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New York, UNDP, June 1979. 243 p. (Rural Development Evaluation Study; No. 2)This paper is based on a study carried out by UNDP staff. It begins with an examination of a series of key facts about rural life and the rural context in developing countries. Rural development is seen to have emerged as a crucial issue because rural areas contain on average 75% of the national population of the developing countries and 80% of the "poverty group"--people earning 50 US dollars or less per year, or whose income is 1/3 the national average. Analyzing rural development as a process of socioeconomic change, the report assesses the implications for development strategies, for linkages between various economic and social sectors, for specific government policies and programs, and for action at the international level, including UNDP supported technical cooperation. It is concluded that 2 basic shifts are needed in rural development strategy: closer involvement of the local population in the full process of rural development planning and implementation, and stronger commitment by governments to redistribute to the rural poor resources and the means to permit capital accumulation. (author's modified)
In: Hauser PM, ed. World population and development: challenges and prospects. Syracuse, New York, Syracuse University Press, 1979. 440-85.Although there is a growing awareness of the relationship between the status of women, fertility patterns, and economic development many programs and research endeavors in the population field are still based on mistaken assumptions and culturally biased views about the role of women and its significance. Women must be able to exert control over their own lives if family population programs are to meet with success. In economically and politically male dominated societies women cannot obtain this control. In most developing countries women are employed in low status agricultural and domestic service work or are engaged in small trading operations. Programs which seek to reduce family size by simply increasing wormen's work force participation in these employment areas will not be effective. These work roles are not incompatible with child rearing and the increased income may actually increase fertility. To expect the negative relationship between increased labor force participation and lower fertility, which characterizes the industrial countries, to hold under these conditions, is ethnocentrically naive. It should also be recognized that the status and role of women varies from society to society depending on the level of economic development and the religious, political, and cultural traditions of the society. For example, it should not automatically be assumed that the decision to have a child is made mutually by a husband and wife when the couple resides in an extended family. The attitude of relatives as well as the availability of child raising assistance will enter into the decision making process. Many hypothesized relationships in the population field fail to take into consideration differences such as these. Some of these biases can be ameliorated by permitting women to play a more active role in formulating programs aimed at serving them. Tables based on information from many countries show crude birth rates, education levels, and political positions of women according to the % of service workers in the population, and according to the type of society. Other tables show the work status of women according to the % of construction and industry workers and the % of service workers in the population and according to the type of society.
In: Potts M, Bhiwandiwala P, eds. Birth control: an international assessment. Baltimore, Maryland, University Park Press, 1979. 71-91.The planning, implementation, achievements, and existing problems facing a pilot community-based distribution (CBD) family planning program in Thailand are described. The program was begun in 1973-74 under auspices of IPPF following the Thai government decision to allow trained midwives to dispense oral contraceptives. Experience with the program has shown that such programs can provide adequate levels of medical supervision, be culturally acceptable, and have a decided impact on national fertility within 2 years. Administrative, financial, and structural elements of the program are summarized. The program was started to provide an alternative to existent clinical services and provide more complete coverage in rural areas. The IPPF donor relationship was useful to the launching of the program. The program has concentrated on training local nonmedical personnel for distribution of oral contraceptives and condoms. Both local doctors and field supervisors are available for advice to the distributors. The program now extends to all areas of the country. Communications activities play a large role in the program. Demographic effects of the program to 1977 are tabulated. The pilot project also involved an institutional and a private sector distribution program. There is need for a greater variety of contraceptive methods available through the program sources. Integrated family planning/development projects are now being tried.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 1979. 26 p.Senegal is a poor country with limited economic resources in the Sudan-Sahelian climatic zone. The population of 5.1 million is largely rural, with 70% working in agriculture. The mean per capita income is about $300 per year with many farmers making $75 per year. The AID development strategy emphasizes assisting the rural poor in agricultural development, particularly the groundnut basin, the Fleuve, and the Casamance, which have the greater concentrations of rural poor and the most potential for increased production. Small-scale farms consisting of 360,000 units account for 70% of the population and produce over 95% of Senegal's agricultural production. With the exception of lands held by religious leaders, there are no tenant-landlord relationships or landless poor classes. Health programs are also needed to increase agricultural productivity. Human resource development is needed because people must be sensitized to the need for change and trained to play an active role in their development. The key limitations to implementation of projects are lack of trained Senegalese, administrative delays, and local costs. Basic infrastructure development is necessary for Senegal's long-term development, particularly large-scale irrigation projects.
