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In: Potts M, Bhiwandiwala P, eds. Birth control: an international assessment. Baltimore, Maryland, University Park Press, 1979. 71-91.The planning, implementation, achievements, and existing problems facing a pilot community-based distribution (CBD) family planning program in Thailand are described. The program was begun in 1973-74 under auspices of IPPF following the Thai government decision to allow trained midwives to dispense oral contraceptives. Experience with the program has shown that such programs can provide adequate levels of medical supervision, be culturally acceptable, and have a decided impact on national fertility within 2 years. Administrative, financial, and structural elements of the program are summarized. The program was started to provide an alternative to existent clinical services and provide more complete coverage in rural areas. The IPPF donor relationship was useful to the launching of the program. The program has concentrated on training local nonmedical personnel for distribution of oral contraceptives and condoms. Both local doctors and field supervisors are available for advice to the distributors. The program now extends to all areas of the country. Communications activities play a large role in the program. Demographic effects of the program to 1977 are tabulated. The pilot project also involved an institutional and a private sector distribution program. There is need for a greater variety of contraceptive methods available through the program sources. Integrated family planning/development projects are now being tried.
Paris, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Centre, 1978. 193 p. (Development Centre Studies)The World Population Conference which took place in Bucharest in 1974 witnessed many debates and rhetorical controversies over the role of family planning programs in Third World countries and their relation to development. This report is the result of a collaborative study realized by the Development Centre and the World Bank which investigates how developing countries, as well as aid agencies, are thinking about population problems and, as a consequence, about population assistance in the "post-Bucharest era." The report includes detailed surveys of 12 developing countries, representing Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. It also interviews and reports on the activities of a large number of population assistance agencies. The roles of international organizations such as the UNFPA, the UN population division and the World Bank itself are assessed in terms of their impact on national development through population control efforts. Reviews of assistance provided to developing nations by nongovernmental agencies, private foundations and developed nations are also presented. Each country paper presented provides an overview of the country's demographic characteristics; a summary of history of population policies, pre- and post-Bucharest era; an overview of population strategies past and present, their integration with other-sector activities; family planning program administration; and a survey of all forms of population assistance available and utilized by the country. Macro-level analyses of changes in family planning assistance by organizations since Bucharest, as well as micro-level, country-specific studies of how each nation has assimilated these changes and has developed a specific population policy are provided.