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  1. 1

    Investing in people: the economics of population quality.

    Schultz TW

    Berkeley, Calif./London, England, University of California Press, 1981. xii, 173 p. (In series: Royer Lectures)

    This work, intended for a general as well as professional audience, argues that the acquired abilities of people including education, experience, skills, and health, are basic in achieving economic progress in the developing world. The 1st section examines the phenomenon of poverty in the developing world and stresses the contributions of human capital to productivity and human welfare in the lower income countries. Possible investments in human quality are surveyed, and theoretical and empirical observations concerning education and health are presented. A separate chapter assesses the role of higher education in developing countries, arguing that although governments in many countries impair the role of higher education, achievements have been substantial in a number of them. The next section examined economic consequences of the increases in the value of time that occur with development. A discussion of methodological and conceptual difficulties in measuring the value of time is included. The final section analyzes some serious economic distortions that result from government policies in developed as well as developing countries and that prevent the potential economic productivity of the poor from being realized. Distortions in the school systems of large cities, in allocation of funds for research, and in various aspects of life in developing countries that are affected by the international donor community are examined. Some implications of the findings are suggested in a brief concluding chapter.
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  2. 2

    Population education in schools of the Council of Churches in Indonesia [DGI]. Education project summary.


    [Unpublished] [1977]. 3 p. (UNFPA Project No INS/77/P03)

    The long-term objectives of this project to be carried out from April 1978-May 1980 are to make population education an integral part of the curriculum of schools operated by the Council of Churches of Indonesia (DGI). Educational objectives are: 1) understanding factors causing population change in relation to development and quality of life, 2) develop competencies to critically examine population issues, and 3) understanding and encouraging support for population policies of Indonesia. Subject areas to be targeted are: 1) religion (Christianity), 2) moral education, 3) social studies, 4) natural sciences, and 5) language. Primary grades 4-6 (1092 schools, 30 master teachers), junior high grades 7-9 (325 schools, 18 teachers), and senior high grades 10-12 (265 schools, 12 teachers) in 30 SPGs and 2 IKIPs of the DGI are targeted. The DGI is responsible to the Population Education Division of the Bureau of Education and Training of the BKKBN and within the DGI the Division of Health and Responsible Parenthood's Population Education Bureau is responsible for implementation. DGI operations are divided into 15 regions. Funding includes total UNFPA contribution of $172,190 and government contribution of Rp. 63,946,000 with Sirami (Netherlands), Church World Service, Osfam and World Neighbors, Asia Foundation and Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) contributing $390,000.
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  3. 3

    Basic education and technical training.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Washington, D.C., USAID, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, 1982 Dec. 13 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    Human resources development, necessary for the growth of overall productivity and efficient use of human capital, is a longterm process that is integral to all aspects of national development. Broad agreement exists among development agencies that assisting countries to establish more efficient systems of education, to control their recurrent cost and administrative burdens, and to relate them more effectively to employment opportunities and trained manpower needs are essential components of effective development strategies. The development strategies of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) stress efforts to raise levels of basic education and relate technical training to employment opportunities as adjuncts of programs to apply science and technology to development efforts, rely on market mechanisms and the private sector to stimulate economic development, strengthen institutions important in development processes, and reinforce efforts of local leaders to address their development problems and administer local resources. Schooling for children aged 6-14, vocational education and functional skills training for adolescents and self-employed adults, and technical skills training for wage employment are among USAID priorities. USAID policy is to focus 1st on problems of resource utilization and internal efficiency, in the expectation that such an approach will lead over time to improved access and more broadly based distribution of educational opportunities. Most nonenrolled children or those whose educational experience is cut short by grade repetition, examination failure, or dropout, are poor, rural, or female, and those who are all 3 usually have the least opportunity. Measures are thus needed to increase the proportions of children who successfully complete at least primary schooling. USAID will focus its assitance to educational and training systems on increasing the efficiency of educational resource utilization, increasing the quantitative and qualitative outputs of training and educational investments, and increasing the effectiveness of the educational and training systems to support economic and social development goals. USAID will seek to promote the participation of communities in the establishment and maintenance of schools and the involvement of employers in the implementation ot technical training programs.
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