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Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 2008 Sep; 26(3):251-2.Add to my documents.
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], BRinging Information to Decisionmakers for Global Effectiveness [BRIDGE], 2007.  p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-03-00004-00)Poverty reduction strategies form the basis of World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) assistance in the poorest developing countries. The detailed guidelines, or poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs), are prepared in the host country and influence the investments made in most sectors of development. While population programs have promoted family planning for decades as part of development efforts, family planning has received less attention and dedicated funding since the advent of PRSPs. Therefore, those who support continued investments in family planning need to understand the process through which the strategies are developed and monitored and stay engaged to ensure that support for population and family planning programs is sustained. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/247)The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a gathering force for nearly a quarter-century, and it continues to be a major global challenge. AIDS finds its victims in both rich and poor countries. There is no region of the world where HIV/AIDS is not a potentially serious threat to the population. Sub-Saharan Africa has so far borne the brunt of the AIDS devastation, and the region continues to experience high rates of infection. About 3 million people in the region were newly infected with the virus in 2004. Countries in Eastern Europe and Asia now have the fastest-growing rates of HIV infection in the world, and the populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. In some more developed countries, there are signs of a resurgence of risky sex between men. (excerpt)
Health Policy and Planning. 2006 Jul; 21(4):326-328.The UNDP report on the Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs (UNDP 2005), cautions that the Goals will not be met by 2015 in the most needy countries, and, in fact, warns that the situation in Africa may actually worsen. What can be done to secure some measure of success in the health-MDGs effort? Should strengthening health systems be regarded a 'first-order' goal within 'higher-order' MDGs to secure at least the institutional and system prerequisites of better health for all in the future, perhaps after 2015 -- a 'second-best' result in the absence of a 'first best' MDG outcome? (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2005.  p.Global poverty rates are falling, led by Asia. But millions more people have sunk deep into poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, where the poor are getting poorer. Progress has been made against hunger, but slow growth of agricultural output and expanding populations have led to setbacks in some regions. Since 1990, millions more people are chronically hungry in sub-Saharan Africa and in Southern Asia, where half the children under age 5 are malnourished. Five developing regions are approaching universal enrolment. But in sub-Saharan Africa, fewer than two thirds of children are enrolled in primary school. Other regions, including Southern Asia and Oceania, also have a long way to go. In these regions and elsewhere, increased enrolment must be accompanied by efforts to ensure that all children remain in school and receive a high-quality education. The gender gap is closing — albeit slowly — in primary school enrolment in the developing world. This is a first step towards easing long-standing inequalities between women and men. In almost all developing regions, women represent a smaller share of wage earners than men and are often relegated to insecure and poorly paid jobs. Though progress is being made, women still lack equal representation at the highest levels of government, holding only 16 per cent of parliamentary seats worldwide. (excerpt)
Reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals: arguments for investing in reproductive health and rights. Reference notes on population and poverty reduction.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005.  p.A bold and ambitious agenda was set forth in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to raise the quality of life for all individuals and promote human development. The goals represent our collective aspirations for a better life, and a minimum roadmap on how to get there. However, the MDGs can only be achieved if governments, civil society, and international agencies work together to address population issues as a development priority, in particular to secure the reproductive health and rights of people, especially the poor and women. Yet worldwide, illnesses and deaths from poor reproductive health account for one-fifth of the global burden of disease, and nearly one-third for all women. Consider the powerful impact stronger investments in quality reproductive health services could make anywhere, as worldwide each year, more than half a million women die during childbirth or due to pregnancy complications, and AIDS takes three million lives. This publication, which consists of two parts, is intended to advance the dialogue among decision makers in bridging the gap between hope and reality. The first part provides advocates and decision makers with a set of key arguments on the benefits to be reaped when governments make reproductive health a development priority. It takes as its starting point that health is a fundamental right valued in and of itself, and improved health, including reproductive health, strengthens individuals' capacities to live more productive lives and break out of poverty traps. It outlines key arguments for why the investments in reproductive health we make now pay off huge dividends in the future: healthier, more productive individuals and families contribute to stronger, wealthier nations. (excerpt)
In: The International Conference on Population and Development, September 5-13, 1994, Cairo, Egypt. Nepal's country report, [compiled by] Nepal. National Planning Commission. Kathamandu, Nepal, National Planning Commission, 1993 Sep. 40-9 p.This document contains the first appendix to Nepal's report to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The appendix lists the objectives and priorities of Nepal's Eighth Development Plan (1992-97) as achieving sustainable economic growth, poverty alleviation, and reduction of regional imbalances. The next section discusses the major policies of the plan that relate to: 1) population policy (reducing the fertility rate from 5.8 to 4.5; increasing life expectancy; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and managing internal migration); 2) poverty alleviation (for the 49% of the population affected); 3) manpower and employment (creating jobs); 4) health (improving general health, extending health services to rural areas, extending maternal-child health services and family planning programs, and developing specialized health services); 5) urban development; 6) environmental protection and resource conservation; 7) child development; 8) food and nutrition; and 9) women in development (promoting the equal and meaningful participation of women in development, in policy-making, and in traditional and nontraditional sectors).
