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Guidelines or other tools for integrating gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention.
[Bonn, Germany], UNFCCC, 2016. 33 p.Drawing on relevant web-based resources, this technical paper aims to provide an overview of existing methodologies and tools for the integration of gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention. The paper assesses selected tools and guidelines in terms of their methodology, information and data requirements, capacity-building needs, lessons learned, gaps and challenges, and relevance for social and environmental impacts. Parties may wish to use the information contained in this paper in their consideration of entry points for the integration of gender considerations into the formulation and implementation of strategies for mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
[New York, New York], Women’s Environment and Development Organization [WEDO], 2015 Oct. 26 p.The impact of climate change is already causing widespread socio-economic and environmental loss and human suffering around the globe. Climate change erodes human freedoms and limits choice. However, the impacts of climate change are not felt equally. Without measures to address the injustice of climate change, those with the fewest resources, countries and individuals alike, will be most susceptible to its negative effects; and those in positions of wealth and power will be the first to benefit from transitions in the economy towards a low carbon society. Climate change impacts and solutions, when viewed through an intersectional lens, encompass a wide diversity of experiences due to age, ethnicity, class, and in particular, gender. Gender is a social construct. While not immutable nor universal, gender shapes expectations, attributes, roles, capacities and rights of women and men around the world. Climate change affects everyone, but women and men experience the impacts differently, and women are often disproportionately negatively affected. Women, compared to men, often have limited access to resources, more restricted rights, limited mobility, and a muted voice in shaping decisions and influencing policy. At the same time, gender roles generally ascribed to women such as informal, reproductive work often relate to caregiving for households and communities, caretaking of seeds and soils, maintaining traditional agricultural knowledge, and responsibility for natural resource management such as firewood and water, and thus these roles create opportunity for engagement as women bring diverse and critical solutions to climate change challenges. Effective climate policy is only possible when it is informed by the experiences of and responds to the rights, priorities and diverse needs, of all people. 2015 is a critical year for climate policy, as well as the broader global sustainable development agenda. It is also a critical time to review progress on gender mainstreaming in the context of climate change responses, including key challenges and opportunities to move toward an equal and sustainable future. This background paper focuses on the UNFCCC. It begins with a review of gender mainstreaming generally; followed by an exploration of gender mainstreaming in the context of UNFCCC policies and programs and a related section on what gender-responsive actions look like; then identifies gaps and opportunities; and finally concludes with recommendations for the UNFCCC.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2006.  p.Today, women constitute almost half of all international migrants worldwide - 95 million. Yet, despite contributions to poverty reduction and struggling economies, it is only recently that the international community has begun to grasp the significance of what migrant women have to offer. And it is only recently that policymakers are acknowledging the particular challenges and risks women confront when venturing into new lands. Every year millions of women working millions of jobs overseas send hundreds of millions of dollars in remittance funds back to their homes and communities. These funds go to fill hungry bellies, clothe and educate children, provide health care and generally improve living standards for loved ones left behind. For host countries, the labour of migrant women is so embedded into the very fabric of society that it goes virtually unnoticed. Migrant women toil in the households of working families, soothe the sick and comfort the elderly. They contribute their technical and professional expertise, pay taxes and quietly support a quality of life that many take for granted. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, 2002 Oct. 28 p.This manual was compiled during a seminar entitled "Approccio di genere in situazioni di emergenza, conflitto e post-conflitto" (Gender approach in emergency, conflict, and postconflict situations), which was held in Rome on 2-6 April 2001. The seminar was organized by the UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery in Rome and the Emergency division of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and included participants from various Italian non governmental organizations (NGOs) and UN agencies directly involved in emergency, crisis response and recovery operations. During the seminar, a needs assessment session was held and participants expressed their interest in having a "how to" manual that could help them better integrate a gender approach during humanitarian, recovery and development activities. The first chapter contains information on the approaches to women and gender issues over the last 20 years. It provides the basic concepts necessary to understand how to address gender issues and improve the impact of humanitarian assistance. In the second chapter, the relevant international instruments protecting the rights of people affected by war and other emergency situations are presented. Relevant passages are quoted and explained. The full text of these instruments can be found in the annexed CD-ROM. The third chapter contains information that can be used as reference in programming and organizing humanitarian interventions with a gender perspective. (excerpt)
Is trade liberalization of services the best strategy to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals in Latin America? A call for caution.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2006 Nov; 20(5):341-346.In September 2000, at the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit, 147 heads of state adopted the Millennium Declaration, with the aim of reflecting their commitment to global development and poverty alleviation. This commitment was summarized in 8 goals, 14 targets, and 48 measurable indicators, which together comprise the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be attained by 2015. All of the MDGs contribute to public health, and three are directly health-related: MDGs 4 (reduce child mortality), 5 (improve maternal health), and 6 (combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases). Progress towards these goals has proved difficult. In an attempt to identify practical steps to achieve the MDGs, the UN Development Programme initiated the UN Millennium Project in 2002. This three-year "independent" advisory effort established 13 task forces to identify strategies and means of implementation to achieve each MDG target, and each task force produced a detailed report. A Task Force on Trade was created for MDG 8 to develop a global partnership for development. The mandate of the Task Force on Trade was to explore how the global trading system could be improved to support developing countries, with special attention to the needs of the poorest nations. (excerpt)
The Des Moines Declaration: A call for accelerated action in agriculture, food and nutrition to end poverty and hunger.
