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  1. 1

    The role of the health sector in the development of national and international food and nutrition policies and plans, with special reference to combating malnutrition, 13th Plenary Meeting, 24 May 1978.

    World Health Assembly

    Geneva, WHA, 1978 May 24. 10 p. (WHA31.47/WHA34.22)

    The 31st World Health Assembly (WHA) has considered the Director General's report on the role of the health sector in the development of national and international food and nutrition policies and plans and endorses the functions of the health sector in this field. The WHA is convinced that malnutrition is 1 of the major impediments to realizing the goal of health for all by the year 2000, and that new approaches based on clearly defined priorities and maximum utilization of local resources are needed for a more effective action to combat malnutrition. The WHA recommends that Member States give the highest priority to stimulating permanent multisector coordination of nutrition policies and programs and to preventing malnutrition in pregnant women, lactating women, infants, and children by doing the following: 1) supporting and promoting breast feeding with educational activities to the general public, 2) legislative and social actions to facilitate breastfeeding by working mothers, 3) implementing the necessary promotional and facilitating measures in the health services and regulating inappropriate sales promotion of infant foods that can be used to replace breast milk, 5) ensuring timely supplementation and appropriate weaning practices and the feeding of young children with the maximum utilization of locally available and acceptable foods, and 6) conducting, if necessary, action oriented research to support this approach and the training of personnel for its promotion. Governments and multilateral and bilateral organizations and agencies are urged to support the proposed programs of research and development in nutrition through their technical and scientific institutions and workers and by financial contributions. A copy of the international code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes is included. The 11 articles of the code cover the following: aim and scope of the code, definitions, information and education, the general public and mothers, health care systems, health workers, persons employed by manufacturers and distributors, labelling, quality, and implementation and monitoring.
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  2. 2

    Report on the FAO/UNFPA Inter-Country Workshop on Population Education for Small Farmer Development, Quezon City, Philippines, November 29-December 8, 1977.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1978. 56 p.

    The objectives of the Inter-Country Training Workshop on Population Education for Small Farmer Development were to review the progress and exchange experiences on the FAO/ASARRD Field Action Projects for Small Farmer Development in the participating countries, Bangladesh, Nepal, and the Philippines. Population education guidelines, curriculum, methods, and teaching materials were discussed in the context of use for small farmers. The 6 elements in the strategy for reaching small farmers in Asia were: 1) formation of self-help local groups under their own leaders; 2) group organizers to guide efforts; 3) group planning from below; 4) action geared to the unique needs of the social group; 5) special access to capital; and 6) action-based research to evaluate content and procedures. Each participating country has a Small Farmers Development Team of 4 technical officers and a National Coordinating Committee headed by a high-level government official. Evaluation of the second year of the program determined that population components should be integrated into the training. The workshop plan included understanding basic concepts of population dynamics; understanding population education concepts; demonstrating materials and guidelines; obtaining country group analysis of educational contents; and planning and preparing specific, initial teaching materials relevant to their needs.
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  3. 3

    Changing approaches to population problems.

    Wolfson M

    Paris, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Centre, 1978. 193 p. (Development Centre Studies)

    The World Population Conference which took place in Bucharest in 1974 witnessed many debates and rhetorical controversies over the role of family planning programs in Third World countries and their relation to development. This report is the result of a collaborative study realized by the Development Centre and the World Bank which investigates how developing countries, as well as aid agencies, are thinking about population problems and, as a consequence, about population assistance in the "post-Bucharest era." The report includes detailed surveys of 12 developing countries, representing Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. It also interviews and reports on the activities of a large number of population assistance agencies. The roles of international organizations such as the UNFPA, the UN population division and the World Bank itself are assessed in terms of their impact on national development through population control efforts. Reviews of assistance provided to developing nations by nongovernmental agencies, private foundations and developed nations are also presented. Each country paper presented provides an overview of the country's demographic characteristics; a summary of history of population policies, pre- and post-Bucharest era; an overview of population strategies past and present, their integration with other-sector activities; family planning program administration; and a survey of all forms of population assistance available and utilized by the country. Macro-level analyses of changes in family planning assistance by organizations since Bucharest, as well as micro-level, country-specific studies of how each nation has assimilated these changes and has developed a specific population policy are provided.
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  4. 4

    Report on evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of development models.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UN, 1978. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 37; ST/ESCAP/64) 50 p

    The basic objectives of the study are: 1) to encourage and motivate country planners to improve their development plans by integrating population factors into development planning and policies; 2) to provide planners with appropriate procedures to consider the short-term and long-term implications of population growth for fixing priorities and setting targets in various development sectors; 3) to provide guidelines for considering the implications of various socioeconomic programs and policies for fertility, mortality, and migration; and 4) to serve as a guideline for training and educational purposes. The major models which have been developed by research teams to portray the interaction between demographic, economic, and social variables are analyzed and evaluated with regard to their potential usefulness in development planning. The study deals with the following prototypes and their country-specific applications: 1) TEMPO 1 and TEMPO 2; 2) the Long Range Planning Model series of models; 3) the FAC/UNFPA MODEL; 4) the model developed by the Population Dynamics Group of the University of Illinois; and 5) the BACHUE model. Concerning choice of model structure and application to planning, 3 methodological questions are considered: the choice of a central core for the model; the trade-off between simplicity and complexity; and the choice of a supply or demand orientation. It is concluded that the construction of a model is as important as its application to the policy making and planning processes of countries. In general this would be facilitated if the model were designed and developed in the country in which it was to be used. Such models would be more closely attuned to country-specific problems and the creation of the model would create a cadre of people within the country capable of operating and adapting the model.
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  5. 5

    Population and mutual self-reliance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1978. (Population Profiles 12) 48 p

    Successful development planning in the 1980's depends on 1) the degree to which population size and growth is brought into line with resource development and 2) the degree to which a more equitable distribution of resources, power, and decision-making among all nations is achieved. Both of these objectives can be furthered by increasing the self-reliance of developing nations and by stimulating technical cooperation between developing countries (TDCD). The necessity of adopting a TCDC approach in solving hard economic problems such as in trade negotiations, is clearly recognized; however, there is a less well recognized, but equally critical need to incorporate the TCDC approach in the area of population planning. Developing countries, instead of utilizing population strategies derived from planning programs developed in industrialized nations, need to develop strategies more relevant to the needs and problems extant in their own countries. Since developing countries, especially those in the same geographical region, frequently confront similar problems, the development of appropriate strategies can be achieved more readily through joint regional training and research programs and by the exchange of information and the sharing of past experience between developing countries. This approach does not preclude the need for assistance from the developing nations; however, this assistance should be directed toward the development of indigenous national and regional facilities for research, training, data collection, and information exchange. Most programs supported by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities in the recent past have incorporated the goal of self-reliance for developing countries and to some extent have promoted cooperative efforts between developing nations. There is a need to expand the TCDc approach in all program areas, and in future funding, priority status and increased direct funding will be provided not only for those projects which promote self-reliance but for those which stimulate TCDC.
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