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1996 Sep; 22(3):594-600.This article discusses and reproduces two documents that outline the population goals of the UN. The first document is the UN Population Fund's (UNFPA) new mission statement, which was revised in April 1996 to reflect the strategy contained in the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The mission statement defines the three areas of concern to UNFPA as 1) working toward universal access to sexual and reproductive health by the year 2015, 2) supporting capacity-building in population programming, and 3) promoting awareness of population and development issues and advocating for the mobilization of resources and political will to address these issues. The mission statement affirms the commitment of UNFPA to reproductive rights, gender equity and male responsibility, and the empowerment of women as development goals. Finally, the statement acknowledges the responsibility of UNFPA in overseeing the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action and in assisting in the mobilization of resources to meet the ICPD goals. The second document is the "Common Advocacy Statement on Population and Development" adopted to establish a commonly-shared language for the entire UN system and to integrate population into all UN development strategies. This statement defines sectoral linkages between population and poverty eradication, environmental protection, food security, women's empowerment, employment, education, and health. The ICPD Programme of Action's quantitative goals in the areas of education, mortality reduction (covering infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy), and reproductive health (including family planning and sexual health) are annexed to the statement.
[Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994.  p.In his address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the Minister of Health and Family Welfare for India stated that mankind is poised at a crucial moment in its history. A global economic crisis exists along with a severe economic imbalance that has lead to prosperity for some and deprivation for others. This situation has been exacerbated by unprecedented spending on weapons of destruction instead of devoting those resources to human health and development needs. Significant achievements in increasing life expectancy and reducing infant and child mortality rates has been matched by a failure to reduce mortality rates as much as possible and by the AIDS epidemic. Developing countries, in which more than 90% of the current growth in population is taking place, have to break the connection between fertility rates, poverty, morbidity, and illiteracy in order to achieve economic development. In India, the Family Welfare Program provides family planning services within the broad context of maternal and child health care. A new Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program is currently being implemented. Women have benefitted from new employment opportunities, a special credit fund, and special provisions in the Integrated Rural Development Program. A National Commission for Women has been established to safeguard the constitutionally protected equal rights of women. The empowerment of women will ultimately help them overcome the sociocultural traditions which make them subordinate to men and will also lead to faster economic growth. Together we must work to make the world a healthy and happy home for future generations.
