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  1. 1

    Cairo and the changing definition of population and development issues.

    Hayes AC


    This article discusses a few intellectual and ideological developments during the 1980s and 1990s which impacted on the goals articulated at the UN International Conference on Population and Development and in its Plan of Action (POA). A major shift occurred between the Bucharest Plan of 1974 and the 1994 POA. The economic view was improved by an emphasis on the ecological, human rights, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) participatory views. The Bucharest Plan promoted the institutionalization of integrated population and development programs. The Cairo POA offered little guidance in how to institutionalize integrated approaches. The main Cairo strategy was radical in promoting the empowerment of women as a means to slow population growth. This strategy will require changes in existing power relations in society, at home, and in traditional morality. Consensus among 180 governments is a powerful statement of support for social change agents and undermines the "moral legitimacy" of those who resist. Scientific understanding of the links between population and development have improved over 20 years. However, political priorities have shifted, demographics have changed, goals for development have risen, and more viewpoints must be accounted for. Agreement on definitions of the problem and solutions will be difficult. Economic, ecological, and other perspectives have evolved into a more complex and conflicting understanding of interrelationships. A brief description of changes in perspectives is given for economic, ecological, human rights, and NGO views.
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  2. 2

    Critical issues for women and children in Bangladesh.

    Ahmed P

    In: The situation of women in Bangladesh, edited by Mahmuda Islam, Parveen Ahmed, Ellen Sattar, Niaz Zaman, Farida S. Enayet and Renee Gerard for the Women for Women Research and Study Group. Dacca, Bangladesh, Women for Women Research and Study Group and UNICEF, Women's Development Program, 1979. 379-402.

    This paper discussed the following critical issues of the 1980s for women and children in Bangladesh: 1) Excessive disparity between men and women in access to nutrition, health care and medical services, and in education, literacy and vocational training; 2) The lack of opportunities for female income-earning and non-recognition of female labor force in the agricultural economy; 3) The weakness of social and legal rights and the overall low status of women in society; 4) The limitations of government programs and the constraints of orthodox thinking; 5) The large number of windows; 6) The neglect of children in development planning. The role of international organizations, such as UNICEF, in formulating and coordinating realistic policies is discussed, along with the role of voluntary organizations. A framework of suggestions for action is presented. The following areas are identified as critical: population control and health, access to education, improved economic conditions, socio-cultural attitudinal changes, and improved quality of life for children. Development planners are urged to recognize that in order for overall economic progress to take effect, women and children must be integrated into development schemes. Men, women and children support each other in a large number of productive and economic activities -- their roles are interdependent in the existing structure. Consequently, action needs to be taken wherever possible to provide opportunities to the deprived women and children of Bangladesh.
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  3. 3

    The development of a population policy for Ecuador.

    Moreno de Padilla C; Bilsborrow RE

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 15 p.

    The legal, technical and institutional activities that led to the formation of the population policy in Ecuador, the 2nd such policy articulated in South America, are recounted, followed by a summary of the demographic situation in the country. The 1st national planning board and those that followed up to the current Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (CONADE) have addressed the topic of population. The current development plan specifies the objective of determining a population policy. The population policy fixes 7 general objectives, involving support of family and women, reduction of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality, moderation of population growth, provision of employment and redistribution of wealth. There are 6 strategies: education, health and nutrition programs, family planning services, rural development, employment, research, better use of human resources, especially women and the elderly, and incorporation of demographics in national planning. 3 international organizations have aided the formation of this policy, the UNFPA, CELADE and USAID. USAID supported the 1st demographic analysis unit in a planning agency in Ecuador, with the RAPID II computer program, creating a technical infrastructure for the eventual policy. Another influence was that of the Vice President who made the political commitment to develop a specific national population policy by 1987.
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  4. 4

    The population policy process in Liberia.

    Howard J; Massalee A; Gadegbeku P; Lacey L

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 11 p.

