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New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006 Dec.  p.A human rights-based approach to programming is a conceptual framework and methodological tool for ensuring that human rights principles are reflected in policies and national development frameworks. Human rights are the minimum standards that people require to live in freedom and dignity. They are based on the principles of universality, indivisibility, interdependence, equality and non-discrimination. Through the systematic use of human rights-based programming, UNFPA seeks to empower people to exercise their rights, especially their reproductive rights, and to live free from gender-based violence. It does this by supporting programmes aimed at giving women, men and young people ('rights holders') the information, life skills and education they need to claim their rights. It also contributes to capacity-building among public officials, teachers, health-care workers and others who have a responsibility to fulfill these rights ('duty bearers'). In addition, UNFPA strengthens civil society organizations, which often serve as intermediaries between governments and individuals, and promotes mechanisms by which duty bearers can be held accountable. (excerpt)
Gender mainstreaming since Beijing: a review of success and limitations in international institutions.
Gender and Development. 2005 Jul; 13(2):11-22.The Beijing Platform for Action prioritised gender mainstreaming as the mechanism to achieve gender equality. A decade later, policy makers and practitioners are debating whether this has succeeded or failed. This article aims to contribute to this debate by reviewing progress made to date, through a review of gender mainstreaming policies in international development institutions. Categorising progress into three stages - adoption of terminology, putting a policy into place, and implementation - the article argues that while most institutions have put gender mainstreaming policies in place, implementation remains inconsistent. Most important of all, the outcomes and impact of the implementation of gender mainstreaming in terms of gender equality remain largely unknown, with implications for the next decade?s strategies. (author's)
Linking women's human rights and the MDGs: an agenda for 2005 from the UK Gender and Development Network.
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):79-93.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a potentially powerful tool for progress on development and human rights. Women?s human rights activists should recognise and build on the political will mobilised around the MDGs. However, the MDGs reflect problems in the dominant development approach. They seek to use women in their existing social roles to ?deliver? other aims, and do not address the need to eradicate gender inequality, resulting in lack of commitment to address key issues for women, including gender-based violence. There are further problems with the MDGs? indicators, analytical approach, and accountability mechanisms. The MDGs should be reframed as human rights obligations. To this end, links should be fostered between the 2005 reviews of implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and progress on the Millennium Declaration and the MDGs. (author's)
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):94-104.This article explores ways in which the MDGs can be made to work to promote women?s equality and empowerment. Drawn from the author?s extensive experience of feminist activism in the Caribbean region, it discusses strategies to improve the MDGs. Overall, as a feminist I think of the MDGs as a Major Distraction Gimmick - a distraction from the much more important Platforms for Action from the UN conferences of the 1990s, in Rio 1992 (Environment), Vienna 1993 (Human Rights), Cairo 1994 (Population), Copenhagen (Social Development) and Beijing 1995 (Women), Istanbul 1996 (Habitats), and Rome 1997 (Food), on which the MDGs are based. But despite believing this, I think it worthwhile to join other activists within women?s movements who are currently developing strategies to try to ensure that the MDGs can be made to work to promote women?s equality and empowerment. (excerpt)
Gender and Development. 2005 Mar; 13(1):67-78.This article examines the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) from a women?s human rights perspective. It outlines some of the practical ways in which human rights principles, and the provisions set out in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in particular, can be used to ensure that the MDGs are met in a way that respects and promotes gender equality and women?s human rights. (author's)
UN Chronicle. 1986 Apr; 23: p..So begins a special report, Within Human Reach: A Future for Africa's Children, prepared by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). According to UNICEF, neglect of the human costs of the African crisis has obscured a full understanding of the "scenario for disaster' that has been unfolding on that continent over the past two decades. "In its day-to-day work in the continent, UNICEF is faced with the maluntrition and ill health which claim the lives of nearly 4 million African children each and every year--even when there is no drought, no famine, no camps, no epidemics, and no media coverage', states UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant in a preface to the report. "This is the "silent emergency' which, exacerbated by war and drought, has suddenly become the "loud emergency' of which all the world has heard'. However, adds Mr. Grant, "the first priority for action is to protect the lives and the normal growth of children. In times of emergency, the immediate, human argument for "children first' is an obvious one. But there is also a longer-term and more hard-headed case to be made. For there is a profound connection between the mental and physical development of the children and the social and economic development of their nations.' (excerpt)
