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New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 52 p. (ST/ESA/SER.E/39)This monograph presents an overview of the content and direction of courses designed to prepare planning coordinators of developing nations to approach population and development policy making in a richly informed interdisciplinary manner. The conceptual framework for such a curriculum is presented 1st in a theoretical section on the links between the key concepts of population and development. Next, recommendations on curriculum design emphasize 2 main lines of focus: 1) understanding the cultural context in which developmental planning takes place; 2) exploring the available means of action in terms of strategies corresponding to explicit transitional goals in relation to the identified context. The emphasis, rather than on specific technical expertise, should be on providing information on the range of tools available for use in the field at a later stage. The 3rd section involves course orientation; the aim is to turn out planning coordinators capable of formulating integrated population policies. The curriculum should be geared to occupational groups, including senior management, middle-level staff, educators and researchers, and executing agents. Section 4 covers course admission requirements, criteria for teachers and locations. Section 5 presents recommendations for subject matter, presenting a 2 year curriculum, each year divided into 4 modules: 1) knowledge of the context; 2) the population component; 3) the instruments of change, involving developmental economics and planning; and 4) techniques of analysis, systems analysis, econometrics, forecasting and more. An outline of the curriculum detailing topics, course length, and general and specific goals for each course follows. A bibliography covering general works, works on economics, sociology, anthropology and systems concludes the document.
Geneva, World Health Organization, . 29 p. (MCH/WP/75.9)Although the technology exists which can eradicate the high levels of maternal and child morbidity and mortality among poor women globally, the means of delivery are not perfected. Programs which use various levels of medical and lay personnel for maternal-child health (MCH) care delivery are criticized and a look at historical evidence suggests alternatives to training outside the field. In New York City between 1898 and 1931, infant mortality from diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections decreased dramatically without the aid of health professionals who had neither specific preventive nor treatment measures to combat these diseases. Scholars attribute this decline in infant mortaltiy to increased resistance to infection in infants produced by a whole complex of changes summed up in the phrase "improved standard of living". This paper argues that only by vastly improving such standards of living by improving housing, sanitation, and food supply (nutrition) can adequate health care results be realized in developing countries. The answer is more global and all-encompassing than simply sending a team of health care workers into the field. The obvious connection between poverty and health of mothers and children suggests that economic development is as important for the health of future generations as MCH programs. MCH programs can be designed to effectively combat disease while development is occurring, but attention to basic human relations is essential to motivate workers and clientele.