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London, United Kingdom, Save the Children, 2016.  p.The Millennium Development Goals were a crucial starting point in galvanising international support for poverty reduction and illustrate the role international frameworks can play in driving national policy change. The Sustainable Development Goals -- if implemented enthusiastically and effectively -- will help us finish the job and ensure that no one is left behind. “From Agreement to Action” provides guidance and recommendations for governments, international actors and other stakeholders as they develop their implementation plans, and identifies five areas of action.
Millennium Development Goal 8, The Global Partnership for Development: Time to deliver. MDG Gap Task Force Report 2011.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2011.  p.The objective of MDG 8 is to assist all developing countries in achieving the goals through a strengthened global partnership for international development cooperation. The present report describes how that partnership is producing significant results on many fronts, but notes that many important gaps between expectations and delivery remain. (Excerpt)
A review of population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development in poverty reduction strategies.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Health, Nutrition and Population Central Unit, Population and Reproductive Health Cluster, 2004 Aug.  p.This review examines how poverty reduction strategies are addressing population (Pop), reproductive health (RH), and adolescent health and development (AHD) issues. We analyzed twenty-one Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and associated documents, and conducted interviews with Health, Nutrition, and Population (HNP) staff at the World Bank involved in the poverty reduction strategy process. Based on this review, we recommend actions that the Bank, other donors, government counterparts, and civil society groups can take to better support countries to address Pop/RH/AHD issues in their poverty reduction efforts. Population, reproductive health, and adolescent health and development issues are closely interrelated in cause, consequence and policy implications. To maintain a stronger focus on these three issues, we chose not to analyze related concerns such as gender, nutrition, and education -- all essential components of the multisectoral approach advocated by the Cairo Programme of Action (ICPD, 1994). Other reviews have examined these related issues in greater depth. This paper complements a growing body of work reviewing the application of the PRS framework to poverty alleviation in low-income countries. Compared to previous health and related sector reviews, it provides a more in-depth look at Pop/RH/AHD issues, examines documents related to the PRSP such as the JSA and CAS, and incorporates interviews of key actors with Pop/RH/AHD expertise involved in the PRS process. This review is meant to complement findings from other reviews of the PRS process that focus on broader issues of relevance to all sectors. Our analysis relied on several of these relevant internal and external reviews, including in-depth reviews of gender, the health sector, nutrition, and population and development issues. (Excerpt)
Lancet. 2009 May 2; 373(9674):1500-2.The world is off track to achieve the health-related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Maternal mortality has stagnated for two decades, child mortality is not declining fast enough, HIV/AIDS still infects people faster than the pace of antiretroviral treatment roll-out, and inequalities are widening within and across countries. Addressing these crises will require increased funding and more efficient spending. The next Board meetings of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the GAVI Alliance, scheduled for May and June, respectively, present an opportunity to tackle these issues. We propose that the exceptional approach created for the fight against AIDS should be expanded: the entire global health agenda must adopt a rights-based approach, which in some countries requires challenging the model of national financial autonomy. We therefore recommend that the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance gradually move towards becoming a global fund for all the health MDGs, which will require substantially greater resources to address the broader mandate. As a first step the next Global Fund and GAVI Alliance board meetings should expand the review of their architecture to provide greater support to national health plans, including co-financing non-disease-specific human resources for health. A global fund for the health MDGs would eventually allow the delivery of prevention and treatment services for specific diseases through revamped general health services, reducing transaction costs and streamlining the global health architecture. Such radical, yet rational, action is our best chance of meeting-or at least making significant progress toward-the health-related MDG targets by 2015.