Studies in Family Planning. 2005 Mar; 36(1):71-79.This report was commissioned by the Population Program of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation in December 2004. The author was charged with analyzing the United Nations’ deliberations that led to the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to answer the question of why there is no specific reproductive health goal. This coverage of the MDG process will be complemented by a special section of Studies in the June 2005 issue on reproductive health and the MDGs. The section will include excerpts about reproductive health from the final report of the Millennium Development Project entitled “Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals,” which was submitted to Secretary General Kofi Annan in January 2005, as well as commentaries by leading scholars and policymakers in the fields of population and reproductive health. (author's)
Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 Nov.  p. (Spotlight No. 2)The evidence is mounting: internationally agreed development and human rights goals are not being met. Moreover, civil society organizations and social movements are suffering from ‘conference fatigue’ after years of systematic involvement in the United Nations conference arena. Women’s organizations and international networks are particularly affected. What does this imply for economic justice and women’s engagement with the United Nations (“UN”)? Should the United Nations be reformed, should feminist movements reinvest in UN processes, or is the UN no longer a strategic site through which to pursue economic and gender justice? This paper aims to contribute to this debate, while not pretending to cover all UN mechanisms or processes. Beginning with an overview of the current context and global governance framework, the paper then focuses on four key economic-related UN mechanisms, namely the Millennium Development Goals (“MDGs”), the Financing for Development process (“FfD”), human right treaties including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”), and World Conferences. Each of these international norm-setting spaces is assessed for its efficacy as a platform for promoting gender and economic justice, considering the status of the mechanism and the outcomes of women’s participation to date. The paper also discusses the major challenges facing women’s movements in their quest for gender and economic justice though international venues, including the implications of some of the reform proposals put forward in the recently released Cardoso Report on civil society engagement with the UN. It concludes with a call to engage critically with United Nations mechanisms, reclaiming these global policy spaces. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 24-46.The solemn commitment that was made in Cairo in 1994 to make reproductive health care universally available was a culmination of efforts made by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and all those concerned about a people-centred and human rights approach to population issues. The commitment posed important challenges to national governments and the international community, to policy makers, programme planners and service providers, and to the civil society at large. The role of UNFPA in building up the consensus for the reproductive health approach before Cairo had to continue after Cairo if the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) were to be achieved. UNFPA continues to be needed to strengthen the commitment, maintain the momentum, mobilize the required resources, and help national governments and the international community move from word to action, and from rhetoric to reality. Reproductive health, including family planning and sexual health, is now one of three major programme areas for UNFPA. During 1997, reproductive health accounted for over 60 per cent of total programme allocations by the Fund. (excerpt)
Monday Developments. 2003 Jun 9; 21(10):13.Education alone is not sufficient to reach gender equality, the third of the Millennium Development Goals”, Sarah Newhall, president of Pact and co-chair of InterAction's Commission on the Advancement of Women, told the annual CAW breakfast. Education is a necessary but insufficient action to achieve gender equality," she said. While recognizing that the inclusion of "gender equity testifies to the power and impact of the global women's movement," June Zeitlin, CEO of the Women's Economic Development Organization, noted that the remaining seven Millennium goals are presented as "gender neutral." The Millennium Development Goals were adopted by heads of state in 2000 as a global development framework. (excerpt)
Programme of action for the second half of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace.
[New YOrk] UN, August 13, 1980. 61 p. (A/CONF.94/34)The 3 objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women, equality, development and peace, were reaffirmed at meetings and conferences subsequent to the Mexico City world conference on the status of women in 1975. Equality is interpreted as meaning not only legal equality, but also equality of rights, responsibilities, and opportunities for the participation of women in development, both as beneficiaries and as active agents. Development is interpreted to mean political, economic, social, cultural, and other dimensions of human life, including physical, moral, intellectual, and cultural development. Improvement of women's status requires action at the national and local levels and within the family. Peace and stability are prereqiesites to development. Peace will not be lasting without development and the elimination of inequalities and discrimination at all levels. Imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism, zionism, racism, racial discrimination, apartheid, hegemonism, and foreign occupation, domination, and oppression must be eliminated. It must be recognized that the attainment of equality of women long disadvantaged may demand compensatory activities to correct accumulated injustices. The joint responsibility of men and women for the welfare of the family in general, and the care of children in particular, must be reaffirmed.
