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Intermediating development assistance in health: prospects for organizing a public/private investment portfolio.
Washington, D.C., Family Health, 1980 July 23. 162 p.The objective of this study is to identify and assess the potential role of intermediary organizations in furthering AID health assistance objectives. The 1st section of this report is an introduction to the potential roles of intermediaries through health assistance via the private voluntary community. A background of the private voluntary organizations is discussed along with some of the constraints that may impede their activity, such as competing interests, values and priorities. The following section defines what is and should be an intermediary organization along with examples of certain functions involved; a discussion of the experience of AID in the utilization of intermediaries follows. 3 models of utilization of intermediaries are analyzed according to the rationale involved, strategy, advantages and constraints. The 3rd section attempts to define and identify AID's needs for programming its health assistance in regard to primary health care, water and sanitation, disease control and health planning. A detailed analysis of the potential roles of intermediary organizations is discussed in reference to policy development, project development and design, project implementation, research, training and evaluation. The 4th section identifies the programming strengths and interests among listed private voluntary organizations in the US. The 5th section discusses the potential of intermediaries in health assistance in reference to the options for funding them in health and the constraints to direct AID funding of intermediary organizations. The last section discusses a series of recommendations made in regard to the development and funding of an international effort to marshall private resources in support of health assistance. Problems and constraints, as well as resources and opportunities, for the development of this international effort are further discussed.
In: The situation of women in Bangladesh, edited by Mahmuda Islam, Parveen Ahmed, Ellen Sattar, Niaz Zaman, Farida S. Enayet and Renee Gerard for the Women for Women Research and Study Group. Dacca, Bangladesh, Women for Women Research and Study Group and UNICEF, Women's Development Program, 1979. 379-402.This paper discussed the following critical issues of the 1980s for women and children in Bangladesh: 1) Excessive disparity between men and women in access to nutrition, health care and medical services, and in education, literacy and vocational training; 2) The lack of opportunities for female income-earning and non-recognition of female labor force in the agricultural economy; 3) The weakness of social and legal rights and the overall low status of women in society; 4) The limitations of government programs and the constraints of orthodox thinking; 5) The large number of windows; 6) The neglect of children in development planning. The role of international organizations, such as UNICEF, in formulating and coordinating realistic policies is discussed, along with the role of voluntary organizations. A framework of suggestions for action is presented. The following areas are identified as critical: population control and health, access to education, improved economic conditions, socio-cultural attitudinal changes, and improved quality of life for children. Development planners are urged to recognize that in order for overall economic progress to take effect, women and children must be integrated into development schemes. Men, women and children support each other in a large number of productive and economic activities -- their roles are interdependent in the existing structure. Consequently, action needs to be taken wherever possible to provide opportunities to the deprived women and children of Bangladesh.
Paris, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Centre, 1978. 193 p. (Development Centre Studies)The World Population Conference which took place in Bucharest in 1974 witnessed many debates and rhetorical controversies over the role of family planning programs in Third World countries and their relation to development. This report is the result of a collaborative study realized by the Development Centre and the World Bank which investigates how developing countries, as well as aid agencies, are thinking about population problems and, as a consequence, about population assistance in the "post-Bucharest era." The report includes detailed surveys of 12 developing countries, representing Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. It also interviews and reports on the activities of a large number of population assistance agencies. The roles of international organizations such as the UNFPA, the UN population division and the World Bank itself are assessed in terms of their impact on national development through population control efforts. Reviews of assistance provided to developing nations by nongovernmental agencies, private foundations and developed nations are also presented. Each country paper presented provides an overview of the country's demographic characteristics; a summary of history of population policies, pre- and post-Bucharest era; an overview of population strategies past and present, their integration with other-sector activities; family planning program administration; and a survey of all forms of population assistance available and utilized by the country. Macro-level analyses of changes in family planning assistance by organizations since Bucharest, as well as micro-level, country-specific studies of how each nation has assimilated these changes and has developed a specific population policy are provided.
