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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1977. 28 p. (OCP/STAC/77.2)The STAC (Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee) is evaluating the feasibility for economic development in the Volta River Basin. The main obstacle is the danger of onchocerciasis which could lead to blindness. The onchocerciasis control program hopes to reduce the disease to a low enough level that it no longer poses a major health problem or an obstacle to socio-economic development as well as to maintain the disease at a tolerable level. Therefore, studies, plans, and recommendations on insecticides are being made. The program is treating waterways with Abate, a biodegradable larvicide, in addition to undertaking parasitological surveillance. Blackflys are captured and their larvae are analyzed; data is recorded; and tests are conducted to detect any insecticide resistance. The STAC also examined villagers to diagnose human microfilariae in their skin and determine if eye lesions were present. Treatment currently used to combat the disease is either by nodulectomy and/or chemotherapy, but neither is fully effective and mass treatment is difficult. Metrifonate is a promising drug which affects the microfilariae in the cornea without irritating the anterior segment of the eye. Although there are some difficulties in overcoming onchocerciasis, reclamation of the valleys will benefit the population.
The UNFPA--an overview: present and past, statement made at the Twenty-fourth Session of the UNDP Governing Council, United Nations, Geneva, 21 June, 1977.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 23 p.This report provides an overview of UNFPA's operational experience in international population assistance, and a discussion of budget estimates, fiscal constraints, criteria for establishing priorities, projected expenditures, and estimated future needs and demands for funds. During its almost 8 years of operational existence, the Fund's cumulative resources have grown to almost US$400 million pledged by 83 countries. During these years, the Fund has implemented more than 1600 population projects in assisting 106 developing countries throughout the world. 40 priority countries (mainly in Africa), have received the largest allocation of funds (2/3), whereas UNFPA funded intercountry activities in 1976 received only 31% of available funding. Today, unlike 1969, most governments recognize population programs as an important component of development policy. National censuses, family planning programs and health services have emerged throughout the developing world. The concepts of cost-benefit analysis and absorpitive capacity are evaluated in light of UNFPA experience.
Population trends and implications, statement made at the Conference on "Population Trends and Implications," sponsored by The Conference Board, Dallas, Texas, 30 March 1977.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 16 p.There is no universal agreement that the present rate of world population growth is too high. However, of the 48 developing countries which perceive their national population growth rates to be too high, 40 are acting to lower them. These countries contain some 80% of the developing world's population and over 1/2 of that of the entire world. Only 15 nations out of 156 prevent access to contraceptive methods. The right of access to the means of contraception is acknowledged almost universally. Population factors must be considered as part of socioeconomic development. The collection and analysis of demographic statistics has been valuable for over 100 years; but recently the methods have been considerably refined and extended to the predominantly rural societies of the developing world. The study and regulation of migratory patterns is another aspect of population activities. Population activities today are also concerned with factors indirectly affecting the birth rate, and are now widely accepted as an important part of development planning and policy. Constraints to effective population policies include: 1) social; 2) economic; and 3) institutional. Family planning services in most developing countries have traditionally been provided through public health systems. Efforts are now being made to bring family planning services closer to clients by using local groups and people. A variety of carriers--midwives, health visitors, housewives recruited for the purpose--are taking these services to the villages where most of the 3rd world's population lives. This new approach is often called the "community-based approach" or "community-based distribution of family planning services." The Fund has established a "core program" of population activities.
Population education in schools of the Council of Churches in Indonesia [DGI]. Education project summary.
[Unpublished] . 3 p. (UNFPA Project No INS/77/P03)The long-term objectives of this project to be carried out from April 1978-May 1980 are to make population education an integral part of the curriculum of schools operated by the Council of Churches of Indonesia (DGI). Educational objectives are: 1) understanding factors causing population change in relation to development and quality of life, 2) develop competencies to critically examine population issues, and 3) understanding and encouraging support for population policies of Indonesia. Subject areas to be targeted are: 1) religion (Christianity), 2) moral education, 3) social studies, 4) natural sciences, and 5) language. Primary grades 4-6 (1092 schools, 30 master teachers), junior high grades 7-9 (325 schools, 18 teachers), and senior high grades 10-12 (265 schools, 12 teachers) in 30 SPGs and 2 IKIPs of the DGI are targeted. The DGI is responsible to the Population Education Division of the Bureau of Education and Training of the BKKBN and within the DGI the Division of Health and Responsible Parenthood's Population Education Bureau is responsible for implementation. DGI operations are divided into 15 regions. Funding includes total UNFPA contribution of $172,190 and government contribution of Rp. 63,946,000 with Sirami (Netherlands), Church World Service, Osfam and World Neighbors, Asia Foundation and Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) contributing $390,000.