New York, New York, UNFPA, Technical Division, Gender, Human Rights and Culture Branch, 2008. 32 p.This publication identifies priority areas for intensified action on gender-based violence: policy frameworks, data collection and analysis, focus on sexual and reproductive health, humanitarian responses, adolescents and youth, men and boys, faith-based networks, and vulnerable and marginalized populations. It is intended to provide a common platform and technical guidance for UNFPA at country, regional and global levels and effectively guide capacity-development initiatives, resources and partnerships.The strategy also outlines UNFPA's comparative advantages, experience and leadership potential within the context of United Nations reform, and suggests opportunities for improving the efficacy of its programme implementation and technical support.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2007 Dec.  p.Five years after the Special Session, more than 120 countries and territories have prepared reports on their efforts to meet the goals of 'A World Fit for Children' (WFFC). Most have developed these in parallel with reports on the Millennium Development Goals, carrying out two complementary exercises. Reports on the Millennium Development Goals highlight progress in poverty reduction and the principal social indicators, while the World Fit for Children reports go into greater detail on some of the same issues, such as education and child survival. But they also extend their coverage to child protection, which is less easy to track with numerical indicators. The purpose of this document is to assemble some of the information contained in these reports, along with the latest global data - looking at what has been done and what remains to be done. It is therefore organized around the four priority areas identified in A World Fit for Children, discussing each within the overall framework of the Millennium Development Goals. To appreciate the achievements for children over the past two decades, it is also useful to reflect briefly on how their world has changed. Children born in 1989, the year when the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted, are now on the brink of adulthood. They have lived through a remarkable period of social, political and economic transformation. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, . 44 p.This document is based on the Fund's commitment to invest in adolescents and youth and help them gain access to opportunities. For countries experiencing or about to experience the demographic transition and for countries showing a significant youth bulge, social investments in young people can help to achieve a healthy, socio-economically productive and poverty-free society. This document's primary focus is on translating the Fund's commitment to action. It is based on UNFPA's extensive experience of working for more than thirty years in the area of adolescents and youth. It does not provide all the answers, but it charts a roadmap for positioning UNFPA for action. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2007 Sep 22; 370(9592):1034.The association between domestic violence and the first five Millennium Development Goals is bidirectional. Violence has a negative effect on efforts to alleviate poverty (MDG 1), and poverty has been shown to increase the likelihood of violence. Similarly, education, women's empowerment, child mortality, and maternal health are all linked to domestic violence. Simwaka and colleagues discussed the association between women's empowerment and violence against women and poor access and control over resources, and recommended putting gender issues in the African agenda to achieve MDG 5. Hence, monitoring the progress in preventing violence should not be separated from monitoring the development process in developing countries. Other challenges such as discrimination, inequity, extremism, religious fanaticism, human rights violations, and the faded democracy process have hampered efforts to combat violence in these countries. Ammar stated that "Egypt would be able to combat public violence (eg, terrorism) better if it addresses co-occurrence of spousal and child abuse than by changing its school curriculum". Moreover, we will not be able to estimate properly the magnitude of domestic violence if its economic costs are not investigated. Therefore, the growing political will to take action against violence is not enough in itself, especially when women feel that spousal abuse is justified and when judges and lawyers are part of a culture that tolerates violence against women. (full text)
Support to mainstreaming AIDS in development. UNAIDS Secretariat strategy note and action framework, 2004-2005.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 10 p.Twenty years into the pandemic, there is now ample evidence for the complex linkages between AIDS and development: development gaps increase people's susceptibility to HIV transmission and their vulnerability to the impact of AIDS; inversely, the epidemic itself hampers or even reverses development progress so as to pose a major obstacle to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The growing understanding of this two-way relationship between AIDS and development has led to the insight that, in addition to developing programmes that specifically address AIDS, there is a need to strengthen the way in which existing development programmes address both the causes and effects of the epidemic in each country-specific setting. The process through which to achieve this is called 'Mainstreaming AIDS'. In recognition of this, the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS requires countries to integrate their AIDS response into the national development process, including poverty reduction strategies, budgeting instruments and sectoral programmes. (excerpt)
