. Some implications of the findings are suggested in a brief concluding chapter.
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  6. 6
    011113

    Honduras: country development strategy statement, FY 83.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Washington, D.C., U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency, 1981 Jan. 59 p.

    This strategy statement prepared by the USAID field mission includes a brief description of the political background of aid to Honduras and an analysis of the country's economic situation including an examination of the extent and causes of poverty among different population subgroups, an overview of the economy and assessment of its ability to absorb aid, a discussion of development planning as reflected in the 5-year plan and "Immediate Action Plan" drafted in late 1980; an assessment of progress to date in development efforts and of the Honduran govenment's commitment to development objectives; and a discussion of other donors. Favorable and unfavorable factors influencing achievement of development efforts are then identified, program strategy prior to and during the current planning period are discussed, and specific issues such as the role of the private sector, human rights, the role of women, and public sector management are examined. AID's sectoral objectives and courses of action in agriculture and rural development, population, health and nutrition, education, urban and regional development, and energy are outlined, with problems, current activities, and strategy for 1983-87 identified for each sector. Efforts to improve regional cooperation and AID program efficiency are described. Proposed assistance levels and staff levels are discussed. A series of tables containing data on public sector operations, central government budget expenditures, balance of payments, and key economic indicators are included as appendices.
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  7. 7
    009947

    [UN/WHO Working Group on Data Bases for Measurement of Levels, Trends and Differentials in Mortality, Bangkok, 20-23 October 1981] Groupe de Travail ONU/OMS sur les Bases des Donnees Destinees a la Mesure des Niveaux, Tendances et Differences dans la Mortalite, Bangkok, 20-23 octobre 1981.

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1981; 34(4):239-40.

    The meeting was jointly organized by the UN and the World Health Organization (WHO) to discuss the experience of various governments and national institutions in the collection, analysis, and use of mortality data relevant to the establishment of policies in the health and development sectors of their countries in order to make governments aware of the potential uses of the data. Topics covered included: 1) use of mortality data for health and development programs, 2) use of continuous registration systems, 3) approaches for collection of mortality data, 4) collection of mortality data through multipurpose surveys, 5) birth or death records as a sampling frame for studies of mortality, and 6) special data collection systems for studying health processes. Recommendations concerned vital registration, censuses and surveys, other data needs, research strategies, data management and the role of international organizations and funding agencies, stressing the achievement of "birth and death registration for all by the year 2000" as the final goal.
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  8. 8
    008411

    Survey of economic and social conditions in Africa, 1979-1980: summary. General discussion of international economic and social policy, including regional and sectoral developments: regional co-operation.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council

    New York, UN, 1981 Jun 15. 23 p. (E/1981/76)

    This summary of economic and social conditions in Africa covers the international economic situation during the 1970s, progress in the implementation of the new international economic order, and economic development in the region of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), including growth, domestic savings and fixed capital formation in developing Africa; agriculture; manufacturing; monetary fiscal and price developments; resource flows and external debt; external trade and balance of payments; trends and structures in social development in Africa; demographic trends and policies; transport and communications infrastructure; and the world energy situation in an African perspective. The decade of the 1970s was marked by a slow-down in rates of growth of real output in the developed countries, which adversely affected African exports by high rates of inflation and unemployment, by rises in the prices of crude oil and imported capital trade, by slow growth of agricultural and food production, by large fluctuations in export commodity prices, and by a massive increase in liquidity, both domestic and international, which led to instability in world and domestic capital markets. Dissatisfaction with the function of the present international economic system led to the adoption by the United Nations General Assembly of the Declaration and Program of Action on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order. The new system calls for more equitable distribution of wealth and opportunity between the developed and the developing nations, equitable commodity price relations, more cooperation among the developing countries, and specific arrangements in the fields of energy, trade, finance, technology, shipping, international corporations, and the special problems of the least developed countries. According to ECA statistics, gross domestic product in developing Africa as a whole increased by about 5% at constant prices in 1979, compared with 5.4% and 4.8% in 1977 and 1978, respectively. Over the 1970s the gross domestic product grew by 5.2% per annum, but the averages conceal wide differences in performance between the major oil exporting and the nonoil exporting developing African countries. The former group grew at an average of 8.1% between 1970 and 1979, as compared with 6.9% in the 1960s, but the latter stagnated at about 3.8% growth over the past 2 decades. Growth performance, although erratic, seems to vary directly with the level of per capita income in 1970.
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  9. 9
    007366

    The mapping of interrelationships between population and development.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, UN, 1981. 35 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/43)

