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Foreign aid, democratisation and civil society in Africa: a study of South Africa, Ghana and Uganda.
Brighton, England, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies [IDS], . 28 p. (Discussion Paper No. 368)The 1990s have seen increased interest on the part of Western governments in funding civil society in Africa in an attempt to promote the continent's democratisation process. This discussion paper examines how a range of foreign donors has developed civil society initiatives in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. All three countries form part of the new generation of African states that are seen as turning their back on decades of authoritarian rule, instead embracing open government and open economies in productive 'partnerships' with the West. After defining what donors mean by 'civil society', this discussion paper is divided into two main sections. The first section identifies who the major foreign donors to civil society are in Ghana, Uganda and South Africa. It examines the relative importance and differences in approach of the United States, Germany, the World Bank and the Like-minded Group of donors (the Nordic countries, the Netherlands and Canada). The second major section discusses the broad objectives of donors in African countries. The study found that civil society organisations committed to the promotion of liberal democracy and economic liberalism are the most popular with donors. The paper concludes that although assistance to civil society is relatively small, and is directed at a very particular section of civil society, in each of these societies it funds some of the key actors involved in influencing economic policy and defining the content of democracy. (author's)
Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.
Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
Intermediating development assistance in health: prospects for organizing a public/private investment portfolio.
Washington, D.C., Family Health, 1980 July 23. 162 p.The objective of this study is to identify and assess the potential role of intermediary organizations in furthering AID health assistance objectives. The 1st section of this report is an introduction to the potential roles of intermediaries through health assistance via the private voluntary community. A background of the private voluntary organizations is discussed along with some of the constraints that may impede their activity, such as competing interests, values and priorities. The following section defines what is and should be an intermediary organization along with examples of certain functions involved; a discussion of the experience of AID in the utilization of intermediaries follows. 3 models of utilization of intermediaries are analyzed according to the rationale involved, strategy, advantages and constraints. The 3rd section attempts to define and identify AID's needs for programming its health assistance in regard to primary health care, water and sanitation, disease control and health planning. A detailed analysis of the potential roles of intermediary organizations is discussed in reference to policy development, project development and design, project implementation, research, training and evaluation. The 4th section identifies the programming strengths and interests among listed private voluntary organizations in the US. The 5th section discusses the potential of intermediaries in health assistance in reference to the options for funding them in health and the constraints to direct AID funding of intermediary organizations. The last section discusses a series of recommendations made in regard to the development and funding of an international effort to marshall private resources in support of health assistance. Problems and constraints, as well as resources and opportunities, for the development of this international effort are further discussed.
Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Perspectives and Prospects, April 20-21, 1998, Paris, France.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Social Development Department, Post-Conflict Unit, 1998 Aug. 44 p.As part of a global workshop series on the transition from war to peace, the World Bank Post-Conflict Unit, in collaboration with the World Bank's Paris Office, held a workshop focusing on conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction in Paris, France, April 20-21, 1998. The meeting involved two distinct but interrelated efforts to bring together existing thinking about the area of post-conflict reconstruction. The first day was dedicated to exploring ways that development assistance and private investment can address the root causes of conflict. The second day of the Paris conference was planned as a follow-up to an October 1997 conference sponsored by the US Agency for International Development's Office of Transition Initiatives. The 1997 conference brought together donor agencies' newly-created post-conflict offices, with the aim of gaining a clearer vision of how governments and multilateral organizations are moving forward to address the operational needs that have emerged since the end of the Cold War.
[Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the 120th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Washington, D.C., November 8-12, 1992. 27,  p.In the mid 1980s, USAID started nonproject assistance, mainly in the economic sectors, to African countries. The countries received nonproject assistance after they fulfilled conditions which influence institutional and/or policy reforms. The longest running health sector reform program in Africa was in Niger and was slated to receive portions of the funds after fulfilling 6 specific predetermined reform activities. Yet, between 1986 and 1991, Niger had implemented only 2 of them. It did accomplish the population/family planning reforms: expansion of family planning services, a national population policy, analyses and implementation of improvements in the pricing and distribution of contraceptives, and legalization of use and distribution of contraceptives. Continuing economic deterioration during the 1980s and political upheavals after 1989 somewhat explained why the other reform activities were not implemented. Other equally important factors were a very complex sector grant design (more than 20 reforms in 6 policy/institutional areas) with little incentive to realize the reforms, insufficient number of staff (limited to senior personnel) to implement the reforms, and just 1 USAID staff to monitor and facilitate activities. The nonproject assistance for the primary health care (PHC) system in Nigeria had a simpler design than that in Niger. The reform goals were shifting responsibility for PHC from curative care to preventive health services. After USAID and the Nigerian government signed an agreement, they included policy reforms promoting privatization of health services. Only 1 reform was implemented. Factors which could lead to success of nonproject assistance include host government needs to perceive it owns the objectives and building financial and institutional sustainability. In conclusion, nonproject assistance can be effective when implementing policy reforms that the host government has already adopted.