London, England, ActionAid International, . 27 p. (P1625/01/04)UNAIDS estimated that in Africa in 2003, more than 2.3 million people died from AIDS, 3 million were newly infected and a total of 12 million children were orphaned. Antiretroviral drugs are reaching a mere 50,000 of those with AIDS in developing countries. The HIV/AIDS pandemic is clearly a human and developmental disaster. This paper looks at the response to the HIV/AIDS crisis by the World Bank as a key member of the international donor/lending community, a leader in the international health community, and as Africa's principal development partner. In its seminal document, Intensifying Action Against HIV/AIDS, the World Bank acknowledges both its special leadership role in fighting HIV/AIDS and the need that it be held accountable for its stewardship. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. 88 p.The resource pack takes the form of brief "sheets" on a range of issues. The sheets are relatively independent of each other, but are organised into different sub-topics (as outlined in the Structure section on page 10). A user does not need to read through all the sheets at one sitting, but rather can use them as needed. Each topic contains references to further reading. In some cases, these are the main source for what is written in the resource pack; in other cases, they refer to related writing. The sheets also describe a range of experiences of using GRB in different countries to illustrate different aspects and tools. These examples include some in which gender was not incorporated, despite opportunities to do so. The resource pack builds on, rather than repeats, the existing general materials on GRB. In particular, it should be seen as a complement to the BRIDGE resource pack and to the Commonwealth Secretariat's publication, Engendering Budgets: A practitioner's guide to understanding and implementing gender-responsive budgets. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, 2007 Apr.  p. (HNP Discussion Paper)The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. Fertility has declined in most of the low- and middle-income countries, with TFRs converging toward replacement level, except in 35 countries, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a broad-based decline in fertility has not occurred. As the priorities of donors and development agencies have shifted toward other issues, and global funds and initiatives have largely bypassed funding of family planning, less attention is being focused on the consequences of high fertility. Reproductive health is conspicuously absent from the MDGs, and assistance to countries to meet the demand for family planning and related services is insufficient. The need for Bank engagement in population issues pertains to economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as inequities in terms of the impact of high fertility on the poor and other vulnerable groups. Evidence indicates that large family size reduces household spending per child, possibly with adverse effects on girls, and the health of mothers and children are affected by parity and birth intervals. Equity considerations remain central to the Bank's work as poor people are less likely to have access to family planning and other reproductive health services. Other vulnerable groups that are less likely to be served by reproductive health services include adolescents and rural populations. Additionally, improved education for girls, equal opportunities for women in society, and a reduction of the proportion of households living below the poverty line are necessary elements of a strategy to achieve sustainable reductions in fertility. The Bank has a comparative advantage to address these issues at the highest levels of country policy setting, and its involvement in many sectors can produce synergies that will allow faster progress than a more narrow focus on family planning services. (author's)
Lancet. 2007 Jun 30; 369(9580):2159-2160.Anthony Costello and colleagues call for a funder's forum for research capacity to bring Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 back on track. They conclude that newborn care, skilled birth attendance, human resources, quality improvement, and participatory or empowerment interventions are high priorities. We agree fully; but we would point out that at least 15 of these 40 issues require locally trained professional staff . Being involved in such training, we agree that gaps between (new) knowledge and effective action in achieving MDGs can only be filled by a local cadre enabled to study regionally relevant child health issues and then trained to address them. Development and empowerment of a cadre in southern African child health requires funds for training and retaining local staff . WHO, The Lancet, and other journals have, over the past 5 years, published critical evidence about this urgent need. But despite billions having been pledged and spent by international and non-governmental organisations, eroded southern African child health services and under-resourced training institutions experience great difficulty in funding this critical aspect of development. In Malawi at present, we can only offer some aspects of postgraduate training through a limited number of foreign fellowships. And we do employ promising young local doctors as paediatric registrars in research studies. A collaboration established between paediatric departments in Blantyre, Malawi, and Durban, South Africa, offers post graduate child health training at the highest possible level and qualification. A real change in development strategy towards sustained commitment and funding is needed from the international community. Training, job satisfaction, and the associated remuneration in Europe have long been the main reasons for young doctors' migration from Africa. (full text)
Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Office of the United Nations Resident Coordinator in Cambodia, . 13 p.UN commitment to the advancement of women began with its founding Charter in 1945 when the equal rights of men and women were included in the preamble. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights refers to non-discrimination on the grounds of sex and the right to equal pay for equal work. Since then the UN has adopted conventions on the Political Rights of Women (1952), the Nationality of Married Women (1957), Recovery Abroad of Maintenance (1956), Consent to Marriage (1962) and on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women in 1979. The UN also declared 1975 as International Women's Year and held the first world conference on women in Mexico City. There were such conferences in Copenhagen (1980), Nairobi (1985) and in Beijing in 1995 that adopted platforms for action across all parts of society. In 2000, gender equity was included as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. Gender equity and the empowerment of women was reinforced as central to the UN program at the 2005Millennium Summit. In Cambodia, the UN System is committed to addressing gender concerns as a priority in its implementation of the United Nation's Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2006-2010. The UN puts great emphasis on addressing gender at this critical juncture of political, rural and economic development in Cambodia, and the UNDAF outlines a common vision on how gender equity can be attained. This framework takes stock of current gender programs and priorities, and suggests ways in which they can go forward within the UN System in Cambodia and with development partners. (excerpt)