    This report proposes a 1st step towards systematizing the interaction between population and development by using a technique referred to as "mapping" or a matrix of interactions. This technique appears to have a variety of applications for research and planning. Included in the interaction matrix are variables concerning the objectives of development (15 variables), population (10), economic factors (14), instruments (6: education, health care, international aid and capital flow), and sociocultural and exogenous factors (14). A major advantage of the "systems" orientation of this technique is that it encourages endogenization. For example, migration for a given region directly raises or lowers population density, even as the latter affects the propensities to migrate into or out of the same region. Another important feature of the matrix is that it permits the tracing of sequences of linkages between variables. The uses of a systems approach to mapping population-development include: 1) it gives a substantial checklist of factors affecting interrelationships, 2) it lends itself to use as a planning tool for integrating population programs with other development activities, 3) it can help in selecting preformed sets of statistical indicators for complex questions, 4) summaries and comparative analysis can be enriched when placed into a mapping context, 5) areas of similarity and dissimilarity in different research programs can be identified, 6) the mapping context can assist statistical and simulations modules, and 7) the content of a mapping framework could be expanded to embrace larger sets of categories.
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  10. 10
    005087

    Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Population Division

    In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)

    The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
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  11. 11
    264238

    Population and development: problems of the 80s.

    Henderson J

    In: Population and development. New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1981. 23-32.

    Speaks of the need to integrate population policy and development programs as advocated by the IPPF as early as in 1930, which most countries now adopt though more in a theoretical than operational way. Some areas in which population and development problems are associated are in the educational process which in Latin American Countries is part of the development plans; reduction of the growth rate to balance with employment opportunities; geographic distribution of the population to reduce the pace of urbanization and promoting regional and rural development; international migration; female literacy; a community based program which concerns itself with economic development as well as primary health and family planning services of the community. National and international contributions and commitment to family planning have to be increased. The comment that follows estimates a total population of 600 million in Latin America by the year 2000 without an explicit population policy and a total population of 510 million through following a policy similar to Mexico's. Efforts must be directed towards achieving population goals in this century to prevent a collapse in the next.
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  12. 12
    002303

    The dynamics of policy change.

    Di Blasi F

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation. Western Hemisphere Region [IPPF-WHR]. The dynamics of legal change: report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, Miami, Florida, December 8-9, 1980. New York, IPPF-WHR, [1981]. 27-34.

    A simple framework of reference for the process of seeking a change in government policies is presented in the effort to demonstrate that this process can be planned, organized, and carried out by family planning associations in a systematic manner. In this case, the substantive areas of concern are related to unmet human needs. These include the human right to family planning information and services, maternal and child health care, the equality of women in society, the strain of unplanned urban growth, and the relationship between population growth and harmonious socioeconomic development. Those policies developed are referred to as social policies. The need to establish the priorities and develop adequate plans of action with a social cost-benefit criteria rather than a strict cost-effectiveness analysis is identified. It is important to consider a government's alternatives when confronting a social issue. Policies chosen may be explicit, implicit, or policy by default. The final objective in seeking a policy change is to obtain the formulation of an explicit policy. A strong case can be made for identifying beneficiaries of a proposed policy as important actors to be enlisted in the policy change process. The dynamics of policy change centers around a process which takes place at the public level and must involve the political leadership of a country if positive results are realistically anticipated. The Family Planning Associations of the Western Hemisphere Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation have demonstrated their capacity to attract and absorb resources for the implementation of their institutional objectives. In many instances this has resulted in changes in government policies and actual commitment to action.
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  13. 13
    002308

    Background notes on the UNFPA Law and Population Program.

    Langston DL

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation. Western Hemisphere Region [IPPF-WHR]. The dynamics of legal change: report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, Miami, Florida, December 8-9, 1980. New York, IPPF-WHR, [1981]. 73-8.

    In November 1979, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) reappraised its Law and Population Program with the purpose of meeting the needs of individual countries as well as the international community as expressed in the World Population Plan of Action. The following conclusions were reached. Country research projects, publications and seminars should continue to constitute the core of the Program. Increased attention should be given to strengthen international institutions concerned with law and population in addition to encouraging participation in the discussion of population issues at the local, national, regional and global levels of lawyers' associations and law-oriented organizations. To increase the effectiveness of the Program and eliminate duplication concerning projects relating to women, youth, health, refugees, urban migration and labor, liaison with law-oriented sections of other UN agencies will be encouraged. An ad hoc group of experts on law and population should be established. This working committee should be comprised of 9 lawyers and 6 professionals from other areas and would advise the Law and Population Program concerning legal developments in certain geographical areas or other developments in professional areas such as medicine.
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