In: Sai, F.T., ed. Family welfare and development in Africa. (Proceedings of the IPPF Regional Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria, August 29-September 3, 1976.) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1977. p. 1-15The conference is unique in many respects, most importantly in that it is the 1st in which the Africa Regional Council of IPPF, representing a voluntary nongovernmental organization, has invited governments to sit together with volunteers as full participants to discuss issues of fundamental importance to family health and welfare, and socioeconomic development. The conference refused to accept that population itself is the root cause of Africa's development problems, but is has agreed that in many situations such rapid growth rates can stultify the best efforts of governments and peoples toward attainment of legitimate developmental objectives. There was complete agreement about the definition and reasons for family planning as encompassing a group of activities which ensure that individuals and couples have children when they are socially and physiologically best equipped to have them; that they are enabled to space them satisfactorily; and that they have the number they desire. Additional considerations were population policy; development; the integrated approach to family planning and family welfare activities; the status of women; sex education; the law and planned parenthood; and the role of Family Planning Associations (FPAs) in the Africa Region. It is necessary to ensure that in the selection of strategies and roles, FPAs take into consideration local realities by way of human and other resources; the traditions and cultural acceptances; and the sensibilities and potentials of governments. Compared to government, the FPAs must be the "jeep"--the 4-wheel drive that is able to go into the most inaccessible of places and deliver the services where they are needed.
Lessons from China: excerpts from the Interim Report on the IPPF Mission to China, September 23-October 15, 1977.
Africa Link. 1977 Dec; 4(2):3, 26.In China today, family planning has a strong ideological commitment within the ruling party and the nation, so a strong ideological commitment is necessary for a family planning program to yeild results in a short time. Family planning in China is inseparable from socioeconomic development and anecessary component of social reconstruction, integral with the general way of living. The Maoist effort to equalize opportunities and living levels between urban and rural areas promotes family planning, and since the party is overtly committed to birth control at the highest level, it means family planning is propagated at every social level. Hence, the family planning policy is elaborated and pronounced by the party, but the total operations, while having general central direction and a central core of principles, are greatly decentralized, relying on family planning education to promote the small family norm at all social and geographic levels. Despite the emphasis on education, information on actual methods for fertility control are delayed until the period of marriage, but at that time a broad range of contraceptive devices and agents becomes available to the women in their workplaces, homes and farms at minimal fees. 2 areas of specific study in China are recommended: 1) the delivery system, and 2) the rural motivation--both areas are relevant to the IPPF system, and techniques may be cross-cultural.
Shift of emphasis in the allocation of resources: a new policy of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
London, England, IPPF, May 1982. 12 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Explains the basis of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Shift of Emphasis Policy, its implementation, and the extent to which it took effect in the allocation of resources in 1982. Most of IPPF's budget is spent directly in support of family planning activities in individual countries through private family planning associations. The Shift of Emphasis Policy's main intention is to channel IPPF funds increasingly towards the poorest countries where the need for family planning services and supplies is high and resources are scarce. Since the adoption of the policy, a set of criteria has been developed for its implementation within the framework of the existing resource allocation system. IPPF's concern is to serve those in greatest need; the new policy is an attempt to change resource allocation patterns to reflect this concern. Implementation is guided by 2 principles: 1) that the overall funds available to the Federation should not be increased, and 2) that the shift be gradual to ensure that ongoing programs are not set back by sudden changes in funding. The Policy's implementation is affected by broader issues related to development aid. First is the difficulty of ensuring the most cost effective use of funds, while at the same time supporting new activities to serve those in greatest need. The second issue concerns the distribution of funds within countries. Criteria for the process of implementation fall into the categories of country factors and Family Planning Association factors. Country factors include the level of socioeconomic development, the demographic situation, the need for family planning, and other factors which affect the overall family planning situation in a country. Family Planning Association factors depend on such things as the presence of local individuals and associations, and their capacity to use resources effectively to meet needs.