In: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Economic and demographic change: issues for the 1980's. Proceedings of the Conference, Helsinki, 1978. Vol. 2. Liege, Belgium, IUSSP, 1979. 261-74.Rural outmigration will continue to grow during the 1980's. Although rural development is exhorted by planners, the more sophisticated politics of the cities will continue to dominate allocation decisions. In the 1960's about 100 million people moved to the city; in the 1980's 193 million are expected to urbanize. Development strategies should try to soften the impact. In 1975 there were 10 cities with 5 million or more population; the UN projects 43 such cities by 2000. Cities will experience pressure from rural migration with sharply rising land values, spreading slums, and increased urban unemployment. Food supplies in urban areas will be a problem of increasing concern. Trained city planners are needed for public services, shelter construction, slum management, and allocation of development funds. Moderating rapid population growth through fertility control will influence the strength of migration in future decades. To slow the migration the most important steps to take are as follows: improve the terms of trade of agriculture and develop special programs for expanding rural employment. The World Bank's new strategy is to provide economic stimulation to the poor in ways designed to increase overall national growth, rather than developing lead sectors with the only goal that of growth. Education, housing, health services, and nutrition are the modern investments. (Summary in FRE)
JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 1979 Mar 16; 72(6):137-43, 148.The International Conference on Primary Health Care called for urgent and effective national and international action to develop and implement primary health care throughout the world. All government agencies should support primary health care by channelling increased technical and financial support to health care systems. Any national health policy designed to provide for its people should recognise the right to health care as a fundamental right of people. The sociocultural environment of the people should be upgraded as a part of health care. The government's expenditure on health should be regarded as an investment, not as a consumption. Health should be a purchasable commodity. Medical education should be reoriented to the needs of the nation. The government should establish as its ultimate goal the provision of scientific medical service to every citizen. Industrial health and mental health disciplines should establish clear-cut methodologies to achieve the same objectives as medical science. Practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine should be allowed to practice only those systems in which they are qualified and trained. Integration of the modern and traditional systems has failed. In order to encourage people to adopt small family size, facilities for maternal and child welfare clinics, coupled with immunisation and nutrition programs, are needed.
IDRC Reports. 1979 Sep; 8(3):12-3.Gaborone, the new capital of Botswana, has grown rapidly from 600 inhabitants in 1966 to 30,000 currently. People squatted in what was to have been a temporary labor camp zoned for industrial development. The Naledi camp was illegal until 1975 when the government dropped its zoning category and, with aid from the Canadian International Development Agency, began laying plans for turning 116 hectares of squatter land into 2000 individual plots housing 10,000 people. Naledi is now a suburban housing development that combines modern toilet facilities, street lighting, 2 primary schools, a health clinic, and a community center with traditional Tswana culture. A Certificate of Rights must be obtained for a plot of ground. The owner must construct a house within 12 months and pay a levy for road maintenance, water supply, and trash pickup. The Self-Help Housing Agency provides loans for building materials, payable in 15 years. The first thing a Naledi house-owner does is have it blessed by a minister of 1 of some 40 African churches in the settlement. The community is in the formative stages of organization. There is no single headman and no police. Elders are sometimes called upon to settle disputes. Naledi residents often view their plot as their second home. Many have their primary dwellings, and their head of cattle, in their native villages, living in Gabarone solely for economic reasons.
New York, UNFPA, June 1979. (Report No. 13) 151 pThis report is intended to serve, and has already to some extent so served, as part of the background material used by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to evaluate project proposals as they relate to basic country needs for population assistance to Thailand, and in broader terms to define priorities of need in working towards eventual self-reliance in implementing the country's population activities. The function of the study is to determine the extent to which activities in the field of population provide Thailand with the fundamental capacity to deal with major population problems in accordance with its development policies. The assessment of population activities in Thailand involves a 3-fold approach. The main body of the report examines 7 categories of population activities rather broadly in the context of 10 elements considered to reflect effect ve government action. The 7 categories of population activities are: 1) basic data collection; 2) population dynamics; 3) formulation and evaluation of population policies and programs; 4) implementation of policies; 5) family planning programs; 6) communication a and education; and 7) special programs. The 10 elements comprise: 1) decennial census of population, housing, and agriculture; 2) an effective registration system; 3) assessment of the implications of population trends; 4) formulation of a comprehensive national population policy; 5) implementation of action programs integrated with related programs of economic and social development; 6) continued reduction in the population growth rate; 7) effective utilization of the services of private and voluntary organizations in action programs; 8) a central administrative unit to coordinate action programs; 9) evaluation of the national capacity in technical training, research, and production of equipment and supplies; and 10) maintenance of continuing liason and cooperation with other countries and with regional and international organizations.
Social Science and Medicine. 1979 Aug; 13A(5):505-514.The focal point of Primary Health Care (PHC) is the community. PHC represents a natural outcome of a political ideology implying that health service is not something to be delivered to the people from above; with the high cost technology teaching hospital as the center of medical universe. But rather, PHC is a concept of health services generated within the community and linking up with a referral system; and it is firmly established as the avenue which most developing countries will explore in the next 20 years. This commitment is largely the result of the Alma-Ata Conference which clarified many of the political; technical; social; administrative and educational aspects of PHC. This paper summarizes this process of consolidation of the concept; gives more examples of national plans in Sudan, Tanzania, Ghana, and India; and then deals with types of support that facilitate community participation. Because PHC involves people rather than merely technology, the role of social scientists is one which needs greater emphasis.