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New York, New York, United Nations, 2005.  p.Global poverty rates are falling, led by Asia. But millions more people have sunk deep into poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, where the poor are getting poorer. Progress has been made against hunger, but slow growth of agricultural output and expanding populations have led to setbacks in some regions. Since 1990, millions more people are chronically hungry in sub-Saharan Africa and in Southern Asia, where half the children under age 5 are malnourished. Five developing regions are approaching universal enrolment. But in sub-Saharan Africa, fewer than two thirds of children are enrolled in primary school. Other regions, including Southern Asia and Oceania, also have a long way to go. In these regions and elsewhere, increased enrolment must be accompanied by efforts to ensure that all children remain in school and receive a high-quality education. The gender gap is closing — albeit slowly — in primary school enrolment in the developing world. This is a first step towards easing long-standing inequalities between women and men. In almost all developing regions, women represent a smaller share of wage earners than men and are often relegated to insecure and poorly paid jobs. Though progress is being made, women still lack equal representation at the highest levels of government, holding only 16 per cent of parliamentary seats worldwide. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.Promoting development and eradicating extreme poverty is an urgent global priority that demands bold action. This ambitious agenda, embodied in the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), requires governments, civil society, and international agencies to address population issues, in particular to secure people's right to sexual and reproductive health, as agreed by 179 countries at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, and its 5-year review. However, reproductive health and rights remain elusive for the vast majority of the world's people. Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are among the leading causes of death and illness for women in developing countries, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic takes approximately 3 million lives each year. This undermines development by diminishing the quality of people's lives, exacerbating poverty, and placing heavy burdens on individuals, families, communities, and nations. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], 2003 May.  p.In September 2000, Heads of State and representatives of the Governments of 191 countries met at the United Nations and adopted the Millennium Declaration. The Declaration outlines the central concerns of the global community - peace, security, development, environmental sustainability, human rights and democracy - and articulates a set of inter-connected and mutually reinforcing goals for sustainable development. These, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), are based on the major goals and targets agreed upon at the UN Conferences of the 1990s, which have been synthesised into a global agenda for development. The Millennium Declaration commits the international community and member states of the UN to the achievement of eight major goals. 1. Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achievement of universal primary education 3. Promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women 4. Reduction of child mortality 5. Improvement in maternal health 6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensuring environmental sustainability 8. Developing a global partnership for development. (excerpt)
Population, reproductive health and the millennium development goals. How the ICPD Programme of Action promotes poverty alleviation and human rights.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. 22 p.In the year 2000, representatives of 189 nations, including 147 heads of state and government, gathered at the United Nations for a historic Millennium Summit. They adopted an ambitious set of goals, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Achieving them by the target date of 2015 will transform the lives of the world’s people, including reducing by half the number of people living in extreme poverty. The Millennium Declaration concludes, “We therefore pledge our unstinting support for these common objectives and our determination to achieve them.” The next decade offers a historic opportunity for all stakeholders—including governments, civil society and international organizations—to unite behind the Millennium Development Goals. The goals are realistic, practical and necessary. They are the result of decades of experience in development work and discussion at all levels, including a series of international conferences held in the 1990s on the environment, human rights and social development. (excerpt)