[Unpublished] 1977. 32 p.The Sahel refers geographically to a region south of the Sahara in East Africa, encompassing parts of 6 countries. This region recently suffered a devastating drought and famine. A class analysis of the origins of both the drought and the famine is presented. Many myths regarding the Sahel emphasize overpopulation, environmnetal deterioration, and poverty. These are myths, however. The environment does not determine the cultures of the region and poverty was not always a condition of the region. French colonialism in the area dislocated traditional agriculture, caused a transfer of the land to private ownership, and encouraged migration to France, all of which created classes in a previously classless society and undermined the subsistence base of the peasantry by emphasizing cash crops. The drought merely exacerbated a pre-existing situation and led to famine. A well-funded international development effort was the response to the drought/famine conditions in the Sahel. However, national and international forces combined in the development programs (exemplified by the Bakel region) to prevent local initiative and to prescribe what crops were to be produced and how. Production and productivity will only increase if peasant and herder participation are encouraged.
In: Williams MJ. Development cooperation: efforts and policies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee: 1977 review. 1st ed. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1977. 133-46.The Club Sahel was formed after the severe drought of 1968-73. It is composed of members of the Interstate Permanent Committee for Drought Control (CILSS), Cape Verde Islands, Chad, Gambia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and Upper Volta. The Working Group of the Club has drawn up a plan for development of the Sahel from 1978-2000. The primary objective of the plan is increased agricultural production and food sufficiency. To accomplish this goal the Sahelians must double the production of maize, millet, and sorghum, meat from beef cattle, sheep, and goats, and increase rice production 5 times. An area of more than 500,000 hectares will have to be irrigated. Per capita farm income in the Sahel declined or stagnated between 1960-70 while national income increased. The development plan intends to narrow the gap between urban and rural income. Well organized marketing structures will be accompanied by new price policy to enable Sahelian producers to compete with imports in urban areas. Sound domestic policies by the Sahelian government are the underpinning of the development strategy. More aid is needed from the donor countries, enough to cover the development period. It is not likely that aid will be sustained that long, but many countries, including the United States and Canada, are increasing their committments.
Washington, D.C., Family Health Care, Inc., May 31, 1977. 132 p.Current demographic characteristics for SAHEL countries are presented along with a health delivery strategy based on a distributive philosophy and linking health activities with other development efforts. Resource allocation is proposed within a village-based system, integrating the following components: 1) nutrition; 2) village water; 3) environmental sanitation; and 4) communicable disease control. Investment in a health services infrastructure is anticipated to be a factor in socioeconomic development. Improved health should stimulate labor productivity, enhance the role of women, and increase survival, hence population growth and development. Health services at the village level will be divided into 4 levels: arrondissement, cercle, regional, and national. Specific action recommendations proposed are: 1) organization of a permanent health group to investigate and disseminate information to member countries of SAHEL and to examine experiences in other countries; 2) sponsorship of a ministry-level conference to implement health strategy recommendations; 3) enhancement of health policy, planning, and resource allocation capabilities by development of policy and planning infrastructures by donor organizations, which would also provide training; and 4) incorporation in the next 3- or 5-year plan of SAHEL countries village-based health systems.
