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Time to reassess strategies for improving health in developing countries. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals for health.
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 12; 331(7525):1133-1136.Making best use of resources is vital in developing countries that are struggling to improve public health with limited funds. The WHO-CHOICE project has developed standardised methods to evaluate the efficiency of a broad range of interventions. This series starts by assessing the problems with strategies for meeting the millennium development goals. Subsequent articles describe the methods, apply them to maternal and neonatal health, child health, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, and consider the implications for an overall health strategy. (author's)
IPPF OPEN FILE. 1994 Jun; 1.The 1994 Human Development Report from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) proposes a 20-20 Human Development Compact based on shared responsibilities between poor and rich nations, whereby poor and rich nations would help unmet basic human development needs such as primary education, primary health care, safe drinking water, and family planning over the next 10 years. This would require an additional US $30 to US $40 billion annually. Developing countries would commit 20% of their budgets to human priority concerns instead of the current 10% by reducing military expenditure, selling off unprofitable public enterprises and abandoning wasteful prestige projects. Donor countries would increase foreign aid from the current average of 7% to 20%. The report will propose a new concept of human security at the World Summit for Social Development to be held in March 1995, calling widespread human insecurity a universal problem. On average, poor nations have 19 soldiers for every one doctor. Global military spending has been declining since 1987 at the rate of 3.6% a year, resulting in a cumulative peace dividend of US $935 billion from 1987 to 1994. But this money has not been expended on unmet human needs. India ordered fighter planes at a cost that could have provided basic education to the 15 million Indian girls now out of school. Nigeria bought tanks from the UK at a cost that could have immunized all 2 million unimmunized children while also providing family planning to nearly 17 million couples. UNDP proposes a phasing out of all military assistance, military bases, and subsidies to arms exporters over a 3-year period. It also recommends the major restructuring of existing aid funds, and proposes a serious study on new institutions for global governance in the next century.
Development co-operation, 1988 report: efforts and policies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1988. 254 p.The members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee provided about $41.5 billion in development assistance in 1987, over 80% of world aid, which exceeded $50 billion. In real terms, this is a 1% drop in assistance over 1986. Among the larger countries, Japan's 1987 performance was outstanding; its assistance increased by 13.5%. There has been considerable disappointment with the relatively low priority accorded to development assistance by the US, but the US is in the middle of a period of fiscal and trade policy adjustment seen as important to the well-being of the international economic system. Official development assistance still provides more than half of total net financial flows to developing countries. The DAC has just reached a new consensus of principles of project approval, including 1) a conducive policy environment, 2) clear and realistic goals, 3) project design corresponding to managerial and technical capacity, 4) affordability in terms of initial costs and of operations and maintenance, 5) active involvement of local authorities and target groups including women, 6) choice of appropriate technologies, 7) realistic time frames, 8) adequate maintenance and support systems, 9) compatibility with domestic socio-cultural environments, and 10) environmental sustainability. There is an encouraging convergence in economic thinking with a recognition by OECD and developing countries alike that what happens in each is important to the world economy. Trade is now seen even more clearly than in the past as fundamental to the development process. The worldwide consensus on the importance of private-sector growth suggests that developing countries are likely to be seeking more help for direct assistance to the market economy and for improving government institutions needed to provide vital services and support. There is a renewed interest in looking at aid policy for upper middle-income countries.
Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.
Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.