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Global Public Health. 2014 Jun 3; 9(6):607–619.On the twentieth anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), activists, governments and diplomats engaged in the fight for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) are anxious to ensure that these issues are fully reflected in the development agenda to succeed the Millennium Development Goals after 2015. In inter-governmental negotiations since 1994 and particularly in the period 2012-2014, governments have shown that they have significantly expanded their understanding of a number of so-called ‘controversial’ issues in the ICPD agenda, whether safe abortion, adolescent sexual and reproductive health services, comprehensive sexuality education or sexual rights. As in the past and in spite of an increasingly complex and difficult multilateral environment, countering the highly organized conservative opposition to SRHR has required a well-planned and determined mobilization by progressive forces from North and South.
Paris, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Centre, 1978. 193 p. (Development Centre Studies)The World Population Conference which took place in Bucharest in 1974 witnessed many debates and rhetorical controversies over the role of family planning programs in Third World countries and their relation to development. This report is the result of a collaborative study realized by the Development Centre and the World Bank which investigates how developing countries, as well as aid agencies, are thinking about population problems and, as a consequence, about population assistance in the "post-Bucharest era." The report includes detailed surveys of 12 developing countries, representing Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. It also interviews and reports on the activities of a large number of population assistance agencies. The roles of international organizations such as the UNFPA, the UN population division and the World Bank itself are assessed in terms of their impact on national development through population control efforts. Reviews of assistance provided to developing nations by nongovernmental agencies, private foundations and developed nations are also presented. Each country paper presented provides an overview of the country's demographic characteristics; a summary of history of population policies, pre- and post-Bucharest era; an overview of population strategies past and present, their integration with other-sector activities; family planning program administration; and a survey of all forms of population assistance available and utilized by the country. Macro-level analyses of changes in family planning assistance by organizations since Bucharest, as well as micro-level, country-specific studies of how each nation has assimilated these changes and has developed a specific population policy are provided.
In: Sai, F.T., ed. Family welfare and development in Africa. (Proceedings of the IPPF Regional Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria, August 29-September 3, 1976.) London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1977. p. 1-15The conference is unique in many respects, most importantly in that it is the 1st in which the Africa Regional Council of IPPF, representing a voluntary nongovernmental organization, has invited governments to sit together with volunteers as full participants to discuss issues of fundamental importance to family health and welfare, and socioeconomic development. The conference refused to accept that population itself is the root cause of Africa's development problems, but is has agreed that in many situations such rapid growth rates can stultify the best efforts of governments and peoples toward attainment of legitimate developmental objectives. There was complete agreement about the definition and reasons for family planning as encompassing a group of activities which ensure that individuals and couples have children when they are socially and physiologically best equipped to have them; that they are enabled to space them satisfactorily; and that they have the number they desire. Additional considerations were population policy; development; the integrated approach to family planning and family welfare activities; the status of women; sex education; the law and planned parenthood; and the role of Family Planning Associations (FPAs) in the Africa Region. It is necessary to ensure that in the selection of strategies and roles, FPAs take into consideration local realities by way of human and other resources; the traditions and cultural acceptances; and the sensibilities and potentials of governments. Compared to government, the FPAs must be the "jeep"--the 4-wheel drive that is able to go into the most inaccessible of places and deliver the services where they are needed.