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  1. 1

    Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.

    The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Our planet, our health. Report of the WHO commission on Health and Environment.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Commission on Health and Environment

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1992. xxxii, 282 p.

    The WHO Commission on Health and Environment has put together a comprehensive report on the interaction between the state of the environment and human health. There is a need to understand and manage this interaction to bring about a sustainable development which meets people's needs while preserving natural systems. Yet, humankind faces various obstacles to sustainable development, including population growth, migration, urbanization, poverty, resource degradation, and macroeconomic policies. Humans can sustain output of agriculture, forestry, and fishing, if they do not exploit ecological systems. Humans need to at least consider food production, diet, health, land tenure, food contamination, agricultural chemicals, and occupational hazards. They must also effectively and efficiently manage freshwater supplies using means which do not adversely upset natural systems. Humans should move away from using fossil fuels as an energy supply since they are the single largest source of air pollution. They should identify and develop energy supplies which reduce the adverse environment and health effects, e.g., solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Industrial practices in both developed and developing countries spew air and water pollutants into the environment, generate hazardous wastes, and expose workers to harmful agents. Urbanization poses a special challenge to environmental health, especially where there is little or no infrastructure and services which worsens pollution and environmental health problems. Many environmental and health problems cross boundaries. These include long range transport of air pollution, acid rain, damage of the ozone layer, build up of greenhouse gases, hazardous wastes exported from developed to developing countries, ocean pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Two axioms to a healthier and sustainable world are more equitable access to resources and citizen participation.
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  3. 3

    The global possible: resources, development, and the new century.

    Global Possible Conference (1984: Wye Plantation)

    In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)

    Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.
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  4. 4

    Reducing poverty: an institutional perspective.

    Salmen LF

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. [5], 26 p. (Poverty and Social Policy Series Paper No. 1)

    This discussion of ways to achieve sustainable development, which is synonymous with poverty reduction, has grown from the World Bank's effort to assess the institutional aspects of development. The operation of the World Bank has been based on the market principal of demand stimulating supply. When it comes to the poor, however, service organizations have tended to decide what services were needed and to supply those services, instead of being driven by demands generated by the poor themselves. Allowing poverty reduction programs to be energized by the demands of the poor and regarding the poor as customers rather than as beneficiaries would empower the poor to increase their opportunities for self-fulfillment. Demand, of course, can be nurtured when its impediments are understood; it can also be enhanced by improving the quality of services. Application of these practices in the fields of education, population, health, and nutrition are described, with an in-depth look at the Yemen Arab Republic's Second Education Project. The relationship of demand to water and sanitation services is also considered. An understanding of the needs of the poor is gained in 2 ways. First, the informal institutions through which poor people act must be examined by participating in a learning process using qualitative techniques such as focus group interviews, social marketing, and participant observations. Beneficiary assessment is an especially important strategy during project design and project evaluation. Second, direct staff exposure to the poor is essential, since some aspects of poverty defy objective analysis. If development efforts lead to a thickening social web of nongovernmental organizations, with an attendant use of local personnel, an understanding of the grassroots realities of poverty will be enhances. When the efforts of informal groups are combined with those of formal organizations, sustainable poverty reduction can be achieved. The organizational implications of this approach are considered, including intermediation, organizational pluralism and competition, demand as "voice," nongovernment organizations, catalysts, and training. In-depth examples of this principle at work are given for the Korean experience in financing universal primary education, the Malawi Rural Water Supply Project, and the Menaka integrated development project in Mali. Operational implications are also detailed with particular emphasis on adopting a learning stance and on staffing. This recommended inversion in the operating principles of the World Bank will help the public sector achieve a vision of development as a process that enables clients to release themselves from poverty.
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