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Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2015. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2015. 100 p.In 2000, the United Nations (UN) Member States pledged to work towards a series of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including the target of a three-quarters reduction in the 1990 maternal mortality ratio (MMR; maternal deaths per 100 000 live births), to be achieved by 2015. This target (MDG 5A) and that of achieving universal access to reproductive health (MDG 5B) together formed the two targets for MDG 5: Improve maternal health. In the five years counting down to the conclusion of the MDGs, a number of initiatives were established to galvanize efforts towards reducing maternal mortality. These included the UN Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, which mobilized efforts towards achieving MDG 4 (Improve child health) as well as MDG 5, and the high-level Commission on Information and Accountability (COIA), which promoted “global reporting, oversight, and accountability on women’s and children’s health”. Now, building on the momentum generated by MDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) establish a transformative new agenda for maternal health towards ending preventable maternal mortality; target 3.1 of SDG 3 is to reduce the global MMR to less than 70 per 100 000 live births by 2030.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Jul. vii, 59 p. (Report No. 68)This report of a Mission visit to Ghana from May 4-25, 1981 contains data highlights; a summary of findings; Mission recommendations regarding population and development policies, population data collection and analysis, maternal and child health and family planning, population education and communication programs, and women and development; and information on the following: the national setting; population features and trends (population size, growth rate, and distribution and population dynamics); population policy, planning, and policy-related research; basic data collection and anaylsis; maternal and child health and family planning (general health status, structure and organization of health services, maternal and child health and family planning activities, and family planning services in the private sector); population education and communication programs; women, youth, and development; and external assistance in population. Ghana gained independence in 1957. The country showed early promise of rapid development. Although well-endowed with natural and human resources, Ghana now suffers from food scarcity, inadequate infrastructure and services, inflation, inequities in income distribution, unemployment, and underemployment. Per capita gross national product (GNP) was $400 in 1981; between 1960-81 the average annual growth of GNP was -1.1%. A high rate of natural increase of the population has compounded development problems by intensifying demands for food, consumer goods, and social services while simultaneously increasing the constraints on productivity. The population, estimated at 13 million in mid-1984, is growing at a rate of 3.25% per annum. Immigration and emigration have contributed to changes in the size and composition of the population. Post-independence development policies favored the urban areas, encouraging a steady rural-to-urban shift in the population. At the same time, worsening socioeconomic conditions spurred the emigration of professional, managerial, and technical personnel and skilled workers. Ghana was the 1st sub-Saharan African nation to establish an official population policy. Since the formulation of the policy in 1969, successive governments have remained committed to its emphasis on fertility reduction while increasing attention to the problems of mortality and morbidity and rural/urban migration. Recognizing the need to intensify the commitment to population policies, the Mission recommends support for a program to further the awareness of policy makers of the relationship between population trends and their areas of responsibility. The Mission recommends the creation of a special permanent population committee and the strengthening of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning's Manpower division. The Mission also makes the following recommendations: the provision of training, technical assistance, and data processing facilities to ensure the timely provision of demographic data for socioeconomic planning; data collected in the pilot program of vital registration be evaluated before the system is expanded; the complete integration of maternal and child health and family planning and general health services within the primary health care system; and improvement in women's access to resources such as education, training, and agricultural inputs.
[UN/WHO Working Group on Data Bases for Measurement of Levels, Trends and Differentials in Mortality, Bangkok, 20-23 October 1981] Groupe de Travail ONU/OMS sur les Bases des Donnees Destinees a la Mesure des Niveaux, Tendances et Differences dans la Mortalite, Bangkok, 20-23 octobre 1981.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1981; 34(4):239-40.The meeting was jointly organized by the UN and the World Health Organization (WHO) to discuss the experience of various governments and national institutions in the collection, analysis, and use of mortality data relevant to the establishment of policies in the health and development sectors of their countries in order to make governments aware of the potential uses of the data. Topics covered included: 1) use of mortality data for health and development programs, 2) use of continuous registration systems, 3) approaches for collection of mortality data, 4) collection of mortality data through multipurpose surveys, 5) birth or death records as a sampling frame for studies of mortality, and 6) special data collection systems for studying health processes. Recommendations concerned vital registration, censuses and surveys, other data needs, research strategies, data management and the role of international organizations and funding agencies, stressing the achievement of "birth and death registration for all by the year 2000" as the final goal.
Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.
In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 50 p. (Report No. 49)The rate of population increase in the Republic of Maldives was very low until the 1950s, but rose to more than 3% in the 1960s and early 1970s. An annual increase of 3.2% is estimated in the 1980s. The crude birth rate is high. Population increases like this will put enormous strains on most social activities. 4 clear population policies are emerging; 1) improvement in the health of mothers and children; 2) the need to control population growth, including improving acceptable family planning methods; 3) relief from overcrowding; and 4) development of the atolls to attract voluntary migration. The government has 3 additional aims: 1) increasing the quality and quantity of population statistics and its ability to analyze such data; 2) integrate women into development plans; and 3) improve education of children on environmental subjects, such as the interrelationship of the environment and population. The 1977 census was conducted with United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance. It is hoped that at least 1 Family Health Worker plus at least one Fooluma (traditional birth attendant) will work on each inhabited island; and 2 Community Health Workers and a health center will exist on each atoll. The Maternal and Child Health Program, including child spacing, is incorporated in their job descriptions. There is 1 hospital in Male'; 4 regional hospitals are planned. Male' hospital provides family planning service. A very active National Women's Committee exists. The government is encouraging the establishment of Women's Committees for Island Progress. The average woman has had 5.73 children, of whom 3.99 are alive. The number of children preferred is 3.38. International migration to Male' is a problem. Literacy is high, but there is a shortage of trained personnel. The country needs external assistance.