New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 1992. iii, 38 p.Gender violence needs to be exposed and documented more fully as part of shaping programs that will lead toward the human development envisioned by the UN s Development Programme in its series of Human Development Reports. Through this article, the UN Development Fund for Women leads to reconceptualize violence as it affects development. This process is essential in devising a step that will realize a vision of human development that works for women. It is within this context that the importance of Carillo's thesis is examined, asserting that development plans cannot succeed if gender based violence hindering women's participation in development is ignored. Discussion involved violence as part of the development agenda, gender violence as an obstacle to development, and eradication of gender violence. An appendix is attached discussing the UN initiatives relating to violence against women.
FPAN NEWSLETTER. 1994 Sep-Oct; 14(5):1.175 countries met in Cairo, Egypt, from September 5-13, 1994, at the Fifth International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), to discuss human rights, reproductive health, and sustained use of resources. Created by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) resolution 1989/1991, the ICPD is headed by Dr Nafis Sadik, the Secretary General of the Conference and the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). Dr Ram Sharan Mahat, Vice Chairman of the National Planning Commission, led a 16-member team from Nepal. The opening speakers agreed that empowerment of women, through improvements in educational status and economic conditions, was the key to solving the world's population problems. President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, in his inaugural speech, warned of the dangers of overpopulation and stated that the cornerstone of successful demographic policy was "improving women's conditions" in developing countries. UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, in his opening speech, stated that education and mobilization of women were essential to the success of population and development policies worldwide, and that men and women must have the right and means to choose their, and their families,' futures. Dr Sadik said the deaths of 500,000 pregnant women annually and of three million babies in the first week of life as a result of poor health care was "morally unacceptable." Dr Halfdan Mahler, Secretary General of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), speaking from the nongovernmental organization (NGO) forum, expressed support for the objectives of the ICPD and mentioned the 6 challenges of the Vision 2000 program. IPPF has established a fund to finance FPAs on a competitive basis. Dr Mahler closed by asking for prompt action and continuing cooperation among the governments and NGOs in order to mobilize the necessary resources.
Development. 1989; (4):77-82.Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
Realism and vision in international solidarity, report from the 19th SID [Society for International Development] World Conference, March 1988, New Delhi, India: Poverty, development and collective survival.
COMPASS. 1988 Oct; (35-36):1-57.This document reports on the 19th Society for International Development (SID) World Conference held in March 1988 in New Delhi, India on poverty, development, and collective survival. An overview is given of the conference followed by the Inaugural Plenary address by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. The opening address focused on SID as an international development NGO. Other talks were given on the development of "development thinking," the non-governmental sector, development innovations within the UN system, the future of global society, and gender and equity. The Barbara Ward Memorial Lecture was given on the new visions for the 1990's. The opening plenary dealt with women's roles in human resource development. The future of SID was discussed by the Chapter Leaders and views were expressed during 2 general assemblies. The report gives biographies of SID council members. The Cultural Program featured Classical Indian dancers. Panels covered African development, Latin America, Socialist experiences, NGO development paradigms, women's movements in development action, South Asia, human rights, the innovative experience of NGOs in poverty alleviation, North/South roundtables, and collective survival. The report includes a complete schedule of the meeting's activities and the papers available from the conference.
In: The situation of women in Bangladesh, edited by Mahmuda Islam, Parveen Ahmed, Ellen Sattar, Niaz Zaman, Farida S. Enayet and Renee Gerard for the Women for Women Research and Study Group. Dacca, Bangladesh, Women for Women Research and Study Group and UNICEF, Women's Development Program, 1979. 379-402.This paper discussed the following critical issues of the 1980s for women and children in Bangladesh: 1) Excessive disparity between men and women in access to nutrition, health care and medical services, and in education, literacy and vocational training; 2) The lack of opportunities for female income-earning and non-recognition of female labor force in the agricultural economy; 3) The weakness of social and legal rights and the overall low status of women in society; 4) The limitations of government programs and the constraints of orthodox thinking; 5) The large number of windows; 6) The neglect of children in development planning. The role of international organizations, such as UNICEF, in formulating and coordinating realistic policies is discussed, along with the role of voluntary organizations. A framework of suggestions for action is presented. The following areas are identified as critical: population control and health, access to education, improved economic conditions, socio-cultural attitudinal changes, and improved quality of life for children. Development planners are urged to recognize that in order for overall economic progress to take effect, women and children must be integrated into development schemes. Men, women and children support each other in a large number of productive and economic activities -- their roles are interdependent in the existing structure. Consequently, action needs to be taken wherever possible to provide opportunities to the deprived women and children of Bangladesh.