ARROWs for Change. 2004; 10(2):1-2.The 2004 global and regional roundtables reviewing and monitoring progress of the Cairo Programme of Action (POA) implementation concluded that this document remains a critical comprehensive UN document which outlines an agenda and framework linking human rights principles with population and development, poverty eradication, social justice, gender equality, women's empowerment, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and NGO participation. Ten years into the POA, progress in implementation in the Asia-Pacific region remains poor. ARROW's eight-country regional monitoring study revealed that one million women have died unnecessarily in childbirth, pregnancy and unsafe abortion since Cairo. Only China has attained the goal of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. Nationally, the ICPD POA has not yet been clearly institutionalised in national development frameworks like women's development, health, population and in poverty. Although there has been significant progress in theregion in the area of violence against women and the creation of national machineries like ministries and commissions, women are still not able to exercise control over their reproductive and sexual lives due to the following barriers. (excerpt)
Contact. 2005 Jan; (179):40-42.In our world today, the statistics on hunger continue to rise alarmingly despite general economic progress and technological advancement. The quality of peace and true democratic value and the realization of human rights remain stubborn challenges facing civilization in the twenty-first century. Both developed and developing countries have missed some crucial links that might have ensured sustainable development and a more promising 'peace' scenario today. In its haste, the global society has overlooked its rich heritage of cultural, moral, and ethical values as well as its basic respect for human life and promotion of human dignity, and has sadly discarded its general code of ethics and spirituality. In other words, the focus of the world has been mainly uni-dimensional on economic success and political power. The recently concluded summits- World Food Summit in Rome and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg-have brought home the lack of political will and consensus to achieve even modest targets. There is a need for a consensus to achieve even modest targets. There is need for a larger ethical and moral movement beyond politics and the onus is on civil society to take the lead. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Apr; 85(4):245-324.There is an old saying that "amateurs talk strategy and professionals talk logistics". A professional approach to achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) requires us to move beyond the discussion of possible strategies that could be used. It requires active planning of the practical actions that need to be taken, including raising the necessary funds to ensure these actions can be financed. This cannot be done without information on the costs of implementing the logistical plans. Without detailed plans, countries cannot be sure if they will meet the MDGs. Without accurate costing, countries and donors do not know the extent of the additional funds that will be required. This is a particularly important issue now that we are nearly halfway between the signing of the Millennium Declaration and the target date for achievement, 2015. All recent assessments suggest that few countries are on track and that intensified efforts to raise and use funds well are needed. How much additional funding is required, and where should it be spent? (excerpt)
London, England, Overseas Development Institute, 2005 Apr.  p. (Working Paper No. 244)The Research and Policy in Development (RAPID) programme at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) has been working since 1999 to promote development policy-making processes that are evidence-based and focused on the needs of the poor. One of the key dimensions of the RAPID programme at ODI is 'knowledge and learning systems in development agencies'. This study synthesises existing research on knowledge and learning in the development sector, and draws out eight key questions for examining related strategies and systems in development agencies. Together, these questions make up a comprehensive Knowledge Strategies Framework, which bears close resemblance to the framework used by the ODI to assess complex processes of change within the development and humanitarian sector. The dimensions of this new Knowledge Strategies Framework are mapped out as Organisational knowledge, Organisational links, Organisational contexts, and External factors. The study then presents the analysis of data collected on current knowledge and learning practices in 13 selected case study organisations1. This data was gathered via desk based reviews, interviews, consultations with agency staff and focus groups. The Knowledge Strategies Framework is used to analyse and synthesise these findings, to formulate the recommendations of the study, and to suggest key next steps. (excerpt)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2005; 26(2 Suppl 2):S170-S178.Universal access to basic education is a prerequisite for long-term food security, which, in turn, is critical to achieving the Millennium Development goals. This paper examines how Food for Education interventions can contribute to improved food security, improved education outcomes, and a broader set of development goals. Food for Education entails the distribution of food commodities to children who attend school. The commodities may be locally grown and purchased or contributed by aid donors. The food may be consumed by students in school snack, breakfast, or lunch programs. Alternatively, it may be given as a take-home ration for consumption by a family that regularly sends "at-risk" children (usually girls) to school. Four interrelated ideas are discussed: (1) the universalization of primary school education is a prerequisite for food security (defined here as availability of, access to, and proper biologic utilization of food supplies); (2) Food for Education boosts primary school participation and, therefore, food security; (3) the effects of primary school education on food security are greatest wherever "quality standards" are met, although important effects are present even when education quality is modest; and (4) efforts to improve primary education participation (demand) and efforts to improve primary education quality (supply) are highly interrelated and mutually reinforcing. Food for Education is a versatile resource that can be used to address a broad range of issues related to both education supply and demand. To be effective, Food for Education interventions must reflect local education supply and demand realities. (author's)