[Development, human rights and woman's condition: a new age] Desarrollo, derecho humanos y la condicion de la mujer: un nuevo enfoque
PROFAMILIA. 1989 Jun; 5(14):8-10.After World War II (WWII) concern grew about the economic and social development of Third World countries. Most countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East were European colonies while Latin America, even though independent was completely dominated by the US. These countries are characterized by: 1) a poor majority ruled by a small rich minority; 2) large rural populations migrating to the cities resulting in bottlenecks and unemployment; 3) bad health status with deteriorating nutritional states; 4) large families; 5) low levels of education (2/3 of the women in the world are illiterate and 90% live in 17 countries); 5) high levels of corruption in public positions; 6) governments ruled by a military dictator; 7) women in the lowest positions with limited legal rights. After WWII the Marshall Plan was instituted in developing countries (LDCs) to provide economic aid to development a model that used per capita income to measure a country's progress. During the 70's and 80's this model was questioned and more emphasis was put on the need for social and institutional development before investing in economic development. The World Bank and USAID have been promoting the role of the public sector, a strategy that has lowered inflation but has also affected the poor in many countries. For example, infant mortality in Brazil is higher now than 10 years ago. A wise development policy should recognize the need of LDCs to develop their own models while emphasizing agricultural development rather than industrial. Development is never accomplished until every citizen participates in their community. Improving the status of women is not only a human right but a high priority in achieving development. Women in LDCs only have partial rights--they cannot own land, nor inherit, and are not given any credit. Development is not only increasing the per capita income, it includes improving health, education, nutrition, and the quality of life of all its citizens. International law recognizes the rights of women and these are stated in the Convention on Eliminating all Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
[Unpublished] 1988 Apr 12. Paper presented at a colloquium on U.S. International Population Assistance in the 1990s, convened by The Futures Group as part of the Project on Cooperation for International Development: U.S. Policy and Programs for the 1990s and Blueprint for the Environment, April 12, 1988, Washington, D.C. 11 p.This article identifies the need for a reformulated foreign assistance program, explores alternatives to the current program, and proposes means of implementing alternatives. Reduced budget resource availability, and the growing support, in the US and abroad, for the concept of ecologically sustainable development highlight the inadequacy of the current US foreign aid program. Sustainable development uses as its guiding principle a goal of "meeting the and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future." Sustainable development should be the foreign policy theme for the '90s, running through every aspect of US foreign assistance, and promoting self-sufficiency and economic viability for developing countries. To obtain this goal a comprehensive redefinition of US foreign assistance and foreign policy objectives is necessary. This redefinition should include a sharper focus for the US Agency for International Development (US AID), under the Foreign Assistance Act, with fewer restrictions and maximum flexibility for design and implementation of projects. The US AID should also stress relationships with other countries in devising plans and dividing up areas of assistance. FUrthermore, technical centers should be the focal point of organization in US AID. Approaches to the implementation of development assistance are discussed, among them--structuring US AID as a grant-giving institution, or as a bilateral or multilateral institution, or diminishing its role and creating an Asian Development Foundation. An approach which would fit with the sustainable development construct is for US AID to target technical areas as well as priority countries. However, each approach has its drawbacks and is driven in part by fund availability. The field of international population and family planning is offered as an example of a successful foreign assistance approach. The factors involved in this model included strong leadership, valuable congressional support, measurability, and flexible approaches, as well as a cadre of trained population officers. An agency focus on ecologically sustainable development includes population programs as a major component.
