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  1. 1
    323459
    Peer Reviewed

    Global costs of attaining the Millennium Development Goal for water supply and sanitation.

    Hutton G; Bartram J

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008 Jan; 86(1):13-19.

    Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to "halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Because of its impacts on a range of diseases, it is a health-related MDG target. This study presents cost estimates of attaining MDG target 10. We estimate the population to be covered to attain the MDG target using data on household use of improved water and sanitation for 1990 and 2004, and taking into account population growth. We assume this estimate is achieved in equal annual increments from the base year, 2005, until 2014. Costs per capita for investment and recurrent costs are applied. Country data is aggregated to 11 WHO developing country subregions and globally. Estimated spending required in developing countries on new coverage to meet the MDG target is US$ 42 billion for water and US$ 142 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 18 billion. The cost of maintaining existing services totals an additional US$ 322 billion for water supply and US $216 billion for sanitation, a combined annual equivalent of US$ 54 billion. Spending for new coverage is largely rural (64%), while for maintaining existing coverage it is largely urban (73%). Additional programme costs, incurred administratively outside the point of delivery of interventions, of between 10% and 30% are required for effective implementation. In assessing financing requirements, estimates of cost should include the operation, maintenance and replacement of existing coverage as well as new services and programme costs. Country-level costing studies are needed to guide sector financing. (author's)
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  2. 2
    309910

    Progress for children: a report card on water and sanitation. Number 5.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2006 Sep. 33 p.

    Water is as fundamental to human life as the air we breathe. Yet, ironically, this essence of life can have an injurious impact if its source is not free from pollution and infection -- and the most likely pollutant is human faeces that have not been disposed of and have spread because of a lack of basic sanitation and hygiene. Young children are more vulnerable than any other age group to the ill effects of unsafe water, insufficient quantities of water, poor sanitation and lack of hygiene. Globally, 10.5 million children under the age of five die every year, with most of these deaths occurring in developing countries. Lack of safe water, sanitation and adequate hygiene contribute to the leading killers of children under five, including diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia, neonatal disorders and undernutrition. This means that Millennium Development Goal 7 -- to ensure environmental sustainability -- and its associated 2015 targets of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation are of vital relevance to children. MDG 7 is also crucial in relation to improving nutrition, education and women's status, and success in this field will thus play a major role in determining whether the world meets its MDG targets across the board. (excerpt)
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