PEOPLE. 1992; 19(1):32-4.The IPPF President asks his fellow Africans to look inward to find sources and solutions to the continent's problems. They can no longer blame colonialism and the international community for its problems, but should realize the governments of African countries which had little regard for their own people have misused government resources and not invested in people. Further the 1 party state is no longer effective at solving Africa's problems and people in many countries are beginning to prefer a multiparty democracy. In addition, 11% of the world's population inhabit Africa but Africa takes part in only 2% of the international trade. Africa's population growth rate is >3%/year and in 1992 it had almost 500 million people, yet the gross national product of the continent equals that of Belgium, a country of 10 million people. Development will need to come from Africans so governments must 1st develop its human resources base such as implementing policies that releases the entrepreneurial spirit, providing universal education, and training high levels professionals including planners, engineers, and entrepreneurs. In fact, military expenditures should be curtailed to make room for the much need development efforts. Further African governments must give priority to developing effective population and family planning programs. African population and family planning experts should convince government officials of the need to appropriate funds to these programs. Governments must also confront the problem of AIDS, but not at the expense of investment and general health programs. The 1990s are the last opportunity for Africa to mobilize its people, especially women and children, to pull itself out of poverty and despair.
The Tunis Declaration emanating from the Arab Parliamentary Conference on Development and Population, [May 8-11, 1984, Tunis, Tunisia].
[Unpublished] 1984. 12 p.Parliamentarians from 16 Arab countries met in Tunis, Tunisia, on May 8-11, 1984, to discuss the current demographic and development situation in the Arab nations. The participants agreed that currently income is poorly distributed both within and between Arab countries (per capita income varies from US$500-US$30,000), life expectancy varies markedly between countries, international migration is extensive, the annual population growth rate is 2.9%, and population policies in most Arab countries are poorly formulated. The participants recognized the reciprocal relationship between development and population. They noted that the development process includes meeting the moral, material, health, and fertility needs of all segments of society; development requires broad participation; cooperation with other 3rd World countries is essential; industrialized nations should limit their use of resources; and Arab nations should act on the recommendations of international conferences on population and development and adhere to the agreements between Arab countries on migration issues. The participants recommended that participants continue to actively promote social equality in the Arab world and that Arab nations 1) formulate policies to keep resources and population within balance and to reduce mortality differentials in their own countries; 2) establish fertility goals that take into account population growth, the health and welfare of mothers and children, human rights, and social equality; 3) promote policies which preserve the traditions of the Arab world; 4) improve women's rights by increasing economic and educational opportunities for women, expanding the decision-making role of women, and ensuring that women are presented in a favorable light in the mass media; 5) address the needs of the most vulnerable members of society; 7) improve services for the urban poor and reduce urban growth through rural development and the establishment of small cities; 8) establish policies to reduce the brain drain, to ensure the welfare and rights of migrants, to encourage Arab investment in the development of Arab countries, and to encourage trained Arabs to return to their country of origin; and 9) to mobilize world opinion against Zionist expansionist and forced migration policies. Furthermore, the participants call for action on the part of the delegates, Arab nations, and interational organizations to facilitate the operationalizing of these recommendations by focusing attention on population and development issues, by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information on population and development, and by providing financial support.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.
Shift of emphasis in the allocation of resources: a new policy of the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
London, England, IPPF, May 1982. 12 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)Explains the basis of the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) Shift of Emphasis Policy, its implementation, and the extent to which it took effect in the allocation of resources in 1982. Most of IPPF's budget is spent directly in support of family planning activities in individual countries through private family planning associations. The Shift of Emphasis Policy's main intention is to channel IPPF funds increasingly towards the poorest countries where the need for family planning services and supplies is high and resources are scarce. Since the adoption of the policy, a set of criteria has been developed for its implementation within the framework of the existing resource allocation system. IPPF's concern is to serve those in greatest need; the new policy is an attempt to change resource allocation patterns to reflect this concern. Implementation is guided by 2 principles: 1) that the overall funds available to the Federation should not be increased, and 2) that the shift be gradual to ensure that ongoing programs are not set back by sudden changes in funding. The Policy's implementation is affected by broader issues related to development aid. First is the difficulty of ensuring the most cost effective use of funds, while at the same time supporting new activities to serve those in greatest need. The second issue concerns the distribution of funds within countries. Criteria for the process of implementation fall into the categories of country factors and Family Planning Association factors. Country factors include the level of socioeconomic development, the demographic situation, the need for family planning, and other factors which affect the overall family planning situation in a country. Family Planning Association factors depend on such things as the presence of local individuals and associations, and their capacity to use resources effectively to meet needs.