    The process Liberia used to develop its population policy, called the National Policy on Population for Social and economic Development, is summarized. 4 international conferences were influential in stimulating the process, the World Population Conference in Bucharest, the Second African Population Conference in 1984, the Mexico City International Conference on Population, and the Kilimanjaro Program of Action for African Population and Self-reliant Development. Several international agencies also furthered the process, USAID and its project "Resources for the Awareness of Population Impacts (RAPID II computer model), and the Pathfinder Fund. Liberia was ripe for a population policy as shown by the existence of the private Family Planning Association of Liberia, the inclusion of broad demographic goals in the second Four-Year development plan of 1981-1985, and the establishment of the National Committee on Population Activities in 1983. This group participated in international congresses, took part in the RAPID II project, and held a Population Awareness Seminar which generated 22 recommendations in 1985. A second awareness seminar in 1986 set out 16 recommendations and produced a film with Johns Hopkins University. A National Population Commission was inaugurated in 1986 and assigned the task of drafting the population policy. A seminar was held, and a Special Drafting Committee was nominated. This policy has 8 explicit chapters. A Population Week was celebrated in 1987 to disseminate the policy. A Bureau of Population Planning and Coordination under the Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs is responsible for coordinating population activities.
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  5. 5

    Fording the stream.

    Otero M

    World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.

    In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
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  6. 6

    The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects

    Oppong C

    In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.

    There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
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  7. 7

    New currents and emerging emphasis in research and policy.

    Page HJ

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 107-23. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Family was assinged the identification of those areas in current scientific knowledge and concerns regarding fertility and family that were of greatest salience for policy formulation and implementation. Particular attention was to be paid to shifts that had occurred since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest. This article is mainly an overview of the work of the Group and is organized around 3 main themes: 1) advances in knowledge of fertility levels and trends; 2) advances in understanding the relations between development, fertility and the family; 3)theoretical advances and practical experience with regard to policy formulation and implementation. 1) Knowledge of existing patterns of fertility and their composition has increased markedly over the last decade as a result of more data, better estimation techniques for measuring fertility levels and of new approaches to studying the reporductive process and family formation (e.g., the development of analytical models that allow quantification of the role of the various proximate determinants of fertility). A far-reaching realization is that proximate determinants of fertility may respond to the same set of factors but their responses may exhibit different elasticities. 2) In the understanding the relations between development, fertility and family, 2 main areas of concern can be identified. He level and type of analyses to date, especially the empirical ones, have been carried out at the micro-level, focusing on the individual decision maker. Although such models are advances over earlier ones developed largely from classical demographic transition theory, yet, their use has not been entirely satisfying because of the common failure to adequately specify the concepts involved and/or to substitute for them broad socioeconomic indicators in empirical work. In addition, institutional supports for and interrelations with particular patterns of fertility and family have been neglected, resulting, theoretical and practical impoverishment. The 2nd area of concern is the identification of those dimensions of family structure and function that are most intimately interlocked with modernization and fertility change. The discussion focuses on the interplay between modernization, the relationship between the generations, and between the sexes. Finally, there is an increasing awareness that a number of aspirations regarding fertility and family may be contradictory with respect to general advances in policcy formulation and implementation. 4 important trends can be discerned: 1) assessment of the potential utility and effectiveness of policy and programmatic efforts; 2) trends in the definition of desirable goals; 3) new directions in terms of the institutiona means for achieving these goals; and 4) shifts in the perception of the individual's freedom of choice.
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  8. 8

    First things first: meeting basic human needs in the developing countries.

    Streeten P; Burki SJ; Ul Haq M; Hicks N; Stewart F

    New York, Oxford Univ. Press, 1981. 206 p.

    This volume presents an approach that enables the poor to earn or obtain their "basic needs." Early in 1978 a World Bank work program was launched to study the operational implications of meeting basic needs within a short period, for example 1 generation, as a principal objective of national development efforts. An attempt is made in this book to distill some of the results of that work. The objective of meeting basic needs brings to a development strategy a heightened concern with the satisfaction of some elementary needs of the whole population, particularly in education and health. The explicit adoption of this objective helps gear production, investment, income, and employment policies to meet the needs of the poor in a cost effective manner and within a specific time frame. The emphasis on making the poor more productive has remained an important component of the basic needs approach. Its distinct contribution consists in deepening the income measure of poverty by adding physical estimates of the particular goods and services required to realize certain results, such as adequate standards of nutrition, health, shelter, water and sanitation, education, and other essentials. Thus, the basic needs approach represents a stage in the evolution of analysis and policy. The country and sector studies conducted by the World Bank made important contributions to the formulation of such a program. The country studies in particular provided special insights into the problems of poverty and the dimensions of deprivation in each country emerged from them. The complex question of whether a conflict exists between basic needs and growth has not been conclusively answered. What appeared clear is that better education, nutrition, and health are beneficial in reducing fertility, raising labor and productivity, enhancing people's adaptability and capacity for change, and creating a political environment for stable development. The more pressing basic needs can be met successfully even at quite low levels of income per head, without sacrificing economic growth. The country studies showed that even in the short-term there is considerable scope for improving basic needs performance by the better management of resources. It is evident that the redirection of policies toward meeting basic needs often requires major changes in the power balance in a society. The most important aspect of the World Bank's basic needs work program was the sector studies, which helped identify several operational policy issues.
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  9. 9

    The role of UNFPA and non-governmental organisations in the field of population.