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 15 p.The legal, technical and institutional activities that led to the formation of the population policy in Ecuador, the 2nd such policy articulated in South America, are recounted, followed by a summary of the demographic situation in the country. The 1st national planning board and those that followed up to the current Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (CONADE) have addressed the topic of population. The current development plan specifies the objective of determining a population policy. The population policy fixes 7 general objectives, involving support of family and women, reduction of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality, moderation of population growth, provision of employment and redistribution of wealth. There are 6 strategies: education, health and nutrition programs, family planning services, rural development, employment, research, better use of human resources, especially women and the elderly, and incorporation of demographics in national planning. 3 international organizations have aided the formation of this policy, the UNFPA, CELADE and USAID. USAID supported the 1st demographic analysis unit in a planning agency in Ecuador, with the RAPID II computer program, creating a technical infrastructure for the eventual policy. Another influence was that of the Vice President who made the political commitment to develop a specific national population policy by 1987.
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 11 p.The process Liberia used to develop its population policy, called the National Policy on Population for Social and economic Development, is summarized. 4 international conferences were influential in stimulating the process, the World Population Conference in Bucharest, the Second African Population Conference in 1984, the Mexico City International Conference on Population, and the Kilimanjaro Program of Action for African Population and Self-reliant Development. Several international agencies also furthered the process, USAID and its project "Resources for the Awareness of Population Impacts (RAPID II computer model), and the Pathfinder Fund. Liberia was ripe for a population policy as shown by the existence of the private Family Planning Association of Liberia, the inclusion of broad demographic goals in the second Four-Year development plan of 1981-1985, and the establishment of the National Committee on Population Activities in 1983. This group participated in international congresses, took part in the RAPID II project, and held a Population Awareness Seminar which generated 22 recommendations in 1985. A second awareness seminar in 1986 set out 16 recommendations and produced a film with Johns Hopkins University. A National Population Commission was inaugurated in 1986 and assigned the task of drafting the population policy. A seminar was held, and a Special Drafting Committee was nominated. This policy has 8 explicit chapters. A Population Week was celebrated in 1987 to disseminate the policy. A Bureau of Population Planning and Coordination under the Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs is responsible for coordinating population activities.
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. , 23,  p.For sub-Saharan countries, population censuses are crucial in obtaining data about local areas, sociodemographic characteristics, and input for development and policy making. Most sub-Saharan countries cannot afford to fund censuses, and external assistance has been provided by UNFPA, the US, the United Kingdom, and France. The World Bank has recently become involved in supporting census work, and coordination between all these groups is critical. 5 critical areas for making effective use of scarce resources are: country commitment; improved donor coordination; management and planning; institutionalization of census capabilities; and improvement of production, dissemination, and use of census data. Country commitment is affected by fund shortages, and political sensitivities. Census work should depend on agricultural seasons, the school year, and migratory movements. Donor coordination in the areas of funding, data analysis, and technical assistance is important. Planning for future censuses should begin 2-3 years before the actual census date, and management of the census should include short-term training and technical assistance from donor countries. The institutionalization of census activities should address the weakest link in census work--data processing. Lengthy delays in processing data because of nonstandardized equipment, limited access, and lack of skilled personnel have hampered census efforts. A fully configured microcomputer system would also address this problem. Publication and dissemination of census data, sometimes delayed as much as 8 years, could be improved by the use of timely microcomputer reports of preliminary results. Attention to these 5 key areas will improve the 1990 round of censuses, and efficiently use the limited resources available.
[Unpublished] 1986 Aug. 71,  p. (AID Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)The evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project was initiated on June 18, 1985, 25 months into the project operation, to determine if the results of actions undertaken thus far have been adequate to justify the time and money spent on them and to find ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the program efforts. The objective of the 5-year RAPIDS II project is to assist those involved in development planning to better understand the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development and thereby increase the less developed country (LDC) commitment to efforts designed to reduce rapid rates of population increase. This evaluation report discusses the development assistance context and then focuses on the following: RAPID II operations over the 1984-85 period; policy analyses and LDC subcontracting; the RAPID model and its presentation; visits by the evaluation team to the countries of the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Cameroon, and Liberia; what works in terms of population policy development; some major problems and potential resolutions; and RAPID II activities over the 1985-88 period. US Agency for International Development (USAID) officials in Washington as well as in the field described RAPID II as being of continuing utility in helping to create a climate favorable to more effective population policies. The review of RAPID II activities was generally positive. The project was identified as useful in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Due to the evidence of satisfactory performance in the field, the evaluation focused on differences between plan and midterm results with a view toward suggesting course corrections that can improve project performance. As population policy development is an inherently ambiguous field of activity, it has not been possible to draw clear lines between specific policy development activities and policy change in particular countries. Yet, there has been an improvement in the environment for population programs in LDCs. There were significant differences between planned and actual expenditures under the several subcategories of project expenditure. RAPID II total expenditures in the first 2 years of the project equalled budgeted expenditures when the contract was signed, but the distribution of expenditures by category was substantially different from what had been anticipated. It is recommended that emphasis in the project must shift predominantly to policy analyses (80% of remaining funds) and that that RAPID-style presentation resources (20%) be used carefully for only the highest priority requests. In regard to development of LDC subcontracts for policy analysis, efficiency has been low.
[Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, 1988 Mar. xix, 90 p. (A.I.D Evaluation Special Study No. 53)This report is based on an examination of over 30 projects designated as "employment generation" in as many countries during the period from the early 1970s to 1982 sponsored by USAID. The focus is on the policy environment of these projects, building on a World Bank study that highlights the positive relationship between growth, equity, and an economy relatively free of distortions in foreign exchange, factor, and product pricing. 1 major conclusion must be stressed: the policy environment is the single most important determinant of project success. Although not examined directly in the study, 3 related suggestions can be gleaned from the overall economic background of the economies examined. 1) The administrative environment (contract laws, public accountancy, ease of entry into business, "honest weights and measures," and the like) can reduce the effectiveness of projects in otherwise supportive policy environments. 2) The continued provision and expansion of social overhead capital, such as education and health, is an important foundation for the expansion of the private sector. 3) The informal sector exhibits extraordinary vitality, and further attempts should be made by USAID to understand that vitality may pay large dividends in future USAID programming. Rapid population growth and policy distortions that have weakened both the formal and informal sectors of the economies of developing countries have retarded a transformation in the sectorial structure of the labor force. As a result, vast numbers of people remain in low-productivity agricultural, off-farm, and urban activities. They need to be moved into productive employment, which is the major link between growth and equity.
FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.
Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.
World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
Popleone. 1984 Jul; 1(1):2-4.Sierra Leone has no national population policy; however, the government is promoting numerous programs which impact on population problems, and in 1983 the government established a National Population Commission. A number of government health programs seek to reduce mortality and morbidity, particularly for mothers and children. Government programs provide 1) maternal and child health (MCH) care, primary health care, and immunization services; 2) training for traditional birth attendants, community health nurses, and paramedical personnel; 3) child spacing and fertility advisory services at some government MCH centers; and 4) construction of health centers. In addition, the government supports the inclusion of UN Fund for Population Activities' Fertility Advisory Services in the programs of several MCH centers, and, with assistance from the US Agency for International Development, is planning to make family planning services available at 120 MCH centers. The government is also supportive of the activities of the Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone. Abortion is legal only in cases where the life of the mother is in jeopardy. Sierra Leone has no specific policies aimed at population redistribution; however, government agricultural development programs to equalize economic conditions in rural and urban areas should help reduce migration to urban centers. The National Population Commission is charged with the tasks of 1) formulating a national population policy, 2) promoting family planning, and 3) coordinating and promoting population activities in reference to development policies and program. The commission members represent a broad spectrum of the community, and the commission is composed of a working committee and a secretariat. A number of task forces are currently developing recommendations in the areas of fertility, mortality, morbidity, migration, labor, population law, women in development, policy and the environment, and population information dissemination.
Washington, D.C., U.S. International Development Cooperation Agency, 1981 Jan. 59 p.This strategy statement prepared by the USAID field mission includes a brief description of the political background of aid to Honduras and an analysis of the country's economic situation including an examination of the extent and causes of poverty among different population subgroups, an overview of the economy and assessment of its ability to absorb aid, a discussion of development planning as reflected in the 5-year plan and "Immediate Action Plan" drafted in late 1980; an assessment of progress to date in development efforts and of the Honduran govenment's commitment to development objectives; and a discussion of other donors. Favorable and unfavorable factors influencing achievement of development efforts are then identified, program strategy prior to and during the current planning period are discussed, and specific issues such as the role of the private sector, human rights, the role of women, and public sector management are examined. AID's sectoral objectives and courses of action in agriculture and rural development, population, health and nutrition, education, urban and regional development, and energy are outlined, with problems, current activities, and strategy for 1983-87 identified for each sector. Efforts to improve regional cooperation and AID program efficiency are described. Proposed assistance levels and staff levels are discussed. A series of tables containing data on public sector operations, central government budget expenditures, balance of payments, and key economic indicators are included as appendices.