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(3):312-314.Agriculture is the main source of income for poor people living in rural areas. As such, a boost in agricultural productivity in the rural areas of developing countries will greatly enhance earning potential as well as produce more food. However, agricultural production increases will not generate adequate gains in employment, and additional steps must also be taken to increase employment in agro based value added rural enterprises. In addition, food productivity must be increased to improve the lives of people and protect biodiversity in our environment. With close to a billion people still suffering from hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity and with the population of our planet projected to grow by 50% by the middle of the 21st century, either we must produce more food on the land and in the water now available to us, or people will be forced to cut down precious forest areas and cultivate marginal lands to grow the food necessary to fuel our escalating demands. It is crucial that new agricultural innovations and technologies be developed. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1993 Mar; 30(1): p..The growing economic divide between North and South may well be reflected in the upcoming World Conference on Human Rights, as many developing and industrialized countries define their human rights concerns in sharply different terms. One basic difference over how much emphasis to place on the "right to development" may set the tone for a pointed debate at the Vienna conference. Many developing countries contend that political and civil rights cannot be separated from or be given priority over economic, social and cultural rights. Increasingly, they have asserted that development is an essential human right and objected to what many see as the industrial countries' narrow view of human rights as solely involving political and civil liberties. Indeed, in their view, economic development and an adequate living standard are preconditions of expanded political and civil rights. Further, the "collective rights" of people, some argue, may take precedence over certain rights of individuals. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], 1998. 16 p. (ICRW Working Paper No. 6)How is it that 556 million women and girls throughout the world are illiterate, and this is not viewed as a violation of their right to education? When 600,000 women die annually as a result of complications of pregnancy, and an additional 18 million women suffer from pregnancy-related morbidities that go untreated, how is this not seen as a failure of governments to meet their obligations to promote, protect, and fulfill women's rights to the most basic attainable standard of health? How can the feminization of poverty be viewed as anything less than a violation of women's rights to an adequate standard of living, equal access to employment, credit, property, and training? These alarming statistics constitute the foundation of the literature on women in development (WID), and are generally referred to as "the state of the world's women." The time has come to call these realities what they truly are: human rights violations. It is fitting that the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights--adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly in 1948--comes at a time when a new discourse on human rights and development is emerging. This new thinking is especially important to the field of women in development, as it holds the potential of launching a revitalized effort toward ensuring gender equity and equality for the next century. This trend, however, has only recently begun to gain a sense of currency among WID researchers and practitioners. Until recently, the promotion and protection of human rights and the realization of sustainable development have been viewed as separate domains. Notably, development measures are rarely viewed as contributing to the realization of specific human rights--for example, the right to food--when that is precisely what such measures have done. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2004 Nov.  p. (Spotlight No. 2)The evidence is mounting: internationally agreed development and human rights goals are not being met. Moreover, civil society organizations and social movements are suffering from ‘conference fatigue’ after years of systematic involvement in the United Nations conference arena. Women’s organizations and international networks are particularly affected. What does this imply for economic justice and women’s engagement with the United Nations (“UN”)? Should the United Nations be reformed, should feminist movements reinvest in UN processes, or is the UN no longer a strategic site through which to pursue economic and gender justice? This paper aims to contribute to this debate, while not pretending to cover all UN mechanisms or processes. Beginning with an overview of the current context and global governance framework, the paper then focuses on four key economic-related UN mechanisms, namely the Millennium Development Goals (“MDGs”), the Financing for Development process (“FfD”), human right treaties including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”), and World Conferences. Each of these international norm-setting spaces is assessed for its efficacy as a platform for promoting gender and economic justice, considering the status of the mechanism and the outcomes of women’s participation to date. The paper also discusses the major challenges facing women’s movements in their quest for gender and economic justice though international venues, including the implications of some of the reform proposals put forward in the recently released Cardoso Report on civil society engagement with the UN. It concludes with a call to engage critically with United Nations mechanisms, reclaiming these global policy spaces. (excerpt)