In: Sai, F.T., ed. Family welfare and development in Africa. (Proceedings of the IPPF Regional Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria, August 29-September 3, 1976.) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1977. p. 1-15The conference is unique in many respects, most importantly in that it is the 1st in which the Africa Regional Council of IPPF, representing a voluntary nongovernmental organization, has invited governments to sit together with volunteers as full participants to discuss issues of fundamental importance to family health and welfare, and socioeconomic development. The conference refused to accept that population itself is the root cause of Africa's development problems, but is has agreed that in many situations such rapid growth rates can stultify the best efforts of governments and peoples toward attainment of legitimate developmental objectives. There was complete agreement about the definition and reasons for family planning as encompassing a group of activities which ensure that individuals and couples have children when they are socially and physiologically best equipped to have them; that they are enabled to space them satisfactorily; and that they have the number they desire. Additional considerations were population policy; development; the integrated approach to family planning and family welfare activities; the status of women; sex education; the law and planned parenthood; and the role of Family Planning Associations (FPAs) in the Africa Region. It is necessary to ensure that in the selection of strategies and roles, FPAs take into consideration local realities by way of human and other resources; the traditions and cultural acceptances; and the sensibilities and potentials of governments. Compared to government, the FPAs must be the "jeep"--the 4-wheel drive that is able to go into the most inaccessible of places and deliver the services where they are needed.
.. Washington, D.C., U.S. General Accounting Office, June 23, 1977 65 p. (ID-77-3)Although the population policy of Ghana stresses integration of population control with national development policy, little actual integration has occurred. Development efforts encouraging small families will be more actively supported by USAID in the future. Ghana's high birth rate (3%) impedes social and economic development. As the mortality rate falls, the growth rate rises. The results of population growth include increased food imports, crowded health facilities, and a smaller number of eligible students in school. More than 70% of the people live in rural areas; 60% employment is in agriculture. Experience in the Danfa project showed family planning was more acceptable to rural people when integrated with other medical services.
Lessons from China: excerpts from the Interim Report on the IPPF Mission to China, September 23-October 15, 1977.
Africa Link. 1977 Dec; 4(2):3, 26.In China today, family planning has a strong ideological commitment within the ruling party and the nation, so a strong ideological commitment is necessary for a family planning program to yeild results in a short time. Family planning in China is inseparable from socioeconomic development and anecessary component of social reconstruction, integral with the general way of living. The Maoist effort to equalize opportunities and living levels between urban and rural areas promotes family planning, and since the party is overtly committed to birth control at the highest level, it means family planning is propagated at every social level. Hence, the family planning policy is elaborated and pronounced by the party, but the total operations, while having general central direction and a central core of principles, are greatly decentralized, relying on family planning education to promote the small family norm at all social and geographic levels. Despite the emphasis on education, information on actual methods for fertility control are delayed until the period of marriage, but at that time a broad range of contraceptive devices and agents becomes available to the women in their workplaces, homes and farms at minimal fees. 2 areas of specific study in China are recommended: 1) the delivery system, and 2) the rural motivation--both areas are relevant to the IPPF system, and techniques may be cross-cultural.
Bangkok, ILO Regional Office for Asia, 1977. 52 pThis family planning handbook was designed for use by individual employers and their organizations, industrial trade unions, national centers of trade unions, labor educator bodies, labor departments, ministries, and other interested agencies. The role of employers; provision of facilities; availability of information; motivation and education of workers; management staff orientation; incentives; labor/management staff orientation; incentives; labor/management cooperation; organizations to provide assistance in integrating programs with other welfare programs, and employers organizations are discussed in the first chapter. The role of trade unions and the role of government agencies are discussed in 2 subsequent chapters. The last 2 chapters discuss provision of service and incentives. Except in the Philippines, there is no legal obligation for employers to provide family planning services. Public recognition; tax benefits; government subsidies; informational and material assistance are needed as incentives.
Report of the expert group meeting on population and development planning, Bangkok, July 5-11, 1977.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, 1977. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 39; ST/ESCAP/49) 68 p. 0 refThis report consists of an introduction and 4 chapters on integration of population factors into the development planning process; use of models to integrate population factors into planning; a review of some specific economic-demographic models; and application of models to policy-making. Recommendations concluded from this meeting include lowering the priority of prototype socioeconomic-demographic models by international agencies and supporting models in ESCAP member countries which will use them in the planning process. Technical assistance to these countries should be provided by ESCAP. A survey of practises integrating population factors into development planning should be undertaken and results disseminated throughout Asia and the Pacific. Research on the interrelationship of population and socioeconomic development should be encouraged and supported, especially in methods for making fertility related decisions by couples consistent with national goals.