Washington, D.C., Focus International, Inc; May 11, 1979. 95 p.Findings from an investigation into evaluation of development activities designed to affect women in the 3rd World are presented. The methodology used in the investigation is described. Organizations reviewed are AID/Africa, AID/Asia, AID/Latin America and the Carribbean Bureau, AID/Near East, AID/Agency-wide projects, Inter-American Foundation, Peace Corps, World Bank, private and voluntary organizations and Canadian organizations. The scope of women in development activities is discussed and constraints to evaluations of projects designed to benefit women are examined. Evaluation activities by the organizations reviewed are summarized. Activities related to the issues raised in the investigation are discussed. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made regarding the need for a minimum data set, evaluation criteria, social analysis, coordination of women in development concerns within AID, information systems and policy related research findings. Profiles of development projects which identify women as beneficiaries and which have been evaluated are presented. AID profiles include 11 projects in Africa, 2 in Asia, 11 in Latin America and the Carribbean, 3 in the Near East and 6 Agency-wide projects. 10 projects undertaken by private and voluntary organizations and 1 funded by the Central America and Carribbean regional office of the Inter-American Foundation area also profiled. The following information is included in the profiles: project title and coding number, goegraphic area, sector addressed by the project, total cost and source of funds, duration, beneficiaries, purpose, organizational structure, summary evaluative statement, documentation.
A methodology for indicators of social development, report 2: an analysis of selected A.I.D. operational indicators and concepts.
Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University of Science and Technology, 1973 Sep. 82 p. (Sociology Report No. 116; Contract AID/csd-3642)The purpose of this report was to develop a method for developing countries to use in constructing indicators of social development for monitoring progress as each country defines it. Analysis is based on a taxonomy of 6 indicator types (policy descriptive, nonmanipulable, output, output distribution, impact and response), and on specific conceptualizations of society, social development, and indicators of social development. 4 sectors were specified: agriculture, education, health, and public administration. The agriculture sector is discussed in this report. Working definitions for the following key concepts were constructed: indicator, social indicator, project achievement indicator, system, subsystem society, institution and social development. The level of analysis of social development was designated as the interinstitutional or societal level. An interinstitutional hypothetical model is presented which allows societal analysis through the study of the interchanges among various societal institutions. In the future, projects should be evaluated from a holistic social development perspective rather than as autonomous programs.
[Unpublished] 1980. 28 p.This document contains the testimony presented by R. E. Benedick, the Coordinator of Population Affairs of the U.S. Department of State, before the House Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade on February 29, 1980. The Population Affairs Coordinator 1) described how rapid population growth erodes the impact of development programs in developing countries; 2) urged the adoption of U.S. policies to ameliorate the problem; and 3) described the duties and specific activities of the office of the Population Affairs Coordinator. Population growth erodes the impact of development programs by 1) increasing the amount of money spent on consumption goods and reducing the amount of money available for investment; 2) diverting scarce foreign exchange to food imports; 3) increasing the amount that must be allocated to service provision; and 4) enhancing the already existing problems of unemployment, overcrowding, inadequate housing, urbanization, and international migration. Although some progress has been made in reducing fertility rates in Indonesia, Thailand, Colombia, and Mexico, most countries have made little headway in reducing population growth. In order to significantly reduce population growth in the future, high priority must be placed on 1) extending family planning services in rural areas; 2) developing more effective contraceptive methods; 3) improving social and economic conditions so as to facilitate family planning motivation; and 4) encourage the political leaders in developing countries to commit themselves to population growth reduction. In accordance with these priorities, the U.S. should 1) provide more funding support for bilateral family planning program assistance, contraceptive retailing programs, and paramedical training programs; 2) allocate more funds for biomedical and motivational research and less for demographic and social science research; 3) encourage the leaders in developing countries to strengthen population programs; and 4) strengthen USAID commitment to population growth reduction and increase our contribution to UNFPA. The duties of the office of Population Affairs Coordinator are 1) to encourage U. S. diplomatic support of U.S. and international population policies; 2) to serve as a spokesman for U.S. and international population policies; and 3) to utilize all opportunities to implement these policies and to enhance program effectiveness by cooperation with other government and non-government agencies and organizations. The specific activities of the office are also described.
