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  1. 1

    Population goals of the United Nations.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations. InterAgency Task Force. Working Group on Policy-Related Issues

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1996 Sep; 22(3):594-600.

    This article discusses and reproduces two documents that outline the population goals of the UN. The first document is the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) new mission statement, which was revised in April 1996 to reflect the strategy contained in the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The mission statement defines the three areas of concern to UNFPA as 1) working toward universal access to sexual and reproductive health by the year 2015, 2) supporting capacity-building in population programming, and 3) promoting awareness of population and development issues and advocating for the mobilization of resources and political will to address these issues. The mission statement affirms the commitment of UNFPA to reproductive rights, gender equity and male responsibility, and the empowerment of women as development goals. Finally, the statement acknowledges the responsibility of UNFPA in overseeing the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action and in assisting in the mobilization of resources to meet the ICPD goals. The second document is the "Common Advocacy Statement on Population and Development" adopted to establish a commonly-shared language for the entire UN system and to integrate population into all UN development strategies. This statement defines sectoral linkages between population and poverty eradication, environmental protection, food security, women's empowerment, employment, education, and health. The ICPD Programme of Action's quantitative goals in the areas of education, mortality reduction (covering infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy), and reproductive health (including family planning and sexual health) are annexed to the statement.
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  2. 2

    Statement of India.

    Shankaranand B

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [4] p.

    In his address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the Minister of Health and Family Welfare for India stated that mankind is poised at a crucial moment in its history. A global economic crisis exists along with a severe economic imbalance that has lead to prosperity for some and deprivation for others. This situation has been exacerbated by unprecedented spending on weapons of destruction instead of devoting those resources to human health and development needs. Significant achievements in increasing life expectancy and reducing infant and child mortality rates has been matched by a failure to reduce mortality rates as much as possible and by the AIDS epidemic. Developing countries, in which more than 90% of the current growth in population is taking place, have to break the connection between fertility rates, poverty, morbidity, and illiteracy in order to achieve economic development. In India, the Family Welfare Program provides family planning services within the broad context of maternal and child health care. A new Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program is currently being implemented. Women have benefitted from new employment opportunities, a special credit fund, and special provisions in the Integrated Rural Development Program. A National Commission for Women has been established to safeguard the constitutionally protected equal rights of women. The empowerment of women will ultimately help them overcome the sociocultural traditions which make them subordinate to men and will also lead to faster economic growth. Together we must work to make the world a healthy and happy home for future generations.
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  3. 3

    The position of women and changing multilateral policies.

    Joekes S

    Development. 1989; (4):77-82.

    Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
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  4. 4

    Development and the environment: a global balance.

    Conable BB

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Conference on Global Environment and Human Response toward Sustainable Development, Tokyo, Japan, September 11, 1989. 11 p.

    With the installation of Barner B. Conable as President of the World Bank, the Bank began to incorporate the environmental effects of development projects into its loan decisions. It has also augmented loans for environmental, population, and forestry projects. In 1988, >100 projects with important environmental elements (35% of all Bank and IDA projects) were approved, the majority of which were in agriculture. The Bank has expected the percentage of such projects to increase annually. Further, to assist the countries and the Bank in considering environmental concerns in the beginning stage of designing development projects, the Bank has developed Environmental Assessment Guidelines. The Bank has taken on a formidable task, however, since its primary purpose is to reduce poverty which often conflicts with protecting the environment. Its leadership believes that the 2 goals are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and, if they are to be achieved, the problems must be clearly defined and all the countries of the world must work towards solutions to benefit the global community. Additionally, the Bank has begun to encourage developing countries to switch to cleaner fuels, processes, and systems to curtail global warming. It also monitors research on carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, all of which contribute to the greenhouse effect, and on climatic change. The Bank has recognized, however, that improvement in the environment cannot occur fast enough, at the rate the earth's population is increasing. Therefore it continues to fund family planning and health projects.
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  5. 5

    Realism and vision in international solidarity, report from the 19th SID [Society for International Development] World Conference, March 1988, New Delhi, India: Poverty, development and collective survival.

    Harcourt W

    COMPASS. 1988 Oct; (35-36):1-57.

    This document reports on the 19th Society for International Development (SID) World Conference held in March 1988 in New Delhi, India on poverty, development, and collective survival. An overview is given of the conference followed by the Inaugural Plenary address by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. The opening address focused on SID as an international development NGO. Other talks were given on the development of "development thinking," the non-governmental sector, development innovations within the UN system, the future of global society, and gender and equity. The Barbara Ward Memorial Lecture was given on the new visions for the 1990's. The opening plenary dealt with women's roles in human resource development. The future of SID was discussed by the Chapter Leaders and views were expressed during 2 general assemblies. The report gives biographies of SID council members. The Cultural Program featured Classical Indian dancers. Panels covered African development, Latin America, Socialist experiences, NGO development paradigms, women's movements in development action, South Asia, human rights, the innovative experience of NGOs in poverty alleviation, North/South roundtables, and collective survival. The report includes a complete schedule of the meeting's activities and the papers available from the conference.
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