    Singh JS

    In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 27-31.

    The actions undertaken by UNFPA on population matters have been guided by 3 basic principles. 1st is the emphasis on the right of the individual to have access to knowledge and facilities on the basis of which he/she could decide freely on the family size and child spacing. 2ndly, population has always been viewed by the UN in the larger context of development. 3rdly, the responsibility for action on population questions is considered to be within the sovereign domain of national governments. The increasing involvement of national governments in population activities and the increasing role of the UN system in providing assistance for such programs led to the designation of World Population Year in 1974. The Year provides an opportunity for increasing the awareness and understanding of population questions among people around the world. Community groups have an important role to play in promoting awareness and understanding of the population question among people everywhere. The community accepts ideas more easily if they can be shown to have already acquired a degree of social acceptability. The population question touches the standards of moral and ethical behavior in a personal way. If it can be shown that the new patterns of family life are related in a significant way to well established norms of ethical behavior, it will be so much easier for individuals to follow new patterns of behavior. The role of education in promoting and deepening awareness of population issues should be included in the development of population information.
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  10. 10

    Sixth report on the world health situation. Pt. 1. Global analysis.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1980. 290 p.

    This Sixth Report on the World Health Situation tries to bring out the main ideas on health and health care issues and how to deal with them that arose during the 1973-1977 period. The primary sources of information used in the preparation of the report were the following: information routinely passed on by Member Governments to the World Health Organization (WHO); country reviews specially submitted by Member Governments for the Sixth Report; information routinely collected by other organizations of the United Nations system; and information for the reference period collected by WHO on an "ad hoc" basis to meet specific policy and program requirements. A background chapter focuses on general considerations, population, food and nutrition, education, social changes, economic trends, employment, poverty, health-related behavioral factors, evaluation of development progress and data needs, and policy issues. Subsequent chapters examine health status differentials, health action, research, and the outlook for the future in terms of demographic prospects, social and economic aspects, health status trends, health manpower supply and demand, and world health policies. Most significant during the 1973-1977 period was the explicit recognition of the view that health development is a reflection of conscious political, social, and economic policy and planning rather than merely an outcome (or by-product) of technology. The goal of "health for all by the year 2000" expresses the political commitment of health services and the agencies responsible for them to a "new Health order." Primary health care is the most important vehicle for achieving this new health order. The most important social trends during the report period are reflected in the still low and in some areas worsening nutritional level of the majority of the population. The overall picture with regard to mortality continues to be mixed, with a few notable cases of marked decline and many of continuing unspectacular decline. The data on morbidity are even less reliable than those on mortality, but it appears that there has been a significant increase or resurgence of certain communicable diseases. There is evidence of decreasing dependence on physicians in some parts of the world and a related strengthening of various paramedical and auxiliary groupings. Some of the important new health programs are to be found in the area of family health. The overall role and importance of primary health care are emphasized in many parts of the report. There are some specific indications of ways in which primary health care activities are being integrated with the more traditional activities of the health sector.
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  11. 11

    World development report 1980.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.

    This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.
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  12. 12

    The dynamics of policy change.

    Di Blasi F

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation. Western Hemisphere Region [IPPF-WHR]. The dynamics of legal change: report of the 1980 Meeting of the Regional Law and Planned Parenthood Panel, Miami, Florida, December 8-9, 1980. New York, IPPF-WHR, [1981]. 27-34.

    A simple framework of reference for the process of seeking a change in government policies is presented in the effort to demonstrate that this process can be planned, organized, and carried out by family planning associations in a systematic manner. In this case, the substantive areas of concern are related to unmet human needs. These include the human right to family planning information and services, maternal and child health care, the equality of women in society, the strain of unplanned urban growth, and the relationship between population growth and harmonious socioeconomic development. Those policies developed are referred to as social policies. The need to establish the priorities and develop adequate plans of action with a social cost-benefit criteria rather than a strict cost-effectiveness analysis is identified. It is important to consider a government's alternatives when confronting a social issue. Policies chosen may be explicit, implicit, or policy by default. The final objective in seeking a policy change is to obtain the formulation of an explicit policy. A strong case can be made for identifying beneficiaries of a proposed policy as important actors to be enlisted in the policy change process. The dynamics of policy change centers around a process which takes place at the public level and must involve the political leadership of a country if positive results are realistically anticipated. The Family Planning Associations of the Western Hemisphere Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation have demonstrated their capacity to attract and absorb resources for the implementation of their institutional objectives. In many instances this has resulted in changes in government policies and actual commitment to action.
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  13. 13

    The rights of women and the role of international law.