Lancet. 2006 Dec 9; 368(9552):2095-2100.At the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994, the international community agreed to make reproductive health care universally available no later than 2015. After a 5-year review of progress towards implementation of the Cairo programme of action, that commitment was extended to include sexual, as well as reproductive, health and rights. Although progress has been made towards this commitment, it has fallen a long way short of the original goal. We argue that sexual and reproductive health for all is an achievable goal--if cost-effective interventions are properly scaled up; political commitment is revitalised; and financial resources are mobilised, rationally allocated, and more effectively used. National action will need to be backed up by international action. Sustained effort is needed by governments in developing countries and in the donor community, by inter-governmental organisations, non-governmental organisations, civil society groups, the women's health movement, philanthropic foundations, the private for-profit sector, the health profession, and the research community. (author's)
UN Chronicle. 2006 Mar-May;  p..The world's youth are working to support the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)--thanks to the United Nations, the 2005 Live8 concert, MTV and some international celebrities, such as Irish musician Bono, actor Richard Gere of the United States, singer Angelique Kido from Benin, tennis player and actor Vijay Amritrai from India, and the Los Tigres del Norte band from Mexico, as well as other websites. In 2000, Governments committed themselves to a global partnership, pledging to achieve the eight MDGs by 2015: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education for all boys and girls; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce by two thirds the mortality rate of children under five; reduce by three quarters the ratio of maternal mortality; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental sustain-ability; and develop a global partnership for development. While these goals are real challenges, the international community has the money, technology and resources to achieve them--we just need the will. (excerpt)
[Sydney], Australia, Youth for a Sustainable Future Pacifika, 2006.  p.The Millennium Development Goals, better known as the MDGs, are a set of goals committed to reducing poverty, illiteracy, inequality and disease in developing countries. In September 2000, leaders from 189 nations including 14 Pacific Island nations, agreed to achieve the MDGs by endorsing the Millennium Declaration. The Declaration is a special documentation because it specifies responsibility for all countries to enhance the global agenda on human development. This means that even developed countries like the United States, Australia and New Zealand, are responsible for assisting developing countries in meeting the goals. (excerpt)
Health Policy and Planning. 2006 Jul; 21(4):326-328.The UNDP report on the Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs (UNDP 2005), cautions that the Goals will not be met by 2015 in the most needy countries, and, in fact, warns that the situation in Africa may actually worsen. What can be done to secure some measure of success in the health-MDGs effort? Should strengthening health systems be regarded a 'first-order' goal within 'higher-order' MDGs to secure at least the institutional and system prerequisites of better health for all in the future, perhaps after 2015 -- a 'second-best' result in the absence of a 'first best' MDG outcome? (excerpt)
Ensuring women's access to safe abortion: essential strategies for achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Ipas, 2005.  pApproved by world leaders in September 2000, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) articulate a series of time-bound, quantitative targets for ending poverty, improving health and promoting gender equality. The MDGs lack, however, any mention of human rights or reproductive and sexual health. In particular, the MDG framework does not include the critical issue of abortion, despite the fact that unsafe abortion leads to the unnecessary and completely preventable deaths of women and is a persistent problem rooted in poverty, gender inequity and the failure to implement human rights. Over the past decade, the international community has committed itself in a series of political and legal agreements to promoting and fulfilling women’s and men’s sexual and reproductive rights. Governments at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 agreed to a definition of reproductive health that includes abortion in circumstances where it is legal under national legislation. The MDGs echo elements of the ICPD consensus, but none specifically address its core commitment to ensure universal reproductive-health services. At the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, sexual rights were acknowledged as integral to human rights and women’s empowerment, and countries were encouraged to review restrictive abortion laws. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UN-OHRLLS, .  p.Roughly a quarter of the world’s countries are classified as Least Developed Countries (LDCs), who remain the most vulnerable and weakest segment of the international community, of these 34 are in Africa, 15 in Asia-Pacific and one in the Caribbean. It is now clear that without achieving a huge acceleration in their development efforts, few global development targets can be met. The AIDS pandemic is worsening the prospects of LDCs as many of the hardest hit countries are facing massive financial and human resource constraints. These countries by definition have limited resources to generate sufficient economic and social development, and as such are at greater risk. HIV/AIDS is eroding these limited resources and affecting the most productive people so urgently needed for development. In other words, HIV/AIDS affects the present and future human and institutional capacities of countries and consequently their capacity to generate economic and social development. (excerpt)