London, England, IPPF, July 1982. 4 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Discusses the movement to establish groups of Parliamentarians on Population and Development throughout the world. The movement grew out of the need to create understanding among legislators and policymakers of the interrelationship between development, population, and family planning. Parliamentarian groups can help to ensure that population and family planning are included in development plans and that resources are committed to population and family planning programs. The main initiative for the establishment of Parliamentarian groups and for their regional and international cooperation came from the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) has been involved from the beginning and works closely with UNFPA. The meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Development during 1981 resulted in important regional developments, with IMF affiliates playing a major role. The Washington Conference on Population and Development included Parliamentarians from the Caribbean and Latin America. Priorities for formulating population and development policies were identified. The African Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development marked the first time that a major conference on so sensitive an issue was held in Africa. The Beijung conference was attended by 19 Asian countries and resulted in a declaration calling on Parliaments, governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations to increase their commitment to all aspects of population and family planning. National developments in India and the Philippines are also discussed. Many of the countries with Parliamentary groups on Population and Development have governments that are involved in providing international population assistance. Greater commitment to population as a crucial factor in development through the establishment of links with governments and parliamentarians is an action area within the IPPF 1982-84 plan.
Tarawa, Kiribati, Ministry of Home Affairs. 130 p.This document is a report on a seminar held at the University of the South Pacific Center, Tarawa, from August 23-26, 1983, sponsored by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Fund for Population activities (UNFPA). The report begins with an overview of the geography of the islands, and 11 consolidates seminar recommendations concerning population planning to address the 2.24% population growth rate, improvement of family life, program level, decentralization of population and services, economic activities, local level groups, training programs, and local community centers. Individual group reports follow: community development/national development, and youth and family welfare. A Ministry of Finance report gives population statistics by island. Other reports are given by the Ministries of Health, Trade Industry and Labor, Education, Natural Resources, and Home Affairs and Decentralization. The ILO delegate papers cover the labor and population program of the ILO, family welfare as an important segment of working women's activity, objectives of family life education, and contract labor equity and migration in Kiribati. There is a brief survey of UNFPA programs in the area. Non-governmental organization delegates presenting included National Women's Federation of Kiribati, the Kiribati Trades Union Congress, the Save the Children Foundation, the Roman Catholic Mission, the Kiribati Protestant Church, and the Seventh Day Adventist Church. Concluding the report are seminar notes on questions and answers to the questions that did not otherwise appear in the report, and a list of speeches, seminar programs, and seminar participants.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre, 1983. (Development Centre Studies)This study examines in detail the effects of different donors' aid-giving systems in the area of population assistance. An analysis of the problems encountered in implementing population assistance is relevant as a guide to improving aid implementation in other social development sectors. Included are 1) bilateral donor agencies: United States Agency for International Development (USAID); Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD); Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), and Overseas Development Administration of the United Kingdom (ODA). 2) multilateral donors: United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and The World Bank; and 3) non-governmental donors: International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and The Pathfinder Fund. Since the aid procedures and practices of these agencies cannot be properly appreciated except in the context of the agency as a whole, each chapter begins with a brief description of the agency, its approach to problems of population, and the criteria that it applies to its population programs. Information was gathered by means of interviews with each of the agencies, supplemented by interviews in a number of recipient countries to ascertain the views of the officials directly concerned with the implementation of population programs. The countries selected for this purpose are Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia and Kenya: all receive substantial population assistance from a variety of donors. The changing scope of population assistance and the diverse range of activities and services that may be included under such a heading, the criteria for priority aid recipients, the size of projects and donors' views regarding problems encountered and the responses adopted in terms of aid, local and recurrent costs, salaries, administrative and managerial capability, maintenance and training are addressed. Also examined are donors' aid procedures and practices in respect to programming, project preparation, field missions, consultants, procurement, disbursement, reporting, accounting and auditing and also their arrangements for coordination of population activities with those of other donors.