    Marchand C

    In: Lipman-Blumen J and Bernard J, eds. Sex roles and social policy: a complex social science equation. Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1979. 349-54.

    International law as it deals with human rights should be used by women as a lever to advance the status of women. International law has had no impact on improving the condition of women in developing areas at present, but the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Declaration of Human Rights, the American Convention on Human Rights, and the Pact of San Jose de Costa Rica could serve as a sounding board where women could bring violations to world attention. Although some view international law as insignificant in meaning and largely ignored, it can still raise the conscience regarding women's rights and may lead to social, economic, and political equalities. In the crusade of human rights by international law, it is important to define goals which will be observed and enforced.
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  14. 14

    Report on evaluation of the role of population factors in the planning process through the application of development models.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, UN, 1978. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 37; ST/ESCAP/64) 50 p

    The basic objectives of the study are: 1) to encourage and motivate country planners to improve their development plans by integrating population factors into development planning and policies; 2) to provide planners with appropriate procedures to consider the short-term and long-term implications of population growth for fixing priorities and setting targets in various development sectors; 3) to provide guidelines for considering the implications of various socioeconomic programs and policies for fertility, mortality, and migration; and 4) to serve as a guideline for training and educational purposes. The major models which have been developed by research teams to portray the interaction between demographic, economic, and social variables are analyzed and evaluated with regard to their potential usefulness in development planning. The study deals with the following prototypes and their country-specific applications: 1) TEMPO 1 and TEMPO 2; 2) the Long Range Planning Model series of models; 3) the FAC/UNFPA MODEL; 4) the model developed by the Population Dynamics Group of the University of Illinois; and 5) the BACHUE model. Concerning choice of model structure and application to planning, 3 methodological questions are considered: the choice of a central core for the model; the trade-off between simplicity and complexity; and the choice of a supply or demand orientation. It is concluded that the construction of a model is as important as its application to the policy making and planning processes of countries. In general this would be facilitated if the model were designed and developed in the country in which it was to be used. Such models would be more closely attuned to country-specific problems and the creation of the model would create a cadre of people within the country capable of operating and adapting the model.
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  15. 15

    Regional Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    [Unpublished] 1982 Sep 13. 5 p. (POP/APPC.3/BP/18)

    The legislative authority for the development of women's programs dates back to 1975 when the General Assembly proclaimed the year International Women's Year and focused the attention of the world on the situation and status of women and their participation in the development process. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Economic and Social Council, and the General Assembly expressed the wishes of governments to develop and implement, as a matter of priority, programs and strategies designed to increase the particpation of women in development. The period 1976-85 has been proclaimed by the General Assembly the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development, and Peace. Principles for long range goals and immediate objectives, as stated in the Regional Plan of Action, include: basic action and research are needed to serve as a foundation for action; motivation should be through women's eagerness to develop themselves; efforts should be made to help women organize themselves to promote their legitimate rights, interests, and needs; the means, capacities, and skills for social and economic activities should be improved; there should be a change in social attitudes and expectations concerning the role of men and women; and an integrated perspective is needed of social, economic, and political factors. The Plan's long range goals include: to promote social justice, equal rights, and opportunities for the development of women; maximum development, particularly of women in rural areas; self directing and self reliant mass based organizations at all levels; and sociocultural, socioeconomic, and political changes resulting from and consistent with enlightened consciousness. The following are among the immediate objectives the Plan aims to promote: the enactment and enforcement of legislation which promotes equal rights among men and women; the establishment of a national representative body and a women's technical unit at the central policy and planning level; and a significant increase in the functional literacy and educational level among women and girls, particularly in rural areas, and equal access to educational opportunities and institutions which strengthen their dual roles in the home and in the community. The following are among the priority areas reflecting the long range goals and immediate objectives of the Regional Plan of Action: organization and/or strengthening of national commissions on the status and role of women; establishment of a national clearinghouse of data research and information in each country; and developing capabilities for research at the country level.
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