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1987. xii, 282 p. (ST/ESCAP/434.)Growing worldwide recognition of the unequal participation of women in development culminated in the declaration of 1975 as International Women's Year and of the subsequent 10 years as the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace (1976-1985). The present report summarizes the progress achieved for and by women in Asia and the Pacific during the UN Decade for Women. This report should be read critically since the coverage of the country responses to the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) questionnaires was uneven. The international attention directed to the issue of women and development spurred the establishment of national machineries for the promotion of women's interests in many of the Asian and Pacific countries where none had existed, and the strengthening of those already active. In Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and New Zealand, the national machinery was formed at the ministerial level. In other countries, a ministry already has the task of advancing women. In other countries, focal points are positioned directly under the leadership of the head of the executive branch. In Afghanistan, China, Mongolia, and Viet Nam the responsibility has been given to the national women's organizations that emerged after radical socio-political transformations. Countries of a 4th group have attached their machineries to a sectoral ministry or organization. During the UN Decade for Women, India, Nepal, Samoa, and Thailand included for the 1st time in their planning history a separate chapter in their national development plans on the integration of women into the development process. India, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand formulated separate national plans of action for the advancement of women. In other countries, including Fiji and Vanuatu, national plans of action were drafted and submitted to their governments by non-governmental women's organizations. 17 ESCAP member countries have signed, ratified, or acceded to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
New Delhi, India, World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 1985. vii, 126 p. (SEARO Regional Health Papers No. 8)The progress of activities to improve the health status of women in Southeast Asia, including WHO programs in family health, maternal and child health, and the training of women health workers, is examined in this paper. Data and information on the health and socioeconomic situation of women was drawn from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, the Mongolian People's Republic, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Compared to 1975, there is now a definite focus on women's issues in national and international forums, deeper understanding of women's position and role in the development of nations, and more emphatic advocacy of women's rights. Several Southeast Asian nations have enacted legislation outlawing discrimination and protecting women from exploitation at work and at home, but the amount of resources devoted to implementing and enforcing change has been far less than needed. Each country in the region is profiled individually giving national policies on women, data on women's health status, the socioeconomic situation, status of women in the health professions, health legislation and social support to women, and women's non-governmental organizations.
World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects
In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
Populi. 1985; 12(1):29-35.The Operations Manager of the Zimbabwe Child Spacing and Fertility Program and delegate to the 1984 International Conference on Population praised the conference for reaffirming the need to strengthen family planning programs and for recognizing that improving the role and status of women is a legitimate objective in and of itself. Conference recommendations concerning the status of women have special relevancy for African women since the African region lags behind other regions in upgrading the role and status of women. The conference engendered a sense of optimism among those concerned with improving the status of African women. At the 1974 International Conference on Population, most African countries refused to recognize that family planning had any relevancy for development. In contrast, at the 1984 conference, most African countries expressed a willingness to examine the implications of population growth for development. The platform adopted by the conference provides guidelines which can help African countries explore and confront population growth. The platform also provides moral support for those interested in seeking changes which will benefit women. Some of the specific recommendations on the status of women are especially germane to the problems of African women. For example, the conference recommended that governments collect, tabulate, and publish socioeconomic and demographic data by sex. There is a dearth of information on African women, and information of this type is essential for both planning and evaluating programs designed to have an impact on women. The conference recommended that male involvement in family planning should be expanded. In Africa negative male attitudes toward family planning frequently interfere with female acceptance of family planning. Other relevant recommendations were that 1) minimum marriage ages should be increased, 2) women should be allowed and encouraged to participate in the development process at all organizational levels, 3) all laws restricting sexual equality in reference to education, employment, training, and access to health services should be removed, 4) governments should adopt economic policies and programs which will promote sexual equality, and 5) women should be given assistance which will make it easier to combine career and child rearing tasks. Operationalizing these recommendations will require the concerted efforts of governments, organizations, and women themselves. Governments should publicize the conference's recommendations and assume more responsibility for increasing public awareness of women's issues. Governments must ensure that women's organizations receive adequate support and are allowed to participate in the national policy making process. Nongovernment organizations and local women's organizations must encourage and assist women to develop the skills they need to participate in the development process.