[Unpublished] . 56 p.USAID has developed its program in Niger from one of emergency food aid and drought relief to one of medium term activity. The program has emphasized increased food production and small farmers. By December 1977, the supported programs will be the Niger Cereals Program, Phase 1; Niamey Department Rural Development, Phase 1; Niger Range and Livestock, Phase 1; the Niger Rural Health Program; and, INRAN Agricultural Economic Research Program. These programs represent $40 million to be spent in the next few years. The Niger Cereals Program, scheduled to complete its first phase in FY 79, represents $13 million and the Mission is submitting a $21 million (U.S. inputs) second phase, 1979-83. In both phases the Cereals program's investment amounts to $42 million over 8 years. Two programs recommended for funding are one for training and education of a rural development cadre, and one for managing irrigation in arid and semiarid climates. Regional activities under the Sahel Devleopment Program are also supported by USAID. Support for the Niger Departmetn of Water and Forestry, the Niger Rural Roads Program, and development of better watered agricultural lands in the south is recommended.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 1979. 26 p.Senegal is a poor country with limited economic resources in the Sudan-Sahelian climatic zone. The population of 5.1 million is largely rural, with 70% working in agriculture. The mean per capita income is about $300 per year with many farmers making $75 per year. The AID development strategy emphasizes assisting the rural poor in agricultural development, particularly the groundnut basin, the Fleuve, and the Casamance, which have the greater concentrations of rural poor and the most potential for increased production. Small-scale farms consisting of 360,000 units account for 70% of the population and produce over 95% of Senegal's agricultural production. With the exception of lands held by religious leaders, there are no tenant-landlord relationships or landless poor classes. Health programs are also needed to increase agricultural productivity. Human resource development is needed because people must be sensitized to the need for change and trained to play an active role in their development. The key limitations to implementation of projects are lack of trained Senegalese, administrative delays, and local costs. Basic infrastructure development is necessary for Senegal's long-term development, particularly large-scale irrigation projects.
Paris, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Centre, 1978. 193 p. (Development Centre Studies)The World Population Conference which took place in Bucharest in 1974 witnessed many debates and rhetorical controversies over the role of family planning programs in Third World countries and their relation to development. This report is the result of a collaborative study realized by the Development Centre and the World Bank which investigates how developing countries, as well as aid agencies, are thinking about population problems and, as a consequence, about population assistance in the "post-Bucharest era." The report includes detailed surveys of 12 developing countries, representing Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. It also interviews and reports on the activities of a large number of population assistance agencies. The roles of international organizations such as the UNFPA, the UN population division and the World Bank itself are assessed in terms of their impact on national development through population control efforts. Reviews of assistance provided to developing nations by nongovernmental agencies, private foundations and developed nations are also presented. Each country paper presented provides an overview of the country's demographic characteristics; a summary of history of population policies, pre- and post-Bucharest era; an overview of population strategies past and present, their integration with other-sector activities; family planning program administration; and a survey of all forms of population assistance available and utilized by the country. Macro-level analyses of changes in family planning assistance by organizations since Bucharest, as well as micro-level, country-specific studies of how each nation has assimilated these changes and has developed a specific population policy are provided.
Speech delivered at the Harvard Institute for International Development, March 19, 1979.. 10.Overly optimistic reports of fertility decline overlook problems still to be faced and slow the momentum of population programs. Many developing countries which have enjoyed success in lowering birth rates have also lowered the priority of family planning programs. The U.S. Census Bureau predicts world population will reach between 5.9 and 6.8 billion by 2000. The decision to have a child is a complex one not totally understood by the scientific community. Family planning programs that succeed in one area, fail in another. Expensive programs fail while inexpensive ones succeed. Finding the right program for the right situation in the right country is a challenge still to be met.
Washington, D.C., Family Health Care, Inc., May 31, 1977. 132 p.Current demographic characteristics for SAHEL countries are presented along with a health delivery strategy based on a distributive philosophy and linking health activities with other development efforts. Resource allocation is proposed within a village-based system, integrating the following components: 1) nutrition; 2) village water; 3) environmental sanitation; and 4) communicable disease control. Investment in a health services infrastructure is anticipated to be a factor in socioeconomic development. Improved health should stimulate labor productivity, enhance the role of women, and increase survival, hence population growth and development. Health services at the village level will be divided into 4 levels: arrondissement, cercle, regional, and national. Specific action recommendations proposed are: 1) organization of a permanent health group to investigate and disseminate information to member countries of SAHEL and to examine experiences in other countries; 2) sponsorship of a ministry-level conference to implement health strategy recommendations; 3) enhancement of health policy, planning, and resource allocation capabilities by development of policy and planning infrastructures by donor organizations, which would also provide training; and 4) incorporation in the next 3- or 5-year plan of SAHEL countries village-based health systems.