Women, population and development, statement made at the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: equality, development and peace, Copenhagen, Denmark, 15 July 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 5 p. (Speech Series No. 56)The World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974 and the World Plan of Action adopted at the Mexico Conference in 1975 had one common goal--the full integration of women in the development process. Women today play a limited role in many national communities. If this role is to be strengthened and expanded, it will be necessary to focus on eliminating discrimination and removing obstacles to their education, training, employment and career advancement. Within this framework, UNFPA has given support to projects in 5 specific areas: 1) education and training in health, nutrition, child care, family planning, and vocational skills; 2) increasing participation of rural women in planning, decision-making and implementation at the community level; 3) income generating activities, such as marketing, social service occupations, and in the legal, educational and political systems; 4) educating women about their social and legal rights; and 5) widening women's access to communication networks. Between 1969 and 1979, approximately US$22 million was provided by UNFPA to projects dealing with the status of women. Projects in areas such as nutrition, maternal and child health services and family planning received more than US$312 million, which constitutes more than 50% of the total UNFPA programs.
The food, population and development equation, statement made at Southeastern Dialogue on the Changing World Economy, Atlanta, Georgia, 25 October 1980.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p.The 1st type of assistance asked for from developing countries is the collection of basic data. The 2nd type of program is family planning. Countries must formulate their family planning themselves based on assessment of needs. The 3rd area that has evolved is that of population dynamics--the study of demographic variables and their consequences. The 4th area is the field of communication and education to support family planning and population programs. The 5th area is in population policies. Finally, there is the residual category of special activities concerned with youth, women and the aged. Population, therefore, represents a broad core area of 5 to 6 categories. The UNFPA is a voluntary organization which provides assistance only to developing countries. The projections of the UN indicate that, as a result of efforts in population, there is for the 1st time in the history of mankind a decline in the population growth rate of developing countries. Nevertheless, mankind must be prepared for an additional 2 billion people by the turn of the century. Population efforts in the end must aim at the stabilization of total world numbers to enable individuals to develop to their full capacity and to improve the quality of life for all.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, . 16 p.This report discusses the important place of women in health and development as perceived by WHO and as formulated in various World Health Assembly resolutions, particularly those concerned with the UN Decade for Women. Underlying all objectives is that of increasing knowledge and understanding about how the various socioeconomic factors that make up women's status affect and are affected by their health. The aim of WHO's Women, Health and Development (WHD) activities, is the integration or incorporation of a women's dimension within on-oing programs, specifically as part of "Health for All" strategies. Chief among WHD objectives and groups of activities are the improvement of women's health status, increasing resources for women's health, facilitating their health care roles and promoting equality in health development. Overall WHD activities stress the importance of data on women's health status, the dissemination of this and related information, and the promotion of social support for women. The WHD component of ongoing WHO programs focuses mainly on managerial and technical support to national programs of maternal-child health/family planning care. The present report also includes an update on the incorporation of women's issues within WHO's on-going programs in human reproductive research, nutrition, community water supply and sanitation, workers' health, mental health, immunization, diarrheal diseases, research and training in tropical diseases and cancer. Women's participation in health services is discussed mainly within the context of primary health care and is based on their role as health care providers. The results of a multi-national study initiated in 1980 on the topic of women as health care providers should be ready in early 1984 and are expected to contribute a basis for further action.
In: Hauser PM, ed. World population and development: challenges and prospects. Syracuse, New York, Syracuse University Press, 1979. 440-85.Although there is a growing awareness of the relationship between the status of women, fertility patterns, and economic development many programs and research endeavors in the population field are still based on mistaken assumptions and culturally biased views about the role of women and its significance. Women must be able to exert control over their own lives if family population programs are to meet with success. In economically and politically male dominated societies women cannot obtain this control. In most developing countries women are employed in low status agricultural and domestic service work or are engaged in small trading operations. Programs which seek to reduce family size by simply increasing wormen's work force participation in these employment areas will not be effective. These work roles are not incompatible with child rearing and the increased income may actually increase fertility. To expect the negative relationship between increased labor force participation and lower fertility, which characterizes the industrial countries, to hold under these conditions, is ethnocentrically naive. It should also be recognized that the status and role of women varies from society to society depending on the level of economic development and the religious, political, and cultural traditions of the society. For example, it should not automatically be assumed that the decision to have a child is made mutually by a husband and wife when the couple resides in an extended family. The attitude of relatives as well as the availability of child raising assistance will enter into the decision making process. Many hypothesized relationships in the population field fail to take into consideration differences such as these. Some of these biases can be ameliorated by permitting women to play a more active role in formulating programs aimed at serving them. Tables based on information from many countries show crude birth rates, education levels, and political positions of women according to the % of service workers in the population, and according to the type of society. Other tables show the work status of women according to the % of construction and industry workers and the % of service workers in the population and according to the type of society.